From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Classification of Yogis

According to the Vyāsabhāsya on the Yogasutras[1] of Patañjali,[2] the yogis can be categorized into four groups:

  1. Prathamakalpika - The prathamakalpika has just started the practice of yoga. He has not had any experience.
  2. Madhubhumika - The madhubhumika has got samādhi on the pañcabhutas or elements and the indriyas or senses. He has succeeded in getting ṛtambharaprajñā, the state of consciousness which gives the truth of everything that the yogi thinks of.
  3. Prajñājyoti - It is the third type of yogi who has conquered the sense-organs and the five elements and is very near to puruṣakhyāti or realization of the ātman, the Self.
  4. Atikrāntabhāvanīya - In atikrāntabhāvanīya, the yogi has attained the knowledge of the Self and hence becomes a jīvanmukta, liberated soul.


  1. Yogasutras 3.51
  2. He lived in 200 B. C.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

By Swami Harshananda

Pratibandhikalpanā literally means ‘showing the same defect in the opposite party’.

Pratibandhikalpanā Origin

This is one of the eleven modes of tarka or logic. The Nyāya philosophy states that the paramāṇus[1] are without parts but can combine to produce bigger material objects.

Pratibandhikalpanā Meaning

A Vedāntin raises the objection that a partless paramāṇu can never come into contact with another paramāṇu which is also partless. The Nyāya-philosopher raises a similar objection regarding Brahman which is all-pervading and hence without parts like how it can come into contact with the objects of this world like pots. This type of raising a counter objection is called as pratibandhikalpanā.


  1. Paramāṇus means atoms.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore