Hindu Mythology Explained

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By Himanshu Bhatt

Because Hindu history is so ancient, going back to the prehistoric eras of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and Bronze ages, the need to carry history forward in the form on myths became essential as not everybody was literate and Hindus needed to pass down historical events orally. The Indian Subcontinent has had many ancient cultures and civilizations, such as Soanian (500,000–125,000 BP), Bihrrana (7570–6200 BC), Anarta (c. 3950–1900 BC), Indus Valley (3300–1300 BC), Black and red ware, Thrissur, Thoothukudi or Adichanallur (1800 BCE), and Vaigai or Keezhadi (1500 BCE) - all from different eras. Hence, all of the important historical events needed to be passed down from generation to generation.

Names of patriarchical persons or tribes are used metaphorically for either their descendants or followers. For example, names of rṣis being used to describe a person from that lineage (pravara gotra.) This can even be seen in the Sikh scriptures wherein it is declared that Guru Nanak met Guru Gorakh[1]. While the 2 lived centuries apart the stories are actually using the name of Gorakh metaphorically to refer to his followers, just like how Sikh scriptures metaphorically refer to Guru Arjan as the 5th Nanak. Another example is of how a story describing sants Nanak, Kabir, and Gorakh are sitting together having a discussion on God (again all 3 never lived in the same century.) A tribe-based example is how Hayagriva is mentioned numerous times but refers to different people, such as Dadhikra and Keshi. Both Hayagriva and Varaha[1] exist as the names of Daityas too. Another example is of the numerous wars that occurred between Asuras and Devas, the spiritual preceptor of the Asuras in every war is mentioned as Shukra. These wars occurred throughout many centuries so by 'Shukra' what is meant is the original son of Rṣi Bhargava and the descendants of that Shukra always being the priests and advisors of the Asuras.

Also, just as various people can have the same name but be unrelated, similarly you find in texts that many people have the same name because their parents named them as such. For example, Laxmi is the name for at least 5 separate women of different eras; 1) Wife (daughter of Khyāti and Bhṛgu) of Vishnu, 2) Wife (daughter of Prasuti and Daksha) of Dharma (and mother of Kama), 3) Wife (daughter of Galava) of Dattatreya, 4) Wife (daughter of Puloman) of Indra, and 5) Wife (daughter of Jaldevi and Varuna) of Mahasani. Similarly there are 2 persons named Airavata - the Matanga son of Iravati and the Naga son of Kadru. Soma is the name of a Vasu and also of the son of Anasuya and Atri. There are also various Manus, Kapilas, and there are countless other examples of influential persons in Hindu literature having the same name.

Similarly a common mistake made by many people is to conflate 1 place with another because of similar names. For example, there are 2 Mandakini rivers, 2 Narmada rivers, 2 Vindhya mountain ranges, 3 Gokarna tirths, 3 Potalas, multiple Dwarkas, multiple 'Lankas', and several Gangas.

Another interpretation with names that must sometimes be made is with certain persons. 'Indra' is used to refer to many leaders of the Devas who also govern any of the Swargas. Some Indras have been recorded by names as leaders of different eras, such as Purandara of the Satya Yuga and Mahabali to be an Indra in the future. 'Mahabali' itself is also sometimes a title for any ruler of Vitala-loka just as the original Mahabali Vairocana was. Kubera has been used to refer to people in his lineage. Another example is how Hanuman is called "Pavana-putra" (Son of air) or the son of Vayu (Air) in the Valmiki Ramayana, not because he was the son of the Deva Vayu but because his father's name was Pavana, meaning air. Valmiki built on that fact to make it a pun.

The meanings of stories have to be interpreted in the proper context and judgement must be made when to take a story literally and when figuratively. For example, the Vamana Purana[2] states that sages Pitambara and Markendaya brought the Sarasvati River down from Swarga to Puskara city and the Kurukshetra region. This means that the rṣis built 2 important tirths or (places of pilgrimage) along the course of the river at Puskara and Kurukshetra, and that the rivers origins are in Himalayas (i.e., Swarga-loka.) Another example is the story of Mandapala in the Mahabharata. He was a childless saint who, after his asceticism, "died" and went to the abode of Yama (i.e., Central Kashmir.) There he assumed the form of a Sarngika bird and from a female of that species who was named Jarita had 4 children. The explanation of this myth is that sage Mandapala retired to Yamaraj and there married Jarita of the Sarngika totemic tribe and procreated 4 offspring.

Persons were depicted and described totemically so that Hindus could easily identify them from the vast array of historical figures. Even on flags, animal symbols were the most common icons. Asura Bali's flag contained a serpent, Hanuman's of a monkey, Krishna's varying between Hanuman's flag in the Mahabharata and a flag of Garuda during his war with Bali, and Skanda's is of a hen. Totemic tribal identification was common in the ancient era, and there were different tribes represented by the same animal. For example, both Dandaśūkas (offspring of Krodhavaśā and Kashyapa) and Nagas (offspring of Kadru and Kashyapa) had the snake totem, while Kashyapa's wives Tāmrā, Pataṅgī, and Vinatā gave birth to birds, and the Matangas and Gajas both had the elephant totem.

Most places are mythologized as being in another realm but are exaggerated descriptions of locations. One can see the remnants of totemic tribes' chiefdoms as typonyms, mentioned historically in texts and modern as placenames as well. Garuda Valley was actually a place on the Sutlej River. The Zhang Zhung Kingdom's capital is mentioned in Tibetan texts as Khyunglung Ngulkhar - the Silver Palace of the Garuda Valley.[3]

Pātalas and Swargas as regions within India

See also: Kingdoms of Asura Dominance, Yama's kingdom is in Kashmir, Zarathustra was born in Kashmir, Olmo Lungring is in Karakoram, History of ancient geography
Hindu Mythology Explained
Vyâsa said : “O King! On the top of the mountain Sumeru, are located the Indra's heavens called Amarâvati (the abode of the Immortals) the Samyamanî city of Yama, the Satyaloka, the Vahniloka, the Kailâsa, Vaikuntha the abode of Visnu, and others."
Hindu Mythology Explained

—Mahabharata 8.6.16[4]

Although these paradises, all termed 'lokas' (worlds or realms) have been made to appear as unearthly heavens, they are regions adjacent to 1 another as is evident from their geographic descriptions. This can be seen by people moving from region to region and physical features, such as mountains and rivers, which run course through them. An example is the Yamuna River described as leading Sita to Rasātala. Another example is of the deluge that impacted Shraddhadeva Manu wherein "the earthly paradise" or Bhu-loka, Bhuvar-loka and Swarga-loka were flooded.

Several paradises have been mentioned, and in many cases they've been identified with individuals. For example, Sukhavati with the Bodhisattva Amitabha, Shambhala with Manjushri, and Olmo Lungring with Shenrab.

Disguising as Brahmans

There are several stories wherein a person is described as having taken the form of a Brahman. This alludes to the person in question actually being a Brahman. For example, in 1 story Virocana is said to have given his own head in the form of a Brahman to Indra as a gift. This means that Virocana (who was never described as a Brahman in any text) has given his head- or chief-priest to Indra as a gift. Similarly, Gautama Buddha was shielded by torrential rainfall by Naga King Mucalinda in the form of a Brahman. This means that either the Naga king himself was a Brahman who offered Buddha refuge or that 1 of the king's Brahmans was ordered to do so.

Animal sacrifices

See also: Animal rights, Animal sacrifices, Ethics in Hinduism

The sacrifices recommended for spiritual prosperity are metaphorical, which some mainstream scriptures, such as Mahabharata and Puranas, as well as Jain and Buddhist ones, elaborate.


Totemic demonyms

Hindu Mythology Explained
Achala Muni was born of an elephant, and Kesa Pingala of an owl, and Agastya Muni from the Agasti flower, and Kushika Muni from the kusa grass, and Kapila from a monkey, and Gautam Rṣi from a creeper that entwined a saul tree, and Drona Acharya from an earthen pot, and Trittiri Rṣi from a partridge, and Parswa Rama from dust, and Sringa Rṣi from a deer, and Vyasa Muni from a fisherwoman...
Hindu Mythology Explained

—Ashu Ghosha, Vajra Suchi [5]

Hindus since the prehistoric ages have symbolically named their children after animals. This is known in western languages as 'theriomorphy' and as 'zoomorphy'. Even demonyms of gotras and tribes are totemic, such as those mentioned in the Rig Veda and other early scriptures as the Upanishads. Notable in the Rig Veda are the Gotamas (Oxen), Kaushikas (Owls), Mandukyas (Frog-sons), Paravatas (Turtle-doves), Sunakas (Doggies), Vatans (Calves), and Vatsavats (Possessing calves.)[6] Some aggressor invader tribes of the Dasarajna War whom King Sudas and his Bharata tribe had triumphed over were the Ajas (Goats), Alinas (Bees), Kikatas (Horses), Matsyas (Fish), Pārāvata (Turtle-doves), Simyu (Lion cubs), and Visanin (Horned.) Other tribes mentioned in the Rig Veda include the Abhira (Serpents) and Nagas (Serpents.)

