Bārhaspatya-māna

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Barhaspatya-mana, BArhaspatya-mAna, Baarhaspatya-maana


Bārhaspatya-māna literally means ‘measure of Bṛhaspati’.

The Bārhaspatya-māna is a method of reckoning time in cycles of 60 years.[1] This method is quite common in South India. The sidereal period of Bṛhaspati or planet Jupiter is nearly 112 sidereal years. Hence Jupiter stays roughly for one year in each zodiacal sign, if the calculation is based on mean motion.

This led to the devising of a cycle of 12 Jovian years of about 361 days each. At some period, a five-fold multiple, a cycle of 60 Jovian or Bārhaspatya years, each with a special name suffixed by the word saṅivatsara (= year) came into use. The earliest available evidence points to the 6th century A. D. as found in the inscriptions of the Cālukyan king Maṅgaleśa. The sixty years are mentioned below:

  1. Prabhava
  2. Vibhava
  3. Śukla
  4. Pramodṅta
  5. Prajotpatti (Prajāpati)
  6. Aṅgiras
  7. Srīmukha
  8. Bhāva
  9. Yuvan
  10. Dhātṛ (Dhātu)
  11. Īśvara
  12. Bahudhānya
  13. Pramāthin
  14. Vikrama
  15. Vṛṣan (Viṣu)
  16. Citrabhānu
  17. Subhānu (Svabhānu)
  18. Tāraṇa
  19. Pārthiva
  20. Vyaya
  21. Sarvajit
  22. Sarvadhārin
  23. Virodhin
  24. Vikṛti
  25. Khara
  26. Nandana
  27. Vijaya
  28. Jaya
  29. Manmatha
  30. Durmukha
  31. Hevilambin (Hemalambin)
  32. Vilambin
  33. Vikārin
  34. Śārvarin
  35. Plava
  36. Śubhakṛt
  37. Śobhakṛt (Śobhana)
  38. Krodhin
  39. Viśvāvasu
  40. Parābhava
  41. Plavaṅga
  42. Kīlaka
  43. Saumya
  44. Sādhāraṇa
  45. Virodhikṛt
  46. Parīdhāvin
  47. Pramādin
  48. Ānanda
  49. Rākṣasa
  50. Anala
  51. Piṅgala
  52. Kālayukta
  53. Siddhārtha
  54. Raudra
  55. Durmati
  56. Dundubhi
  57. Rudhi - rodgāra
  58. Raktākṣa (Raktākṣin)
  59. Krodhana
  60. Kṣaya (Akṣaya)

It was believed that the Saṅivatsara names indicated different consequences for the years concerned. Since the Jovian year is only 361 days long, shorter than a solar year by 4 or 5 days, it became necessary to expunge one Jovian year in every 85 or 86 solar years. This is called a ‘Kṣaya-samvatsara.’


References

  1. Suryasiddhānta 14.1-2
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore