by Swami Vimalatmananda
Sometimes transliterated as: Sakta, ZAkta, shaakta
The worship of Shakti has a unique place in the religious and spiritual life of the Indian people. Shakti is Power, Energy—the active principle of the universe which is personifed as Goddess. Every form of activity—however it be named—proceeds from the primordial Shakti. Shakti pervades the entire universe. It is worshipped as Devi, or the Divine Mother. This worship is popularly known as Shakti Puja; people have been performing Shakti Puja from time immemorial. Dr Pushpendu Kumar has rightly observed: It can be seen through the diferent phenomena of life itself. Durgā Sapta Śati says, ‘yā devī sarvabhūtesu śakti rūpena samsthitā’, i.e. every one of us has inherent power called Śakti, which is a part and manifestation of Parā Śakti, the Supreme Goddess. The powers of gods came to be known and worshipped by the diferent names and epithets—the Vaisnavī Śaktis like Laksmī, Śrī, Prthivī etc. and Śaiva Śaktis like Durgā, Pārvatī, Kālī, and so on. The trinity of Brahmā, Visnu and Śiva work through their Śaktis for the creation, maintenance and annihilation of the world.
The Divine Mother is very important to Hindu religion and spirituality. She commands as much respect and worship in India as the other gods and incarnations. There are numerous shrines across the country dedicated to the various forms of the Divine Mother. Feasts and festivities in her honour are an important component of the national calendar.Nowhere in the religious and spiritual history of the world do we find this worship of the Divine Mother so prominent as in India.
Śāktism and the Śākta
The worshippers of Shakti are called Śāktas. The Śāktas have their own beliefs, doctrines, tradition, symbols, cult, myths, and rituals. These constitute Saktism, the religion of the Śāktas. According to this tradition, the highest reality is the Divine Mother, the personification of primordial energy, the controller of all forces, the power behind divine and cosmic evolution, and the source of all that exists. Śāktism is based on Vedic mantras and Upanishadic philosophy. It has been propagated by Advaita Vedantins including Acharya Shankara. According to this tradition, Shakti is identical with Brahman. Shakti and śaktimān (the locus ofshakti) are one.
The Puranas mention the prevalence of Śāktism during various historical periods, beginning with Vedic times. But it gained prominence in the epic period. In the preface to his monumental book History of Śākta Religion Narendra Nath Bhattacharya has rightly observed: The role of Śāktism changed from time to time in accordance with the changing social demands, from the guiding principle of primitive hunting rituals and agricultural magic to that of movement of national awakening, from the esoteric cults and practices arising out of the former to a liberal universal religion which has left a deep impress upon the latter. In between the two there are many turning points in each of which Śāktism was a driving force standing for something new, owing to its fexible nature which made it subject to various interpretations in diferent ages and by persons and sects belonging to a variety of ideas and beliefs. It will be signifcant to observe that throughout the ages the Female Principle stood for the oppressed people, symbolizing all the liberating potentialities in the class-divided, patriarchal and authoritarian social set-up of India, and thus alone explains why attempts were made from diferent corners to blacken Śākta-Tāntric ideals. The origin of Śāktism was spontaneous, which evolved out of the pre-historic Mother Goddess cult symbolizing the facts of primitive life. But its development was manifold—not through any particular channel—like a lot of streams, some big some small, issuing from a single source.…the tribal cults of the female deities were clearly woven in the texture of the intellectual and rational scheme of the doctrine upheld by the higher religions.
A rich Śākta literature has come into being, written by various great saints, sadhakas, and scholars in diferent languages in Bengal, Assam, Kashmir, the sub-Himalayan region, and South India. Much of this literature is in Sanskrit, and it give us a vivid description of the Śākta religion. It is commonly held that Śāktism means Tantrism. Tantric ideas profoundly infuenced different religious sects and radically changed their views as well as their practices. But some scholars hold the opinion that Śāktism and Tantra are two separate entities. The term Śākta has a wider import than the appellation Tantric, and Śākta literature may be traced back to the Vedas, whereas Tantric literature has a later origin. Dr Winternitz says, ‘When we speak of Tantra, we think primarily of the sacred books of the Śāktas.’ Sri Ramakrishna explains the issue thus: ‘The Śāktas follow the Tantra, and the Vaishnavas the Purāna. There is no harm for the Vaishnavas in speaking publicly of their spiritual practices. But the Śāktas maintain secrecy about theirs. For this reason it is difficult to understand a Śākta.’
The Śākta Philosophy
Śākta teachings were originally passed on from teacher to student, guru to śisya, in an esoteric manner; so these teachings remained uncodified for long. Over the last several centuries, many Śākta sadhakas and scholars have contributed to the progress of Śākta philosophy. The ‘knowledge portion’ of Tripura-rahasya throws much light on Śākta philosophy. The Sri-vidya-ratna-sutra attributed to Acharya Gaudapada is a useful Śākta text. Abhinavagupta’s works established Śākta philosophy on a firm foundation. Punyananda’s Kamakala-vilasa is an authoritative work on Śākta philosophy. The best exposition of Śākta philosophy is probably Bhaskararaya’s Setubandha, dated to the eighteenth century. Sir John Woodrofe and his associates elaborately expounded the Śākta philosophy during the first three decades of twentieth century. In 1937 Panchanan Tarkaratna expounded the Brahma Sutra and Isha Upanishad from the Śākta viewpoint. This attempt was furthered by Mahamahopadhyaya Gopinath Kaviraj. Though originally based on Sāmkhya philosophy, Śākta philosophy has been deeply infuenced by the non-dualistic school of Vedanta. It however shares its terminology with the other schools of Indian philosophy.
In Śākta philosophy, the ultimate reality is pure Consciousness, known as Samvit. It is an independent entity, and its power is responsible for all activity. It has static and dynamic aspects: prakāśa and vimarśa. It is both immanent and transcendent Samvit remains as pure cit-śakti (consciousness power)—also termed Parā-Prakrti—at the time of dissolution of the universe. Shakti manifests itself as avidyā or material prakrti when material entities evolve.
The evolution of the material world from pure Consciousness has been conceived as taking place in three stages—the seed stage, the mixed stage and the final stage. In the seed stage, matter has not yet appeared as different from consciousness. The mixed stage manifests subtle differences between consciousness and matter. The final stage is the gross world as we see it. This evolution involves four categories—Parameshvara, Shakti, Para-nāda, and Parā-bindu. Parameshvara is the Supreme Being with whom Shakti is in inseparable relation. The appearance of Shakti causes an unmanifested sound called Para-nāda which concentrates itself to a point called Parā-bindu. This Parā-bindu evolves into three parts—Aparā-bindu, Bīja, and Aparanāda. The Shiva element dominates in the Aparābindu and the Shakti element in the Bīja. In Aparanāda, Shiva-Shakti are in equilibrium. The sound caused by the division of Parā-bindu is called Śabda Brahman. The inseparable Shakti of the Supreme Being in the modes of icchā (will) and kriyā (functioning) is responsible for these transformations.
Shakti first manifests as icchā, the desire to create. Subsequently, it works through its two aspects: vidyā-śakti and avidyā-śakti or māyā-śakti. Both of these are conscious principles—the former is illuminating consciousness, the latter, veiled consciousness. Māyā-śakti is composed of the threegunas, sattva, rajas, and tamas. It is therefore known as trigunā-śakti or kāmakalā, and is symbolized by a triangle. So the māyā-śakti is the cause of the material world. Maya is not an unconscious principle; it is consciousness veiling itself as the shakti of the Supreme Being. Sri Ramakrishna has explained this with simple analogies: ‘He whom you address as Brahma[n] is none other than She whom I call Śakti, the Primal Energy’ (434). ‘Thus Brahman and Śakti are identical. If you accept the one, you must accept the other. It is like fire and its power to burn. If you see the fire, you must recognize its power to burn also. You cannot think of fire without its power to burn, nor can you think of the power to burn without fire. You cannot conceive of the sun’s rays without the sun, nor can you conceive of the sun without its rays’ (134).
Shivachandra Vidyarnava, Gopinath Kaviraj, and John Woodrofe have extensively interpreted the Śākta Philosophy. Narendra Nath Bhattacharya has summed them up succinctly: The Supreme Being of Shaktism is not a personal God. In its own nature, it is more than that. The Shakta point of view considers the reality of God as the cause of the universe. But it holds that while the effect as effect is the cause modifed, the cause as cause remains what it was, what it is, and what it will be. It holds that the Supreme Being is manifested in one of its aspects in an infinity of relations, and though involving all relations within itself, is neither their sum total nor exhausted by them. Shakti, which is its functional aspect, works by negation, contraction, and finitisation. As a Mother Power she upholds herself into the world and again withdraws the world into herself. The purpose of her worship is to attain unity with her forms and this is the experience of liberation—a state of great bliss (anandaghana). In the natural order of development, Shakti is developed in worldly things but it is controlled by religious sadhana, which both prevents an excess of worldliness and moulds the mind and disposition (bhava) into a form which develops the knowledge of dispassion and non-attachment. Sadhana is a means whereby bondage becomes liberation.
