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By Swami Harshananda

Origin of Nigamana

The theory of knowledge developed in the Nyāya Darśana or the Nyāya philosophy has contributed considerably to systems of logic. While dealing with anumāna or inference, the second of the four pramāṇas accepted by it, the Nyāya philosophy puts forward a five membered syllogism of which nigamana is the fifth.

Classification of Nigamana

They are:

  1. Pratijñā - first proposition asserting something
  2. Hetu - reason
  3. Udāharaṇa - example
  4. Upanaya - application of the universal to the particular case
  5. Nigamana - final conclusion, reasserting the first proposition

Illustrations of Nigamana

This can be made clear from the following illustration:

  1. Hetu - Because he is a human being
  2. All human beings are mortal. For e.g., Aśoka, Srīharṣa, Kālidāsa, Tukāram and so on.
  1. Therefore he is mortal.[2]


  1. He is called as upanaya.
  2. He is also referred as nigamana.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore