Difference between revisions of "Ethics of Hinduism"

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{{Author|Himanshu Bhatt}}
 
{{Author|Himanshu Bhatt}}
In Hinduism, there are '''five main commandments''' known as a the [[Panchavrata|Panchavrata (Five Vows)]], that are always the core forbearances. Regardless of any rules prescribed, they cannot conflict with these Five Precepts. These are the chief vows of [[Buddhism]] and [[Jainism]] as well. Not only are Hindus required  to adhere to these five forbearances, but there are other vows which they are encouraged to keep. Hindus are also encouraged to commit to service to humanity which is known as ''Manav [[Dharma]]''. Example of these include “Oh Noble men! We do not commit violence. We do not hurt others. We do not quarrel either. We of course chant [[Vedas]] and act according to its dictates“<ref> [[Rig Veda]] 10.134.7 </ref> and the [[Atharva]] [[Veda]] declares, “Every man should protect the other in all respects“<ref> [[Atharva]] [[Veda]] 6.64.1 </ref>.
+
In Hinduism, there are '''five main commandments''' known as a the [[Panchavrata|Panchavrata]]<ref>It means five vows.</ref>, that are always the core forbearance. Regardless of any rules prescribed, they cannot conflict with these Five Precepts. These are the chief vows of [[Buddhism]] and [[Jainism]] as well. Not only are Hindus required  to adhere to these five forbearances, but there are other vows which they are encouraged to keep. Hindus are also encouraged to commit to service to humanity which is known as ''Mānav [[Dharma]]''. Example of these include “Oh Noble men! We do not commit violence. We do not hurt others. We do not quarrel either. We of course chant [[Vedas]] and act according to its dictates“<ref> [[Ṛgveda]] 10.134.7 </ref> and the [[Atharva]] [[Veda]] declares, “Every man should protect the other in all respects“<ref> [[Atharva]] [[Veda]] 6.64.1 </ref>.
  
 
Sir Edward Blunt writes<ref> P. 303 ''The Caste System of Northern India'' By Sir Edward Blunt </ref>:
 
Sir Edward Blunt writes<ref> P. 303 ''The Caste System of Northern India'' By Sir Edward Blunt </ref>:
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Sir Richard Burn writes of [[Hindu]] ethics<ref> P. 303 ''The Caste System of Northern India'' By Sir Edward Blunt </ref>:
 
Sir Richard Burn writes of [[Hindu]] ethics<ref> P. 303 ''The Caste System of Northern India'' By Sir Edward Blunt </ref>:
<blockquote>He knows that it is wrong to commit murder, adultery, theft, and perjury, and to covert, and he honors his parents, in the case of the father at any rate, to a degree exceeding the customs of most nations, which have no ceremony resembling that of the ''shraddha''.</blockquote>
+
<blockquote>He knows that it is wrong to commit murder, adultery, theft, and perjury, and to covert and he honors his parents, in the case of the father at any rate, to a degree exceeding the customs of most nations, which have no ceremony resembling that of the ''Śrāddha''.</blockquote>
  
 
==Commandments==
 
==Commandments==
 
[[image:Yamas and Niyamas.jpg|right|thumb|200px|The Yamas (Panchavrata) and Niyamas]]
 
[[image:Yamas and Niyamas.jpg|right|thumb|200px|The Yamas (Panchavrata) and Niyamas]]
===Rig Veda (5 commandments)===
+
===Ṛgveda===
Hindus today submit to the Panchavrata or five major vows or commandments:  
+
It means 5 commandments. Hindus today submit to the Panchavrata or five major vows or commandments:  
#[[Ahimsa]] (non-injury)
+
# [[Ahiṅsa]] - non-injury
#[[Brahmacharya]] (non-fornication)
+
# [[Brahmacharya]] - non-fornication
#[[Asteya]] (non-stealing)
+
# [[Asteya]] - non-stealing
#Satya (non-lying)
+
# Satya - non-lying
#Aparigrahā (non-possessiveness)
+
# Aparigraha - non-possessiveness  
 
<br>
 
<br>
The following excerpt from the [[Rig Veda]] (10:5:6)<ref> ''Divine Message Of God To Mankind [[Vedas]]'' By J.M. Mehta </ref> sums up the Panchavrata:
+
The following excerpt from the [[Ṛgveda]]<ref>Ṛgveda 10:5:6</ref><ref> ''Divine Message Of God To Mankind [[Vedas]]'' By J.M. Mehta </ref> sums up the Panchavrata:
:"Violence, womanising, drinking liquor, gambling, stealing, falsehood or lying and association with those who commit these sins; one who commits any of these sins is a sinner."
+
:"Violence, womanizing, drinking liquor, gambling, stealing, falsehood or lying and association with those who commit these sins; one who commits any of these sins is a sinner."
  
===Bhagavad Gita (9 commandments)===
+
===Bhagavad Gitā===
The lawgiver [[Krishna]] gave the following precepts:
+
It has 9 commandments. The lawgiver [[Kṛṣṇa]] gave the following precepts:
#Amanitva - Absence of pride
+
# Amanitva - Absence of pride
#Adambhitva - Absence of deceit
+
# Adambhitva - Absence of deceit
#[[Ahimsa]] - Non-injury
+
# [[Ahiṅsā]] - Non-injury
#Shanti - Patience
+
# Śanti - Patience
#Arjava - Uprightness
+
# Arjava - Uprightness
#Acaryopasana - Service to the teacher
+
# Acaryopāsāna - Service to the teacher
#Sauca - Internal and external purity
+
# Sauca - Internal and external purity
#Sthairya - Steadfastness
+
# Sthairya - Steadfastness
#Atmavinigraha - Self-control
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# Atmavinigraha - Self-control
  
===Manu Smriti (10 commandments)===
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===Manu Smriti===
In [[Manusmriti]] ten aspects of general duties are mentioned. They are:
+
It has 10 commandments. In [[Manusmṛti]] ten aspects of general duties are mentioned. They are:
#Ahimsa
+
# Ahiṅsā
#Truthfulness
+
# Truthfulness
#Non-stealing
+
# Non-stealing
#Purity
+
# Purity
#Control of senses
+
# Control of senses
#Intelligence
+
# Intelligence
#Knowledge
+
# Knowledge
#Non-anger
+
# Non-anger
#Forgiveness
+
# Forgiveness
#Tenacity of purpose
+
# Tenacity of purpose
  
===Yājñavalkya Smrti (5 commandments)===
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===Yājñavalkya Smrti===
[[Yajnavalkya|Sage Yājñavalkya]] was a rishi in the Vedic age, and mentor of Raja Janaka. The ''[[Yājñavalkya Smrti]]'' (5.122<Ref> p. 104 ''An Introduction To Gerontology'' By Swami Shankrananda </ref>) prescribes the Panchavrata, apart from other moral codes.<ref> P. 76  ''New Dimensions in [[Vedanta]] Philosophy, Volume 2'' By Swami Sahajā[[nanda]] </ref>
+
It has 5 commandments. [[Yajnavalkya|Sage Yājñavalkya]] was a ṛṣi in the Vedic age and mentor of Rājā Janaka. The ''[[Yājñavalkya Smṛti]]''<ref>Yājñavalkya Smṛti 5.122</ref><Ref> p. 104 ''An Introduction To Gerontology'' By Swami Śankrananda </ref>) prescribes the Panchavrata, apart from other moral codes.<ref> P. 76  ''New Dimensions in [[Vedanta]] Philosophy, Volume 2'' By Swami Sahajā[[nanda]] </ref>
  
===Yoga Sutra (10 commandments)===
+
===Yoga Sutra===
Patanjali in his [[Yoga Sutras]] lists 10 commandments to follow for a good or sinless livelihood.  
+
It has 10 commandments. Patanjali in his [[Yoga Sutras]] lists them to follow for a good or sinless livelihood.  
#Ahimsa: Nonviolence. Abstinence from injury that arises out of love for all, harmlessness, the not causing of pain to any living creature in thought, word, or deed at any time. This and Satya are the “main” [[yama]]. The other eight are there in support of its accomplishment.
+
# Ahiṅsā: Nonviolence. Abstinence from injury that arises out of love for all, harmlessness, the not causing of pain to any living creature in thought, word, or deed at any time. This and Satya are the “main” [[yama]]. The other eight are there in support of its accomplishment.
#Satya: Truthfulness, word and thought in conformity with the facts, honesty.
+
# Satya: Truthfulness, word and thought in conformity with the facts, honesty.
#[[Asteya]]: Non-stealing, non-coveting, non-entering into debt.
+
# [[Asteya]]: Non-stealing, non-coveting, non-entering into debt.
#[[Brahmacharya]]: being constantly aware of the universe, immersed in [[divinity]], divine conduct, continence, celibate when single, faithfulness when married.
+
# [[Brahmacharya]]: being constantly aware of the universe, immersed in [[divinity]], divine conduct, continence, celibate when single, faithfulness when married.
#Kshama: Patience, releasing time, functioning in the now.
+
# Kṣama: Patience, releasing time, functioning in the now.
#Driti: Steadfastness, overcoming non-perseverance, fear, and indecision; seeing each task through to completion.
+
# Dṛti: Steadfastness, overcoming non-perseverance, fear, and indecision; seeing each task through to completion.
#[[Daya]]: Compassion; conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings.
+
# [[Dayā]]: Compassion; conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings.
#Arjava: Honesty, straightforwardness, renouncing deception and wrongdoing.
+
# Ārjava: Honesty, straightforwardness, renouncing deception and wrongdoing.
#Mithara: Moderate appetite, neither eating too much nor too little; nor consuming meat, fish, shellfish, fowl or eggs.
+
# Mithara: Moderate appetite, neither eating too much nor too little; nor consuming meat, fish, shellfish, fowl or eggs.
#Shaucha: Purity, avoidance of impurity in body, mind and speech
+
# Śaucha: Purity, avoidance of impurity in body, mind and speech
  
===Sandilya Upanishad (10 commandments)===
+
==Śāndilya Upaniṣad==
''Sandilya [[Upanishad]]'' is the 62nd [[Upanishad]]<ref> P. 18 ''[[Monotheism]] of Hindu religion: unity in diversity of Hindu [[worship]]'' By Krishnaswamy Srinivasan </ref>, and it declares 10 yamas.<ref> P. 122 ''Values and Value Theories in the Light of Sri [[Aurobindo]]'' By V. Madhusudan Reddy </ref>
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It has 10 commandments. ''Śāndilya [[Upaniṣad]]'' is the 62nd [[Upaniṣad]]<ref> P. 18 ''[[Monotheism]] of Hindu religion: unity in diversity of Hindu [[worship]]'' By Krishnaswamy Srinivasan </ref> and it declares 10 yamas.<ref> P. 122 ''Values and Value Theories in the Light of Sri [[Aurobindo]]'' By V. Madhusudan Reddy </ref>
#Ahimsa - Non-violence
+
# Ahiṅsā - Non-violence
#Satya - Truth
+
# Satya - Truth
#Asteya - Non-stealing
+
# Asteya - Non-stealing
#Brahmacharya - Celibacy
+
# Brahmacharya - Celibacy
#[[Daya]] - Compassion
+
# [[Dayā]] - Compassion
#Arjava - Equanimity
+
# Ārjava - Equanimity
#Kshama - Forgivness
+
# Kṣamā - Forgiveness
#[[Dhrti]] - Firmness of mind
+
# [[Dhṛti]] - Firmness of mind
#Mitahara - Vegetarianism, and non-wasting of food  
+
# Mitāhāra - Vegetarianism and non-wasting of food  
#Sancha
+
# Sancha
  
===Veda Vyasa (10 commandments)===
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===Veda Vyāsa===
In the [[Bhagavata Purana|Mahâ Purânam Srimad Devî Bhâgavatam]], [[Veda Vyasa]] writes of achieving [[yoga]] or union with God by destroying the six enemies of [[yoga]]; lust, anger, greed, ignorance, vanity and jealousy. The six attributes can be destroyed by following Patanjali's commandments.<ref> [http://www.saivism.net/etexts/yogamantrasiddhi.asp "On the Yoga and Mantra Siddhi"]</ref>
+
It has 10 commandments. In the [[Bhagavata Purāṇa|Mahā Purāṇam Śrimad Devî Bhāgavatam]], [[Veda Vyāsa]] writes of achieving [[yoga]] or union with God by destroying the six enemies of [[yoga]];
 +
# Lust
 +
# Anger
 +
# Greed
 +
# Ignorance
 +
# Vanity
 +
# Jealousy
  
===Maharishi Gautama (10 commandments)===
+
The six attributes can be destroyed by following Patanjali's commandments.<ref> [http://www.saivism.net/etexts/yogamantrasiddhi.asp "On the Yoga and Mantra Siddhi"]</ref>
[[Gautama Rishi|Maharishi Gautama]] was a lawgiver, and ascribed eight yamas.<ref> ''You and Your Queries'' By Shrikant Prasoon </ref>
+
#Daya sarvabhuteshu: Kindness, compassion, pity and sympathy towards every living being
+
#Kshama: Forgivenss
+
#Anusuya, anirmatsarata: No jealousy
+
#Shauch, antar-bahya-shuchirbhutata: Purity, the state of being pure from outside and inside
+
#Anayasa: Not to indulge in petty and meaningless things
+
#Mangala: To think, wish and work for bliss, wellbeing and prosperity of all
+
#Akarpanya: Neither to be nor to show weakness and miserliness
+
#Aspriha: Neither list nor wish to possess whatever belonged to others
+
  
===Srimad Bhagavatam (30 commandments)===
+
===Maharishi Gautama===
The [[Srimad Bhagavatam]] 7.11.8-12 lays down the following customs to be practiced for a good human life.<ref> [http://vedabase.net/sb/7/11/8-12/ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 7.11.8-12] </ref>
+
It has 10 commandments. [[Gautama Ṛṣi|Mahaṛṣi Gautama]] was a lawgiver, and ascribed eight yamas.<ref> ''You and Your Queries'' By Shrikant Prasoon </ref>
#Truthfulness
+
# Dāyā sarvabhuteshu: Kindness, compassion, pity and sympathy towards every living being.
#Mercy
+
# Kṣamā: Forgiveness.
#Austerity (observing fasts on certain days of the month)
+
# Anusuyā, anirmatsarata: No jealousy.
#Bathing twice a day
+
# Śauch, antar-bāhya-śuchirbhutata: Purity, the state of being pure from outside and inside.
#Tolerance
+
# Anāyāsa: Not to indulge in petty and meaningless things.
#Discrimination between right and wrong
+
# Mangala: To think, wish and work for bliss, well-being and prosperity of all.
#Control of the mind
+
# Akarpanya: Neither to be nor to show weakness and miserliness.
#Control of the senses
+
# Aspṛha: Neither list nor wish to possess whatever belonged to others.
#Nonviolence
+
#Celibacy
+
#Carity
+
#Rading of scripture
+
#Simplicity
+
#Satisfaction
+
#Rendering service to saintly persons
+
#Gradually taking leave of unnecessary engagements
+
#Observing the futility of the unnecessary activities of human society
+
#Remaining silent and grave and avoiding unnecessary [[talk]]
+
#Considering whether one is the body or the soul
+
#Distributing food equally to all living entities (both men and animals)
+
#Seeing every soul (especially in the human form) as a part of the Supreme Lord
+
#Hearing about the activities and instructions given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead (who is the shelter of the saintly persons) #Chanting about these activities and instructions
+
#Always remembering these activities and instructions
+
#Trying to render service
+
#Performing [[worship]]
+
#Offering obeisances
+
#Becoming a servant
+
#Becoming a friend
+
#Surrendering one's whole self
+
  
===Narada Bhakti Sutra (5 commandments)===
+
===Srimad Bhagavatam===
The Nārada [[Bhakti]] Sūtra 78 declares five principles to practice.<ref> [http://vedabase.net/nbs/78/ Nārada Bhakti Sūtra 78] </ref>
+
It has 30 commandments. The [[Śrimad Bhāgavatam]]<ref>Śrimad Bhāgavatam 7.11.8-12</ref> lays down the following customs to be practiced for a good human life.<ref> [http://vedabase.net/sb/7/11/8-12/ Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 7.11.8-12] </ref>
#Nonviolence
+
# Truthfulness
#Truthfulness
+
# Mercy
#Cleanliness
+
# Austerity<ref>It means observing fasts on certain days of the month.</ref>
#Compassion
+
# Bathing twice a day
#Faith
+
# Tolerance
 +
# Discrimination between right and wrong
 +
# Control of the mind
 +
# Control of the senses
 +
# Nonviolence
 +
# Celibacy
 +
# Charity
 +
# Reading of scripture
 +
# Simplicity
 +
# Satisfaction
 +
# Rendering service to saintly persons
 +
# Gradually taking leave of unnecessary engagements
 +
# Observing the futility of the unnecessary activities of human society
 +
# Remaining silent and grave and avoiding unnecessary [[talk]]
 +
# Considering whether one is the body or the soul
 +
# Distributing food equally to all living entities<ref>both men and animals</ref>
 +
# Seeing every soul<ref>It means especially in the human form.</ref> as a part of the Supreme Lord
 +
# Hearing about the activities and instructions given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead<ref>It means who is the shelter of the saintly persons.</ref>
 +
# Chanting about these activities and instructions
 +
# Always remembering these activities and instructions
 +
# Trying to render service
 +
# Performing [[worship]]
 +
# Offering obeisances
 +
# Becoming a servant
 +
# Becoming a friend
 +
# Surrendering one's whole self
 +
 +
===Nārada Bhakti Sutra===
 +
It means 5 commandments. The Nārada [[Bhakti]] Sūtra 78 declares five principles to practice.<ref> [http://vedabase.net/nbs/78/ Nārada Bhakti Sūtra 78] </ref>
 +
# Nonviolence
 +
# Truthfulness
 +
# Cleanliness
 +
# Compassion
 +
# Faith
  
 
==Rules of war==
 
==Rules of war==

Latest revision as of 10:08, 9 October 2017

By Himanshu Bhatt

In Hinduism, there are five main commandments known as a the Panchavrata[1], that are always the core forbearance. Regardless of any rules prescribed, they cannot conflict with these Five Precepts. These are the chief vows of Buddhism and Jainism as well. Not only are Hindus required to adhere to these five forbearances, but there are other vows which they are encouraged to keep. Hindus are also encouraged to commit to service to humanity which is known as Mānav Dharma. Example of these include “Oh Noble men! We do not commit violence. We do not hurt others. We do not quarrel either. We of course chant Vedas and act according to its dictates“[2] and the Atharva Veda declares, “Every man should protect the other in all respects“[3].

Sir Edward Blunt writes[4]:

A Hindu's code of ethics is as high as that of any other civilized nation.

Sir Richard Burn writes of Hindu ethics[5]:

He knows that it is wrong to commit murder, adultery, theft, and perjury, and to covert and he honors his parents, in the case of the father at any rate, to a degree exceeding the customs of most nations, which have no ceremony resembling that of the Śrāddha.

Commandments

The Yamas (Panchavrata) and Niyamas

Ṛgveda

It means 5 commandments. Hindus today submit to the Panchavrata or five major vows or commandments:

  1. Ahiṅsa - non-injury
  2. Brahmacharya - non-fornication
  3. Asteya - non-stealing
  4. Satya - non-lying
  5. Aparigraha - non-possessiveness


The following excerpt from the Ṛgveda[6][7] sums up the Panchavrata:

"Violence, womanizing, drinking liquor, gambling, stealing, falsehood or lying and association with those who commit these sins; one who commits any of these sins is a sinner."

Bhagavad Gitā

It has 9 commandments. The lawgiver Kṛṣṇa gave the following precepts:

  1. Amanitva - Absence of pride
  2. Adambhitva - Absence of deceit
  3. Ahiṅsā - Non-injury
  4. Śanti - Patience
  5. Arjava - Uprightness
  6. Acaryopāsāna - Service to the teacher
  7. Sauca - Internal and external purity
  8. Sthairya - Steadfastness
  9. Atmavinigraha - Self-control

Manu Smriti

It has 10 commandments. In Manusmṛti ten aspects of general duties are mentioned. They are:

  1. Ahiṅsā
  2. Truthfulness
  3. Non-stealing
  4. Purity
  5. Control of senses
  6. Intelligence
  7. Knowledge
  8. Non-anger
  9. Forgiveness
  10. Tenacity of purpose

Yājñavalkya Smrti

It has 5 commandments. Sage Yājñavalkya was a ṛṣi in the Vedic age and mentor of Rājā Janaka. The Yājñavalkya Smṛti[8][9]) prescribes the Panchavrata, apart from other moral codes.[10]

Yoga Sutra

It has 10 commandments. Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras lists them to follow for a good or sinless livelihood.

  1. Ahiṅsā: Nonviolence. Abstinence from injury that arises out of love for all, harmlessness, the not causing of pain to any living creature in thought, word, or deed at any time. This and Satya are the “main” yama. The other eight are there in support of its accomplishment.
  2. Satya: Truthfulness, word and thought in conformity with the facts, honesty.
  3. Asteya: Non-stealing, non-coveting, non-entering into debt.
  4. Brahmacharya: being constantly aware of the universe, immersed in divinity, divine conduct, continence, celibate when single, faithfulness when married.
  5. Kṣama: Patience, releasing time, functioning in the now.
  6. Dṛti: Steadfastness, overcoming non-perseverance, fear, and indecision; seeing each task through to completion.
  7. Dayā: Compassion; conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings.
  8. Ārjava: Honesty, straightforwardness, renouncing deception and wrongdoing.
  9. Mithara: Moderate appetite, neither eating too much nor too little; nor consuming meat, fish, shellfish, fowl or eggs.
  10. Śaucha: Purity, avoidance of impurity in body, mind and speech

Śāndilya Upaniṣad

It has 10 commandments. Śāndilya Upaniṣad is the 62nd Upaniṣad[11] and it declares 10 yamas.[12]

  1. Ahiṅsā - Non-violence
  2. Satya - Truth
  3. Asteya - Non-stealing
  4. Brahmacharya - Celibacy
  5. Dayā - Compassion
  6. Ārjava - Equanimity
  7. Kṣamā - Forgiveness
  8. Dhṛti - Firmness of mind
  9. Mitāhāra - Vegetarianism and non-wasting of food
  10. Sancha

Veda Vyāsa

It has 10 commandments. In the Mahā Purāṇam Śrimad Devî Bhāgavatam, Veda Vyāsa writes of achieving yoga or union with God by destroying the six enemies of yoga;

  1. Lust
  2. Anger
  3. Greed
  4. Ignorance
  5. Vanity
  6. Jealousy

The six attributes can be destroyed by following Patanjali's commandments.[13]

Maharishi Gautama

It has 10 commandments. Mahaṛṣi Gautama was a lawgiver, and ascribed eight yamas.[14]

  1. Dāyā sarvabhuteshu: Kindness, compassion, pity and sympathy towards every living being.
  2. Kṣamā: Forgiveness.
  3. Anusuyā, anirmatsarata: No jealousy.
  4. Śauch, antar-bāhya-śuchirbhutata: Purity, the state of being pure from outside and inside.
  5. Anāyāsa: Not to indulge in petty and meaningless things.
  6. Mangala: To think, wish and work for bliss, well-being and prosperity of all.
  7. Akarpanya: Neither to be nor to show weakness and miserliness.
  8. Aspṛha: Neither list nor wish to possess whatever belonged to others.

Srimad Bhagavatam

It has 30 commandments. The Śrimad Bhāgavatam[15] lays down the following customs to be practiced for a good human life.[16]

  1. Truthfulness
  2. Mercy
  3. Austerity[17]
  4. Bathing twice a day
  5. Tolerance
  6. Discrimination between right and wrong
  7. Control of the mind
  8. Control of the senses
  9. Nonviolence
  10. Celibacy
  11. Charity
  12. Reading of scripture
  13. Simplicity
  14. Satisfaction
  15. Rendering service to saintly persons
  16. Gradually taking leave of unnecessary engagements
  17. Observing the futility of the unnecessary activities of human society
  18. Remaining silent and grave and avoiding unnecessary talk
  19. Considering whether one is the body or the soul
  20. Distributing food equally to all living entities[18]
  21. Seeing every soul[19] as a part of the Supreme Lord
  22. Hearing about the activities and instructions given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead[20]
  23. Chanting about these activities and instructions
  24. Always remembering these activities and instructions
  25. Trying to render service
  26. Performing worship
  27. Offering obeisances
  28. Becoming a servant
  29. Becoming a friend
  30. Surrendering one's whole self

Nārada Bhakti Sutra

It means 5 commandments. The Nārada Bhakti Sūtra 78 declares five principles to practice.[21]

  1. Nonviolence
  2. Truthfulness
  3. Cleanliness
  4. Compassion
  5. Faith

Rules of war

See also: Rulership in Hinduism

For the Rajanya (Kshatriya) it should be either death or victory in battle...He should not in battle kill one who is stunned, who has surrendered his arms, or is a fugitive, nor those of his enemies whom he has captured nor their wives or children. Whatever is acquired either by victory or treaty should be distributed amongst the soldiers in shares according to merit.[22]

See also

External links

References

  1. It means five vows.
  2. Ṛgveda 10.134.7
  3. Atharva Veda 6.64.1
  4. P. 303 The Caste System of Northern India By Sir Edward Blunt
  5. P. 303 The Caste System of Northern India By Sir Edward Blunt
  6. Ṛgveda 10:5:6
  7. Divine Message Of God To Mankind Vedas By J.M. Mehta
  8. Yājñavalkya Smṛti 5.122
  9. p. 104 An Introduction To Gerontology By Swami Śankrananda
  10. P. 76 New Dimensions in Vedanta Philosophy, Volume 2 By Swami Sahajānanda
  11. P. 18 Monotheism of Hindu religion: unity in diversity of Hindu worship By Krishnaswamy Srinivasan
  12. P. 122 Values and Value Theories in the Light of Sri Aurobindo By V. Madhusudan Reddy
  13. "On the Yoga and Mantra Siddhi"
  14. You and Your Queries By Shrikant Prasoon
  15. Śrimad Bhāgavatam 7.11.8-12
  16. Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 7.11.8-12
  17. It means observing fasts on certain days of the month.
  18. both men and animals
  19. It means especially in the human form.
  20. It means who is the shelter of the saintly persons.
  21. Nārada Bhakti Sūtra 78
  22. The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies By Thomas McEvilley