We have discussed the philosophical basis of Śākta religion. This philosophy is to be practised and realized. This practice is called sadhana. This is Śākta contemplation, the practical aspect of the Śākta tradition. Contemplation is achieved through spiritual discipline. Only then is spiritual liberation possible, and will the sadhaka enjoy eternal peace. This is called śākta sādhanā. This sadhana has some distinctive features, although, truly speaking, all sadhanas are essentially Śākta sadhana. This sadhana is open to all men and women according to their competence and constitution. It has many stages and categories. The sadhaka is to choose his or her own path with the aid of a guru.
The Śāktas give much importance to the physical constitution. According to them, realization is difcult if the sadhaka does not have a suitable physique. The body is full of various energies; the aim of sadhana is to master and manifest these energies.
Śākta sadhana is actually the practice of Advaita, for it is also the path of jnana. It frst involves indirect or scriptural knowledge, śāstra jñāna. Direct perception follows. Though this sadhana involves knowledge, bhakti and karma are given equal importance. Generally speaking, in this sadhana, jnana, bhakti, and karma have been harmonized.
Ācāra and bhāva are the basis of Shakti sadha-na. In the Mahanirvana Tantra, Shiva says: ‘Devi,I have told of many ācāras and bhāvas in accordance with the capacity of the adhikarī (aspirant).Among these, some are secret; I have narrated these too (in some other Tantras). Persons competent in (esoteric as well as exoteric) sadhana will get results and cross the ocean of samsara if they follow this path.’
Śākta teachers class human disposition under three heads—paśu bhāva, vīra bhāva, and divya bhāva. Te person with paśu bhāva or animal dis-position is slave to six enemies: lust, an-ger, greed, pride, delusion, and envy. An aspirant with vīra bhāva or fearless disposition is pure in motive, gentle in speech, and mindful of the pañca tattvas(discussed below). Such a person is physically strong, courageous, intelligent, and enterprising. Te character of the person with divya bhāva borders on the divine as a result of sadhana practised in previous births.
Sri Ramakrishna tells a charming story about śava sādhanā, the prototypal vīra bhāva wor-ship, and about sadhana done in previous births: One must admit the existence of tendencies inherited from previous births. Tere is a story about a man who practised the śava sādhanā. He worshipped the Divine Mother in a deep forest. First he saw many terrible visions. Finally a tiger attacked and killed him. Another man, happening to pass and seeing the approach of the tiger, had climbed a tree. Aferwards he got down and found all the arrangements for worship at hand. He performed some purifying ceremonies and seated himself on the corpse. No sooner had he done a little japa than the Divine Mother appeared before him and said: ‘My child, I am very much pleased with you. Accept a boon from Me.’ He bowed low at the Lotus Feet of the Goddess and said: ‘May I ask You one question, Mother? I am speechless with amazement at Your action. Te other man worked so hard to get the ingredients for Your worship and tried to propitiate You forsuch a long time, but You didn’t condescend to show him Your favour. And I, who don’t know anything of worship, who have done nothingwho have neither devotion nor knowledge nor love, and who haven’t practiced any austeritiesam receiving so much of Your grace.’ Te DivineMother said with a laugh: ‘My child, you don’remember your previous births. For many birthsyou tried to propitiate Me through austerities. Asa result of those austerities all these things havecome to hand and you have been blessed with My vision. Now ask Me your boon.’8
There are seven ācāras or rules of conduct, which are related to the spiritual states of the sadhaka—vedācāra, vaiṣṇavācāra, śaivācāra, dakṣiṇācāra, vāmācāra, siddhāntācāra, and kaulācāra. Tese ācāras are closely connected with bhāvas. Atal Be-hari Ghosh has presented a succinct overview of these ācāras in his scholarly article ‘Te Spirit and Culture of the Tantras’: The aspirant rises step by step through these diferent ācāras till he reaches the seventh and highest stage, when Brahman becomes an experi-ential reality to him. In the frst stage, cleanliness of the body and mind is cultivated. The second stage is that of devotion (bhakti). Te third is that of jñāna (knowledge). Dakṣiṇa, which is the fourth stage, is that in which the gains acquired in the preceding three stages are consolidated. This is followed by vāma, which is the stage of renunciation. Tis does not mean, as has been said by the detractors of the Tantra, the practice of rites with a woman (vāmā). Vāma is the reverse of dakṣiṇa; it means the path of renunciation. If a woman is at all associated in this practice, she is there to help in the path of renunciation, and not for animal gratifcation. A woman as such is an object of great veneration to all schools of Tāntrika sādhakas (seekers). She is considered to be the embodiment on earth of the supreme Śakti who pervades the universe. She should therefore be revered as such and, even if guilty of a hundred wrongs, she is not to be hurt even with a fower. It is a sin to speak disparagingly of any woman. The sixth stage, viz. siddhānta, is that in which theaspirant comes to the defnitive conclusion afer deliberate consideration as to the relative merits of the path of enjoyment and that of renunciation. By pursuing the latter path, he reaches the fnal stage of kaula. Tis is the stage in which Kula or Brahman becomes a reality to him. Te frst three of these seven stages, viz., veda, vaiṣṇava, and śaiva belong to paśubhāva; dakṣiṇa and vāma belong to vīrabhāva; and the last two belong to divyabhāva. According to some, the last alone is divyabhāva. And the Paraśurāma Kalpa-Sūtra says that during the frst fve stages the aspirant must be guided by the teacher, and it is only afer he has passed the ffh stage that he is allowed to have freedom of action in every way.9
The Śāktas have a set of well-defined rules for worship of the Divine Mother in her various forms—Kali, Durga, Jagaddhatri, and the like. Te object of this worship is realization of the supreme Consciousness. Tis is done through the use of mantras and yantras, and the practices of nyāsa, bhūta-śuddhi, pranayama, dhyana, prāṇa-pratiṣṭhā, mānasa- and bāhya pūja [discussed in this issue in ‘Worship and Contemplation’]. At present, this method forms the basis of worship of all deities. The worshipper seeks to rouse the power of the kundalini (ādhāraśakti, the basal power), which is located in the mulādhāra, the lowest of the six chakras in the body. Ten the worshipper, the wor-shipped, and the means and acts of worship will be transformed into caitanya—Consciousness. Te
Awake, Mother! Awake! How long Tou hast been asleep In the lotus of the Muladhara! Fulfl Ty secret function, Mother: Rise to the thousand-petalled lotus within the head, Where mighty Shiva has his dwelling; Swifly pierce the six lotuses And take away my grief, O Essence of Consciousness! —Dasharathi Ray
passage of the awakened kundalini through successively higher chakras—svādhiṣṭhāna, maṇipura, viśuddha,and ājnā, are accompaniedby aprogressive transformationof consciousness (anddeepening spiritualinsight). Itspenetration of thesahasrāra leads tothe ultimate transcendental experienceof Consciousnessand results in eternal bliss.
Sri Ramakrishna’s experiences during the worshipof Mother Kali and during his tantric sadhana are graphically recorded by Swami Saradananda in his monumental work Sri Ramakrishna the GreatMaster. Sri Ramakrishna’s experiences closely matchthe descriptions found in the shastras. For instance,he says, ‘I had, in the beginning, the vision of particlesof light like groups of fire-flies; I saw sometimesall quarters covered with masses of mist-likelight; and at other times I perceived that all thingswere pervaded by bright waves of light like moltensilver.’10 This is comparable to the description availablein Shvetashvatara Upanishad, 2.11 .
The pañca tattvas, five principles, are an integralpart of tantric rites. These are commonly called the five ‘m’s, pañca-makāra—madya, wine; māṁsa,meat; matsya, fish; mudrā, cereals, and maithūna,sexual union. Sri Ramakrishna practised Tantrasadhana according to the rules of sixty-four differentcategories of Tantra under the guidance of theBhairavi Brahmani. He passed through the entirecourse without deviating from his ideal of ‘motherhoodin all women’ and without taking even asip of wine. Swami Nirvedananda has recordedthe unique significance of Sri Ramakrishna’s Tantricsadhana in ‘Sri Ramakrishna and SpiritualRenaissance’: During this period, he had quite a multitudeof wonderful visions that followed one another in quick succession. Of all the divine forms he witnessed, Ṣoḍaśī or Rājarājeśvarī appeared to him to be the loveliest. Moreover, he perceived the upward march of the kuṇḍalinī-śakti, described inthe Yoga and Tāntrika scriptures as the coiled-updivine energy lying normally in every man at the lower end of the spinal canal. When it is made torise farther up by spiritual practice, its progress through the different stages is marked by distinct phases of spiritual experience on the part of the devotee, culminating in mergence in the Absolute.Ramakrishna verified the scriptural statements by experiencing all the various spiritual moods andvisions corresponding to the different stages of ascent of the coiled-up divine energy. His unique success in Tāntrika practices,without any connection with wine or sex, hasundoubtedly restored the purity of these ancientpractices and stamped them afresh as a sure anddistinct approach to the realization of God.11
They Lived with the Divine Mother
The practice of Śāktism is open to all, to renunciantsand householders alike. If one practises the disciplines laid down in the Śākta shastras, one isentitled to the highest spiritual attainments. Thereare innumerable examples of sadhakas who, bypractising Śākta sadhana as per the Śākta shastras,have realized the supreme Consciousness and itsmanifestation as Shakti. Besides Sri Ramakrishna,some of the other Śakta sadhakas of repute whoachieved supreme knowledge bypractising Śāktasadhanaare KrishnanandaAgamavagisha,RajaRamakrishna, Swami Sarvananda, Kamalakanta, Ramprasad, Bamakshyapa,BrahmanandaGiri,PurananandaParamahamsa Parivrajaka, and ShivachandraVidyarnava of Bengal; Nilkantha of Maharashtra;Adyananda of Nepal; Srinivas Bhatta Gosvamiof South India; Shivananda Nath of Varanasi;Abhinavagupta and Sahib Kaula of Kashmir;and Gangesha Upadhyaya of Mithila. Their livesand methods of sadhana are very inspiring. Theypractised sadhana according to Śākta rules andwere blessed with the vision of the Divine Mother.Some of them jotted down their experiences; theirwritings have in course of time become authenticreference works for this tradition. Some of them are poet saints whose compositions are still inspiring people and elevating the minds of sadhakas to higher states of devotion. Kamalakanta, Ramprasad, and Chandidas of Bengal belong to this group of sadhakas. Sarvananda of Tripura was totally illiterate; his spiritual success came through repetition of the mantra alone. He practised the very difficult śava sādhanā. He earned the epithet of sarvavidyā, as all known forms of the Divine Mother were revealed to him. Ratnagarbha or Gosain Bhattacharya of sixteenth-century Bengal followed the vīra form of worship using pañca makāra and attained siddhi, perfection. Ardhakali of Mymensingh was born a daughter of Dvijadeva Thakur about three hundred years ago. It is believed that she was an incarnation of the Divine Mother. She was married to Raghavarama, a soul highly advanced in yoga, and at the time of marriage, she revealed her divinity. Bamakshyapa (mad Vama) was born about three hundred years ago in a village of Birbhum. He was a devotee of Goddess Tara, but seldom offered any formal worship. He practised only meditation on Tara and had the vision of the Divine Mother.
Chintacharan Chakravarty has rightly observed that ‘the ennobling spirit of devotion and the high tone of spirituality imparted by Śāktismhave attracted and are still attracting a very large number of people not only in Bengal, but all overIndia’.12
Traditional Śākta sadhana is not much practised today,but the worship of the Divine Mother still playsa vital role in various parts of the country. This worship‘allows for the integration of aspects of humanlife into a whole, which includes the achievementof a type of balance in view of the oft-stated generalizationthat religious pantheonic structures tendto mirror the socio-political structures of civilizations’.13 Even from the purely human point of view,this tradition of worship has proved to be remarkablyelevating. As W C Beane puts it (ibid.): ‘Individuals might therefore learn from the testimony of the worshippersof the goddess that,even if certain ideasand forms of the Tantric voguemay be found unsuitableto certainmodern milieux, itis essentially the vision of what bothman and womancan become to oneanother in mutualrespect of one another’s identity, influence, and activityin the world that matters finally.’ P
8. Gospel, 163–4. 9. Atal Behari Ghosh, in The Religions, 243. 10. Swami Saradananda, Sri Ramakrishna the Great Master, trans. Swami Jagadananda (Madras: Ramakrishna Math, 1991), 165. 11. Swami Nirvedananda, ‘Sri Ramakrishna and Spiritual Renaissance’, in The Religions, 668. 12. Chintaharan Chakravarti, ‘Śakti-worship and the Śākta Saints’, in The Religions, 418. 13. Wendell Charles Beane, Myth, Cult and Symbols in Śākta Hinduism: A Study of the Indian Mother Goddess (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2001),
- Originally published as "The Śākta Contemplative Tradition" by Prabhuddha Bharata January 2007 edition. Reprinted with permission.