From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Pratijñā literally means ‘statement of assurance or assertion’.

The general meaning of the word is ‘giving word,’ ‘asserting something as true’ or ‘a statement of fact’. However in the Nyāyadarśana or logic it is the first of the five steps of a logical statement.

Pratijñā is a statement of fact as asserted by one who is ready to prove it. For instance:
'Parvato vahnimān,’ which means ‘there is fire on the hill.’

This is subsequently proved by four steps:

  1. Hetu - reason
  2. Udāharaṇa - instance, example
  3. Upanaya - application of the general to the particular
  4. Nigamana - final conclusion


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore