Talk:Nyaya Introduction to Avayava
Pratijñā hētūdāharaṇōpanayanigamanāni avayavāḥ
#udāharaṇa sādharmyāt sādhyasādhanaṃ hētuḥ
तथा वैधर्म्यात् ।१.१.३५
साध्यसाधर्म्यात्तद्धर्मभावी दृष्टान्तः उदाहरणम् ।
Sādhyasādharmyāt tadhdharmabhāvī dṛṣṭāntaḥ udāharaṇaṃ
तद्विपर्ययाद्वा विपरीतम् ।
उदाहरणापेक्षः तथा इति उपसंहारः न तथा इति वा साध्यस्य उपनयः।
Udāharaṇāpēkṣastathē tyupasaṃhāraḥ na tathētivā sādhyasyōpanayaḥ
हेत्वपदेशात्प्रतिज्ञायाः पुनर्वचनं निगमनम् ।
Hētvapadeśāt pratijñāyāḥ punarvacanaṃ nigamanaṃ
Introduction to Nyāya Prayoga
There is a brief introduction of ‘Panchāvayava’. ‘Anumāna’ is of two types ‘Svārtha’ and ‘Parārtha’. Out of these two instruments of inference ‘Parārtha’ needs a five components syllogism known as ‘Nyāya’. Each five constituents of nyāya are called as ‘Avayava’. The application of this five-constituent syndicate syllogisms is called as ‘Nyāya Prayōga’.
Constituents of Nyāya
- प्रतिज्ञा - Pratijyā : The proposition or the statement that is going to be inferred or statement of the thesis is called as pratijyā. Ex: ‘पर्वतो वह्निमान्’/Parvatō vanhimān. It means mountain is on fire. Here smoke is only seen not the fire, but one wants to prove the fire which is not seen.
- हेतुः - Hētu : The statement consisting of the ground of the inference is called as hētu. Ex: ‘धूमात्’/Dhūmāt. It can be inferred because of the smoke.
- उदाहरणम् - Udāharaṇam : It is the sentence of example which demonstrates the invariable relationship between the reason and the claim to be inferred or the statement setting forth an illustration. Ex: ‘यो यो धूमवान् सः वह्निमान् , यथा महानसः’/Yō Yō Dhūmavān Sa Vanhimān, Yathā Mahānasah. Whatever place consists of smoke it consists fire also. Because fire is the reason behind smoke. Fire and smoke are having cause-effect relationship.
- उपनयः - Upanaya : The statement showing that the subject of the inference has ground of the inference which is invariably related to the thing that is sought to be established is called as upanaya. Ex: ‘तथा चायम्’/Tathā chāyam. Such is this mountain.
- निगमनम् - Nigamana : It is the conclusion or the sentence which confirms the claim or the statement that the subject of the inference has the thing that is sought to be established as it has the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘तस्मात् तथा’/ Tasmāt tathā. Therefore this mountain possess fire.
Hence it can be concluded that the systematic usage of the ‘Panchāvayava’ or the ‘Nyāya’ logically builds the argument.