Difference between revisions of "Pārānanda Sutras"

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<small>By Swami Harshananda</small>
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Pārānanda Sutras
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The Pārānanda. Sutras also known
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as the Pārānanda Kalpasutras, is a work belonging to the tantras or Sāktāgamas.
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It is a work assigned to the period A. D. 900, though some scholars try to push it back to the period 2400-1800 B. C., perhaps identifying it with the Vedic Kalpasutra literature.
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The work must have been composed at a period when the followers of the tāntrik schools were struggling to get rid of a stigma and endeavouring to be recognised as a part of the Vedic tradition. Hence it is that it declares itself to contain the very cream of the Vedas.
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This treatise—which is prose, in the form of sutras—is in two adhyāyas or chapters. Each adhyāya is divided into seven āhnikas or subsections. The total number of sutras is 1585.
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Some of the sutras are short whereas many others are quite long and descriptive.
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The work calls God, the Supreme, as Paramātman. Under him work seven īśvaras (lords) of extraordinary powers. They are: Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Siva, Surya, Gaṇeśa, Śakti and Bhairava.
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Paramātman (God, the Supreme) is the Lord of even the īśvaras. He is the very embodiment of eternal bliss, life and knowledge. His divinity is supreme and his powers are all-pervading. He is the object of worship of not only the jivas but also of the īśvaras.
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The next category of sentient beings are the jīvas or individual souls, who are atomic and infinite in number. They are urged to follow the path of dharma or righteousness and eschew the path of adharma or evil which leads them into hell with intense suffering.
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Three paths of the spiritual disciples
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are described here: The Daksiṇa, the Vāma and the Uttara.
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The first one follows the disciplines given in the Vedas, the smṛtis and the purāṇas. The second one follows the Vedas and the tantras. The last considers guru-vākya, the command of the spiritual preceptor, along with the Vedas, as very important.
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It prescribes a detailed process of dīkṣā or initiation for a disciple by a guru who must be a jivanmukta (liberated soul).
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The jīvas aspiring after liberation are advised to cultivate several virtues like ahimsā (non-violence), satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacarya (celibacy), aparigraha (non-acceptance of gifts), svādhyāya (study of scriptures), bhakti (devotion to God), dama (control of senses), mauna (control of speech), śama (peace of mind), mantrajapa (repetition of the mantra given by the guru) and so on.
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The work, in addition, deals with the dharmas of the four varṇas and the āśramas as also the four yogas. The efficacies of mantras and mudrās (hand poses), the procedure of observing tāntrik festivals and the use of pañcamakāras (See tantras for details.) also find a place
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here.
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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* The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
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== OLD CONTENT ==
 
Pārānanda Sutras
 
Pārānanda Sutras
 
The Pārānanda. Sutras also known
 
The Pārānanda. Sutras also known

Revision as of 09:19, 12 October 2014

By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Parananda Sutras, PArAnanda Sutras, Paaraananda Sutras


Pārānanda Sutras

The Pārānanda. Sutras also known

as the Pārānanda Kalpasutras, is a work belonging to the tantras or Sāktāgamas.

It is a work assigned to the period A. D. 900, though some scholars try to push it back to the period 2400-1800 B. C., perhaps identifying it with the Vedic Kalpasutra literature.

The work must have been composed at a period when the followers of the tāntrik schools were struggling to get rid of a stigma and endeavouring to be recognised as a part of the Vedic tradition. Hence it is that it declares itself to contain the very cream of the Vedas.

This treatise—which is prose, in the form of sutras—is in two adhyāyas or chapters. Each adhyāya is divided into seven āhnikas or subsections. The total number of sutras is 1585.

Some of the sutras are short whereas many others are quite long and descriptive.

The work calls God, the Supreme, as Paramātman. Under him work seven īśvaras (lords) of extraordinary powers. They are: Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Siva, Surya, Gaṇeśa, Śakti and Bhairava.

Paramātman (God, the Supreme) is the Lord of even the īśvaras. He is the very embodiment of eternal bliss, life and knowledge. His divinity is supreme and his powers are all-pervading. He is the object of worship of not only the jivas but also of the īśvaras.

The next category of sentient beings are the jīvas or individual souls, who are atomic and infinite in number. They are urged to follow the path of dharma or righteousness and eschew the path of adharma or evil which leads them into hell with intense suffering.

Three paths of the spiritual disciples

are described here: The Daksiṇa, the Vāma and the Uttara.

The first one follows the disciplines given in the Vedas, the smṛtis and the purāṇas. The second one follows the Vedas and the tantras. The last considers guru-vākya, the command of the spiritual preceptor, along with the Vedas, as very important.

It prescribes a detailed process of dīkṣā or initiation for a disciple by a guru who must be a jivanmukta (liberated soul).

The jīvas aspiring after liberation are advised to cultivate several virtues like ahimsā (non-violence), satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacarya (celibacy), aparigraha (non-acceptance of gifts), svādhyāya (study of scriptures), bhakti (devotion to God), dama (control of senses), mauna (control of speech), śama (peace of mind), mantrajapa (repetition of the mantra given by the guru) and so on.

The work, in addition, deals with the dharmas of the four varṇas and the āśramas as also the four yogas. The efficacies of mantras and mudrās (hand poses), the procedure of observing tāntrik festivals and the use of pañcamakāras (See tantras for details.) also find a place

here.


References

  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

OLD CONTENT

Pārānanda Sutras The Pārānanda. Sutras also known as the Pārānanda Kalpasutras, is a work belonging to the tantras or Śāktāgamas. It is a work assigned to the period A. D. 900, though some scholars try to push it back to the period 2400-1800 B. C., perhaps identifying it with the Vedic Kalpasutra literature. The work must have been composed at a period when the followers of the tāntrik schools were struggling to get rid of a stigma and endeavouring to be recognised as a part of the Vedic tradition. Hence it is that it declares itself to contain the very cream of the Vedas. This treatise—which is prose, in the form of sutras—is in two adhyāyas or chapters. Each adhyāya is divided into seven āhnikas or subsections. The total number of sutras is 1585. Some of the sutras are short whereas many others are quite long and descriptive. The work calls God, the Supreme, as Paramātman. Under him work seven īśvaras (lords) of extraordinary powers. They are: Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Siva, Surya, Gaṇeśa, Śakti and Bhairava. Paramātman (God, the Supreme) is the Lord of even the īśvaras. He is the very embodiment of eternal bliss, life and knowledge. His divinity is supreme and his powers are all-pervading. He is the object of worship of not only the jivas but also of the īśvaras. The next category of sentient beings are the jīvas or individual souls, who are atomic and infinite in number. They are urged to follow the path of dharma or righteousness and eschew the path of adharma or evil which leads them into hell with intense suffering. Three paths of the spiritual disciples are described here: The Dakṣiṇa, the Vāma and the Uttara. The first one follows the disciplines given in the Vedas, the smṛtis and the purāṇas. The second one follows the Vedas and the tantras. The last considers guru- vākya, the command of the spiritual preceptor, along with the Vedas, as very important. It prescribes a detailed process of dīkṣā or initiation for a disciple by a guru who must be a jivanmukta (liberated soul). The jīvas aspiring after liberation are advised to cultivate several virtues like ahiiṅsā (non-violence), satya (truthful¬ness), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacarya (celibacy), aparigraha (non-acceptance of gifts), svādhyāya (study of scriptures), bhakti (devotion to God), dama (control of senses), mauna (control of speech), śama (peace of mind), mantrajapa (repetition of the mantra given by the guru) and so on. The work, in addition, deals with the dharmas of the four varṇas and the āśramas as also the four yogas. The efficacies of mantras and mudrās (hand poses), the procedure of observing tāntrik festivals and the use of pañcamakāras (See TANTRAS for details.) also find a place here.