Further, 'Kashyapa' means tortoise, while 'Matanga' means elephant, and 'Bharadwaja' means skylark'.'

Furthermore animal emblems remained very popular in use by monarchs on their dynasty's flags, including Chola Dynasty's tiger flag, Ratlam's Hanuman flag, and Seraikella's Garuda, lion, and swans flag.

Hybrid iconography of people in Hindu history

Vanaras as monkeys

Krishna and Arjuna during the Mahabharata War on the chariot mounted with Hanuman's flag.

Hanuman belonged to the Kishkindha tribe whose flag has a monkey as its emblem. In fact the Jain Ramayanas call the Kishkindha Kingdom to which Hanuman belonged "Vanara-dhvaja Rajya" (Monkey-flag Kingdom.)

Hanuman of course was an Adivasi (tribal) soldier of the Kishkindha Dynasty.

In the Jain Ramayanas, such as the Paumarcharyam and Trishashtishalaka-Purusha Charitra, neither Hanuman nor Anjana (his mother) are monkeys but mere humans, as are the rakshasas and people such as, Jambavan and Garuda. They mention that the Vidyadharas sport monkey flags.

Rksas as bears

Jambavat was the 'Bear' among the Vanaras, who lived in the Kishkindha kingdom and fought on the side of the Rama together with the Varanas. Today there is a Peer Kho cave temple, in the city of Jammu overlooking the Tawi stream, which is said to be where Jambavat meditated. Tibetan scriptures write of a people called 'kosa' in the general northwest region of the Subcontinent as who had bodies like men, the faces of bears, and claws of iron.[7] In various scriptures, the Kosha tribe appears under names of its people, such as Dom.gyi.mgo.can (Skt: Rksavaktra), Bear-headed one. That these 'heads' were mere masks can be seen in the description of Buddhist Saint Dorje Badane whose 3 dancers wear the masks of a lion, leopard, and bear.[8] A Naga (or klu-bdud) named Jo-bo-klu-bdud-mched-dgu is said to have had 9 black bear companions.[9]

The demonym 'Rksa' (or 'Riksha') implies that the tribe lives by the Riksha Mountains. This is in conformity with the geography of the Ramayana.

Vishnu's avatars depicted as animal-like


Matsya was the person who helped secure Prince Vaivasvata Manu during the deluge that endangered the life of the monarch. Matsya means Fish and he is depicted as such but he was a fisherman who would have known where to guide the boat of Manu during the flood.


Kurma was a turtle in afloat in a sea atop of whom was mounted Mt. Mandara as the Devas and Asuras twist Vasuki by pulling in a tug of war. Kurma means turtle, as does the name Kashyapa. Puranas refer to Kurma also as Kashyapa. We know that several seers had their tirthas and ashrams at the foot of a mountain. What this story is saying is that at the bottom of Mt. Mandara by Sage Kashyapa's hermitage the Devas and Asuras partook in their competition for supremacy.

One can see that Kurma is just a metaphor for Kashyapa. There is a pilgrimage in Andhra Pradesh named Kurma arama, Turtle Grove, in the vollage of Kotipalli, which by legend is visited by the Vedic rsi Kashyapa. This means that a sage of the Kashyapa often travelled to the sanctuary.

Further, the Satapatha Brahmana declares, "Prajapati having assumed the form of a tortoise (Kurma), created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot); hence the word Kurma." This is alluding to Kashyapa being the patriarch of several tribes; Nagas, Yakshas, and others.


Varaha was the name of the soldier that defeated the Daitya Hiranyaksha. The name itself means boar. The story entails a princess named Bhu (Earth) being kidnapped by Hiranyaksha and held captive in the Daitya realm of Rasātala. Hence, the story was condensed to a demon having taken 'the earth' to the underworld, and a boar then came to fight the demon to save the world.

Varaha-kshetra or Varaha's land is in Kashmir, more specifically in Baramulla as the very name of the district is Varaha. Other places, such as Wā'rāgām[10] and the Nilamata Purana mentions a Varaha-tirtha for pilgrimage. King Lalitaditya (724-761 CE) according to the Rajatarangini is said to have built a Maha-Varaha temple at Parihasapura (modern Paraspor.) There are 2 noteworthy images depicting Varaha in Devasar. According to the Vishnudharmottara Purana, Nrvaraha (like Vishnu) should be represented on Seṣa.

Hindu Mythology Explained
He (Varaha) was besmeared all over his body with the blood of the Daitya (Hiranyaksha); and thus He came up from the Rasâtala and placed the earth on the waters. He then went away to His Vaikuntha abode.
Hindu Mythology Explained

—Bhagavatam 2.34-38[11]


Narasimha had slain Hiranyaksha's brother Hiranyakashipu. He is depicted as half-man and half-lion. Either Narasimha was indeed the soldier's first name or his full name was Nara Simha. Lion is a common name whether it's 'Simha', 'Singh', 'Singhania', or another world. Nara itself is a name which many Hindus are given. Nara was also name to another Vishnu avatar. It is noteworthy that Narasimha was also a Sarabha, a tribe native to the Karakoram (in Hari-varṣa), where Hiranyaksha ruled from. Sarabhas were associated with lions and griffons.


Hayagriva (also called Hayasiras) is usually depicted as half-man-half-horse because the name itself means horse-necked. It is a common name of Hindus, even today. Hayagriva was a Kinnara, a tribe which has existed in the Himalayas per Puranic accounts. They have been depicted as horse-headed (and as half-birds too) by scriptures because the horse is 1 of the totemic symbols of this tribe. Hayagriva and Hayaśirā are also the names of the son and granddaughter of Danu[12] because a Danava had married a Hayagriva.

Other notable, Hayagriva-Kinnaras include Turanga-vaktra (or Turanga-vadana) the horse-faced charioteer of Indra's Swarga. Dadhikra, Tarksya, Paidva, and Etasa are also noteworthy.

A Hayagriva that was a raksasa was Keshi, whom Krishna slayed. Hence, Krishna is called Keshava. Another prior to that raksasa was simply called Hayagriva and he had stolen the Vedas from Brahma. Matsya then recovered them.

The Hayaširsa Pañcarātra credits a Hayagriva with the expounding of the pañcarātra vidyā (pañcarātra knowledge.) The Visnudharmottara Purāna writes of him as a form of Sañkarsana (Vishnu), who is associated with knowledge, in particular with the pañcarātra knowledge. He is considered the master of the krama and akshara vibhaga, and 1 source states he was taught the krama method of receiving hymns by Galava Bahhravya.

They might be descended from Kāṣṭhā, who had married Kashyapa and gave birth to the tribe of the 'horse.'[13]

Rudras as bulls

Shiva's attendant named Nandi is always represented in temples as a bull and Shiva himself is described as a bull. Why? Because the Rudras are the children of the cow-tribeswoman Surabhi and Kashyapa. The males of the Rudra tribe identify with the bull totem while the females with the cow.

Hindu Mythology Explained
May we not anger you, Rudra, with our homage, nor with ill-praise, O bull, nor with joint invocation!
Hindu Mythology Explained

—Rig Veda 2.33.4

Indra as a bull

Indra as early as the Rig Vedic scriptures is mentioned as a bull in many.

Hindu Mythology Explained
They who pervaded earth's extremest limit subdued not with their charms the Wealth-bestower:

Indra, the Bull, made his ally the thunder, and with its light milked cows from out the darkness.

Hindu Mythology Explained

Rig Veda 1.33.10

Hindu Mythology Explained
The Heifer hath brought forth the Strong, the Mighty, the unconquerable Bull, the furious Indra.
Hindu Mythology Explained

Rig Veda 4.18.10

Guhyakas as half-birds and half-elephants

Guhyaka chief Revanta

Guhyakas, like Yakshas, are normally described as attendants of Kubera.

They are of a few kinds; Ganas and Mattamayurkas are the major tribes among them.

Revanta, their chief, is known from the Rig Veda to have been a son of Surya. Revanta is praised by Śālihotra in his work Śālihotra Saṃhitā. There is still a tradition of his worship during the Navratri festival.

Because the Guhas live in Vitala (Uttarakhand) and Skanda was one of them, scriptures also name him 'Guha' and Guhapriyā. They are associated with birds. Guhas have historically also been called Mattamayurkas (Wild Peacock) as the peacock is usually the bird associated with them and the kingdom they controlled was called Bahudhanyaka.

Another popular Guhyaka is Sahkhacuda, an attendant of Kubera.

Association with peacocks

Guhyakas have also been described as half-birds and half-horses.

The peacock is the bird that the Guhyakas particularly identify with.

Aiyangar Narayan has pointed out that the peacock is associated with Shiva. He is called Nilakantha[14], a name of the peacock as well. He is called Mahanata, Great Dancer and the peacock dances.[15]

Ganesh depicted with elephant's head
Symbolic representations of animal headdresses and masks from various cultures, similar to how Indians depicted Ganesh.

The traditional stories about Ganesh having acquired an 'elephant-head' externally from Shiva having placed it onto Ganesh are popular.

In the world's tribal communities, animal headdresses have been popular, especially for priests to act as intermediaries to communicate between human and nature.

We know that Gajasura was slain in battle by Shiva and his 'head' was placed atop Ganesh's body. This story is saying that the headdress crown of the Gaja tribe's chief Gajasura was taken by Shiva after the former's defeat and Shiva crowned Ganesh as the chief of the Ganas. Hence, Ganesh's title 'Ganapati' (Lord of the Ganas.) There is even a mountain in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand called Hathi Parbat (Elephant Peak.)

Other venerated persons from Ganesh's tribe are Manibhadra, who is also worshiped in Jainism, and Rakta Jambhala, who is worshiped exclusively in Vajrayana Buddhism. Because Rakta Jambhala is of the Gana tribe, he too is called Ganapati.

Skanda depicted with elephant's head

Skanda also had ancestry of the Ganas, which is why he too like Ganesh is depicted with an elephant head. Hence, one of his titles is 'Ganaswami'.

Garudas as half-birds

Garuda was the name of a sub-tribe among the Kinnara who were descended from Vinatā, a wife of Rṣi Kashyapa. Hence, this was a totemic title. The person Garuda is depicted as a half-man-half-bird. Garudas have also been called Suparnas because Suparna was an important Garuda.

The Ramayana mentions Suparnas (Beautifully-winged.) Suparna is also mentioned in the Rig Veda as a sun-bird.

Sumukha was the son of Suparna. In Persian texts, such as the Mazdaen Zadspram and Firdausi's Shahnameh, Sumukha becomes Simurgha. Further, as there have been several Garudas in the Himalayan regions, including in Tibet, the Sumukha-dharani Buddhist scripture appears to have been compiled by 1.

Whereas Kinnaras are mainly depicted as horse-headed (Hayagrivas) in Vaishnava scriptures, in Buddhist Jatakas they are usually Garudas.

Garudas were the offspring of Kashyapa by Vinatā. Their sister-tribe by Vinatā is Aruna.

Grdhras as vultures

Grdhras like Jatayu were good, while Grdhrayatu was a raksasa.

Grdhrakuta (Vulture's Peak) was Gautam Buddha's favorite retreat and he gave many of his sermons there.

Sarabhas as griffons

Sarabha incarnation of Shiva.

Sarabha is also a totemic tribe name. The most notable of whom is Sarabha, also known as Suluvesa who fought Narasimha after the latter had gotten out of control.

The Shabara-swamin is a commentary by sage Yudhishthira Mimamsaka on the Mimimsa Sutra of Rṣi Jaimini. The Mimamsa-Shabara-Bhashyam is a commentary by Halligrama Subha Shastri.

Just as Singh and other lion-associated surnames are used by mainly Indians of northwestern regions, so is Sarabha. An example is Kartar Singh Sarabha, a Sikh member of the Ghadar Party who was martyred fighting for the cause of India's independence in the 20th century.

Sarabhas may have been descended originally from Yama because both are of the Karakoram region and one of Yama's sons was named Sarabha.

Nagas as serpents

The most popular tribe that is mentioned in scriptures and legends is that of the Nagas. The most popular among them are Krishna, Balarama, Vasuki, and Sesha. Neminatha was the cousin of Krishna and is also often depicted with a canopy of serpents.

The Naga has historically appeared on banners of non-Nagas too. For example, Emperor Mahabali had it on his flag even though Nagas themselves were politically and militarily aligned with Krishna at the time.

Nagas are the descendants of Kashyapa by Kadru. They had Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka and Nahusha as children. Vasuki is the ruler of the Pātala-loka of Rasātala while Takśaka has his own city in the Pātala-loka of Sutala. From Nahusha's lineage descended Krishna, Balarama, and Neminatha. Apart from them, there have been other Nagas renowned for their spirituality. The Rig Veda mentions them. They include Arbudkadraveya Naga, Jatakarna Erwata, Sarprajni. Vrtra in the Rig Veda was also a Naga (called also "Ahi Budhnya" or Serpent of the Bottom) but he became an enemy of Indra. (While the Rig Veda demonizes him as a monster, the later scriptures (i.e., Mahabharata and Bhagavatam) explain that he was a Brahman or priest.) Ṣiṣnadevas are also mentioned as a spiritual group who wear "asnatani sutrani" or starched threads (i.e., snakes around their bodies like Shiva.) The connection with snakes is made because Vasuki is called Ṣiṣna. A group of Brahmans called Brahmabhiras are also mentioned in the Rig Veda. Today there are still a group known as 'Abhira Brahmans'. There is also another called 'Nagar Brahmans'. Today, some Kashmiri Pandits have the surnames 'Nagari' and 'Sapru'.

As Nagas, like the Yakshas, were historically numerous in Kashmir, 2 popular Kashmiri Buddhist missionaries became royal advisors to Balkhan invaders and converted them. Nagarjuna of Sadarhad Vana was the advisor to Emperor Kanishka while Nagasena was to Emperor Menander I. In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka[16], the Buddha is given shelter during a storm by Naga King Mucalinda who covers the Buddha's head with his own seven snake heads. The king then assumes the form of a young Brahman, and gives homage to the Buddha. This story means that the king was a Naga who was also a Brahman.

More dynastic totemic iconography

Flag Dynasty Region Period of governing
India: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka

Kandyan Lanka
Kanker Chhattisgarh
Keonjhar Odisha
Khairagarh Chhattisgarh
Khilchipur Madhya Pradesh
Kochin Kerala
Kota Rajasthan
Lunavada Gujarat
Narsinghgarh Madhya Pradesh
Nayagarh Odisha
Pandya Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
Pal Lahara.jpg
Pal Lahara Odisha
Pudukkottai Tamil Nadu
Rajgarh Madhya Pradesh
Ratlam Madhya Pradesh
Seraikella Jharkhand

See also


  1. Miharban Janam-sakhi and Puratan Janam-sakhi
  2. Vamana Purana 37.16.23
  3. A Handbook Of Tibetan Culture By Graham Coleman
  4. Mahabharata 8.6.16 THE SEVENTH BOOK Chapter VIII On the King Revata and the Solar Dynasty
  5. Vajra Suchi by Asvaghosha TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND [Transactions, Volume III] [London, J. Murray and Parbury, Allen & Co.] [1835] {Scanned and edited by Christopher M. Weimer, May 2002}
  6. P. 164 Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics: Mundas-Phrygians By James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie
  7. P. 490 The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History By Dudjom Rinpoche, Gyurme Dorje
  8. P. 63 Tibetan Religious Dances: Tibetan Text and Annotated Translation of the 'Charms yig By René de Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Dalai Lama V Ṅag-dbaṅ-blo-bzaṅ-rgya-mtsho
  9. P. 266 An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons: With Special Focus on Iconographic Attributes, Volume 1 By Fredrick W. Bunce
  10. East of Drang in Biru; P. 166 Place Names in Kashmir By Shyam Lal Sadhu
  11. Devi Bhagavatam 2.34-38 THE EIGHTH BOOK Chapter II On the uplifting of the Earth by the Sacrificial Boar
  12. Srimad Bhagavatam 6.6.29-31
  13. SB 6.6.29-31
  14. Taitt. Samhita 4.5
  15. P. 225 Essays On Indo-Aryan Mythology-Vol. By Aiyangar Narayan
  16. Vinaya Pitaka (I, 3)