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By M. A. Alwar

Sometimes transliterated as: Um, Um, UUm

Ūm is meant as an expression of anger.

Grammatical Form

Ūm is an indeclinable form.


It is derived from ūyate which can be split as ūy + Muk affix.

Textual Reference

Śabdaratnākara states that is also an expression of reproach, competition.


  • Shabdakalpadrumah by Raja Radhakantdev, Varadaprasada Vasu, Haricarana Vasu