By Swami Harshananda
Sometimes transliterated as: Satpratipaksa, SatpratipakSa, Satpratipaksha
The well-known example given for anumāna or inference in the systems of logic like the Nyāya Darśana runs as follows:
Satpratipakṣa literally means ‘inferentially contradicted middle’.
There is fire on the yonder hill; because there is smoke. Wherever there is smoke, there is fire.
There are three factors here. They are called:
- Pakṣa - minor term, the hill
- Sādhya - major term, the fire
- Liñga or hetu - middle term, the smoke
Sound is eternal, because it is audible.This is contradicted by a second one thus:
Sound is non-eternal because it is produced like a pot.
Here the non-existence of eternity in the first is proved by the second inference which is sat or real.
- It is a pratipakṣa or opposition view.
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore