Difference between revisions of "Pañcānana"

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
(upload missing article from Harshananda)
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<small>By Swami Harshananda</small>
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Pañcānana (‘the Five-faced One)
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 +
Comparable to the vyuhas or emanations of Lord Viṣṇu, is the Pañcānana form of Lord Siva. Pañcānana or the five-faced one represents the five aspects of Siva vis-a-vis the created universe. The
 +
 +
five faces are respectively īśāna, Tat-puruṣa, Aghora, Vāmadeva and Sadyojāta. The face īśāna turned towards the zenith, represents the highest aspect and is also called Sadāśiva. On the physical plane, it represents the power that rules over ether or sky and on the spiritual plane, it is the deity that grants Mokṣa or liberation. Tatpuruṣa facing east, stands for the power that rules over air and represents the forces of darkness and obscuration on the spiritual plane. Aghora, facing south and ruling over the element fire, stands for the power that absorbs and renovates the universe. Vāmadeva facing north, ruling over the element water, is responsible for preservation. Sadyojāta, facing west represents the power that creates.
 +
 +
Iconographical works describe Pañcānana (Śiva) as five-faced and tenarmed. He has fifteen eyes. Seated on a bull he wears an elephant’s hide round his waist and a tiger’s skin as the upper garment. He has an immense body and matted hair dressed up as a tall crown. He holds in his hands the following objects: śakti (a weapon), khaṭvāṅga (a magical
 +
 +
wand), triśula (trident), akṣamālā (rosary), abhayamudrā (gesture of protection), varadamudrā (gesture of bestowal of boons), a fruit, a snake, damaru (hand-drum) and utpala flower.
 +
 +
Sinners can get their sins absolved by worshipping this aspect of Siva.
 +
 +
pañcāṅga (‘[the almanac which has] five limbs’)
 +
 +
Vedic sacrifices were very common even in the most ancient period. However, they had to be performed at certain times considered as auspicious based on the astronomical position of stars and planets. Thus evolved the science of Hindu Almanac, called ‘pañcāñga’.
 +
 +
Literally, the word means ‘five limbs’. These five limbs of the pañcāṅga are:
 +
 +
1. Vāra or day of the week.
 +
 +
2. Tithi or lunar day.
 +
 +
3. Nakṣatra or the lunar mansion.
 +
 +
4. Karaṇa or half a tithi.
 +
 +
5. Yoga or the time during which
 +
 +
the sun and the moon together accomplish
 +
 +
13 degrees and 20 minutes of space.
 +
 +
Vāra is the day of the week (the solar day or the civil day). A day is the period between two sunrises. This period, again, is divided into ahan (= day, from sunrise to sunset) and rātri (= night, from sunset to sunrise). The week comprises seven days named after the seven planets: bhānu or the sun, soma or the moon, mañgala or the mars, budha or the mercury, guru or the jupiter, śukra or the venus and śani or the saturn.
 +
 +
The day and the night are further divided into 15 muhurtas each, a muhurta having a duration of 48 minutes. Half a muhurta is called ghaṭikā (= 24 minutes).
 +
 +
Tithi is one lunar day. It is defined as the day in which the moon, leaving the sun (at the last moment of amāvāsyā or new-moon) traverses twelve degrees towards the east, every day.
 +
 +
The tithis are counted from the day next to amāvāsya as pratipad (first), dvitīyā (second), tṛtīyā (third) and so on, up to the fifteenth which is purṇimā or full-moon day. The same calculation is continued after that, in the same way, ending with the amāvāsyā or the new-moon day.
 +
 +
The first fortnight is called śukla-pakṣa (bright fortnight) and the second, kṛṣṇapakṣa (dark fortnight). Consequently a tithi has to be qualified by this also. For instance, the fourth day after amāvāsyā is śukla-caturthī. The eighth day after purṇimā is kṛṣṇa-aṣṭamī.
 +
 +
Though the exact duration of a lunar day is of 60 ghaṭikās (equal to 24 hours), the motion of the moon being irregular, this traversing of twelve degrees varies from 54 to 65 ghaṭikās. Consequently there may be two tithis on the same unit day or the same tithi can extend over two unit days.
 +
 +
Nakṣatra (= star or constellation) is
 +
 +
actually the lunar mansion. It is the name
 +
 +
of — part of the path of the moon round . 1 the earth which comes to 13- degrees of
 +
 +
the sky. Though the moon travels through
 +
 +
a little less than one nakṣatra everyday,
 +
 +
the day can be called as having that
 +
 +
nakṣatra for that day. The nakṣatra in
 +
 +
its turn is named after a prominent star
 +
 +
or constellation nearby.
 +
 +
Twenty-seven naksatras (from Aśvini to Revatī) have been recognised by the astronomical works and incorporated into
 +
 +
the pañcāṅgas also. (See NAKSATRA for details.)
 +
 +
The next item is karaṇa. It is half of a tithi. Hence there are 60 karaṇas in a lunar month of 30 tithis.
 +
 +
The karaṇas are only of astrological use and have been given different names which are eleven in number. Out of them seven are cara (= moving) and four are sthira (= stationary).
 +
 +
The cara-karaṇas are: bava, bālava, kaulava, taitila, gara, vaṇija and viṣṭi.
 +
 +
The sthira-karaṇas are: śakuni,
 +
 +
catuṣpāda, nāga and kimstughna.
 +
 +
In a lunar month there are two pakṣas or fortnights (śukla and kṛṣṇa). In each pakṣa, on each of the days (like pratipad, dvitīyā and so on) there are two karaṇas. The sthira-karaṇas come only at the end of the kṛṣṇapakṣa whereas the cara-karaṇas rotate in both the pakṣas, the series of seven getting repeated. For instance, after viṣṭi (also known as bhadra or kalyāṇī) come bava, bālava and so on.
 +
 +
The following table gives an idea as to how many times these cara-karaṇas occur in a lunar month:
 +
 +
bava 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51
 +
bālava 3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52
 +
kaulava 4 11 18 25 32 39 46 53
 +
taitila 5 12 19 26 33 40 47 54
 +
gara 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55
 +
vaṇija 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56
 +
visti 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57
 +
 +
The numbers indicate the serial number in the series (1-60 karaṇas).
 +
 +
The sthira-karaṇas get the numbers as follows: śakuni (58); catuṣpāda (59); nāga (60); kimstughna (1).
 +
 +
Works on astrology indicate what type of actions can be performed and what
 +
 +
should not be done when these karaṇas occur. For instance, bava is auspicious for religious acts that conduce to good health; taitila for building a house.
 +
 +
The seventh karaṇa viṣṭi is considered as terrible and forbidden for all auspicious acts.
 +
 +
The last item yoga is defined as the time taken by the sun and the moon together to traverse 13° 20’ of space.
 +
 +
When this amounts to 13° 20’, the yoga called viṣkambha ends. When it is 26° 40’, the second yoga called prīti ends and so on.
 +
 +
There are 27 yogas (making a total of 360°) each of which is given a separate name. These very names describe their nature also. For example: śula, the 9th yoga is like a spear. Śobhana, the 5th is auspicious. Each yoga is said to be presided over by a deity. For instance: viṣkambha (1st) by Yama; prīti (2nd) by Viṣṇu; siddhi (16th) by Gaṇeśa and so on.
 +
 +
Nine of these yogas like parigha (19th), vyatīpāta (17th) and vidhṛti (27th) are considered very inauspicious and hence condemned.
 +
 +
The system of yoga is said to be very ancient.
 +
 +
There are numerous pañcāṅgas in vogue today, being followed by the various sections of the Hindu society. Though scientific-minded astronomers like Varāha-mihira (A. D. 505-587) tried to update their works to accord with the actual positions of the stars and the planets during their times, others do not seem to have done it. As a result, several anomalies have crept into the present-day pañcāṅgas. For
 +
 +
instance the Makara Saṅkrānti (the date of the sun leaving the zodiacal sign
 +
 +
Dhanus or Sagittarius and entering the sign Makara or Capricorn) is being celebrated on the 14 January every year, though the actual transit takes place on the 21st December itself, thus pushing it forward by 23 days!
 +
 +
The Government of India appointed a committee called the Calendar Reform Committee in A. D. 1952, with Dr. Meghanād Saha (A. D. 1893-1956) as its chairman. After examining all the existing calendars, the committee submitted its proposals in November 1955 for an accurate and uniform calendar for the whole of India. The proposals covered both the civil calendar and the religious calendar.
 +
 +
The following are the important recommendations of the committee:
 +
 +
1) The Śaka era should be used in the unified national calendar. The Śaka year 1876 corresponds to 1954-55 A. D.
 +
 +
2) The year should start from the day following the vernal equinox day.
 +
 +
3) Normal year is to consist of 365 days, while a leap year would have 366 days. After adding 78 to the Śaka era year, if the sum is divisible by 4, then it would be a leap year. But when the sum becomes a multiple of 100, it would be a leap year only when it is divisible by 400; otherwise it would be a common year.
 +
 +
4) Caitra (or Chaitra as often written) should be the first month of the year and the lengths of the different months should be fixed as follows:—
 +
 +
Caitra—30 days
 +
 +
(31 days in a leap year).
 +
 +
Vaiśākha—31 days.
 +
 +
Jyestha—31 days.
 +
 +
Āṣāḍha—31 days.
 +
 +
Śrāvaṇa—31 days.
 +
 +
Bhādrapada—31 days.
 +
 +
Āśvina—30 days Kārttika—30 days.
 +
 +
Mārgaśīrṣa—30 days.
 +
 +
Pauṣa—30 days.
 +
 +
Māgha—30 days.
 +
 +
Phālguna—30 days.
 +
 +
The dates of the reformed Indian calendar would thus have a permanent correspondence with the Gregorian calendar. The corresponding dates would be:
 +
 +
Hindu Gregorian
 +
 +
Caitra 1 March 22 in a
 +
 +
common year and 21 in a leap year. Vaiṣākha 1 April 21.
 +
 +
Jyeṣṭha 1 May 22.
 +
 +
Āṣāḍha 1 June 22.
 +
 +
Śrāvaṇa 1 July 23.
 +
 +
Bhādrapada 1 August 23.
 +
 +
Āśvina 1 September 23.
 +
 +
Kārttika 1 October 23.
 +
 +
Mārgaśīrṣa 1 November 22.
 +
 +
Pauṣa 1 December 22.
 +
 +
Māgha 1 January 21.
 +
 +
Phālguna 1 February 20.
 +
 +
Unfortunately however, it did not gain popular acceptance due to the people being habituated to the old and traditional almanacs.
 +
 +
 +
==References==
 +
{{reflist}}
 +
* The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
 +
== OLD CONTENT ==
 
Pañcānana (‘the Five-faced One)
 
Pañcānana (‘the Five-faced One)
 
Comparable to the vyuhas or emana¬tions of Lord Viṣṇu, is the Pañcānana form of Lord Siva. Pañcānana or the five-faced one represents the five aspects of Siva vis-a-vis the created universe. The
 
Comparable to the vyuhas or emana¬tions of Lord Viṣṇu, is the Pañcānana form of Lord Siva. Pañcānana or the five-faced one represents the five aspects of Siva vis-a-vis the created universe. The

Revision as of 09:19, 12 October 2014

By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Pancanana, PaJcAnana, Paycaanana


Pañcānana (‘the Five-faced One)

Comparable to the vyuhas or emanations of Lord Viṣṇu, is the Pañcānana form of Lord Siva. Pañcānana or the five-faced one represents the five aspects of Siva vis-a-vis the created universe. The

five faces are respectively īśāna, Tat-puruṣa, Aghora, Vāmadeva and Sadyojāta. The face īśāna turned towards the zenith, represents the highest aspect and is also called Sadāśiva. On the physical plane, it represents the power that rules over ether or sky and on the spiritual plane, it is the deity that grants Mokṣa or liberation. Tatpuruṣa facing east, stands for the power that rules over air and represents the forces of darkness and obscuration on the spiritual plane. Aghora, facing south and ruling over the element fire, stands for the power that absorbs and renovates the universe. Vāmadeva facing north, ruling over the element water, is responsible for preservation. Sadyojāta, facing west represents the power that creates.

Iconographical works describe Pañcānana (Śiva) as five-faced and tenarmed. He has fifteen eyes. Seated on a bull he wears an elephant’s hide round his waist and a tiger’s skin as the upper garment. He has an immense body and matted hair dressed up as a tall crown. He holds in his hands the following objects: śakti (a weapon), khaṭvāṅga (a magical

wand), triśula (trident), akṣamālā (rosary), abhayamudrā (gesture of protection), varadamudrā (gesture of bestowal of boons), a fruit, a snake, damaru (hand-drum) and utpala flower.

Sinners can get their sins absolved by worshipping this aspect of Siva.

pañcāṅga (‘[the almanac which has] five limbs’)

Vedic sacrifices were very common even in the most ancient period. However, they had to be performed at certain times considered as auspicious based on the astronomical position of stars and planets. Thus evolved the science of Hindu Almanac, called ‘pañcāñga’.

Literally, the word means ‘five limbs’. These five limbs of the pañcāṅga are:

1. Vāra or day of the week.

2. Tithi or lunar day.

3. Nakṣatra or the lunar mansion.

4. Karaṇa or half a tithi.

5. Yoga or the time during which

the sun and the moon together accomplish

13 degrees and 20 minutes of space.

Vāra is the day of the week (the solar day or the civil day). A day is the period between two sunrises. This period, again, is divided into ahan (= day, from sunrise to sunset) and rātri (= night, from sunset to sunrise). The week comprises seven days named after the seven planets: bhānu or the sun, soma or the moon, mañgala or the mars, budha or the mercury, guru or the jupiter, śukra or the venus and śani or the saturn.

The day and the night are further divided into 15 muhurtas each, a muhurta having a duration of 48 minutes. Half a muhurta is called ghaṭikā (= 24 minutes).

Tithi is one lunar day. It is defined as the day in which the moon, leaving the sun (at the last moment of amāvāsyā or new-moon) traverses twelve degrees towards the east, every day.

The tithis are counted from the day next to amāvāsya as pratipad (first), dvitīyā (second), tṛtīyā (third) and so on, up to the fifteenth which is purṇimā or full-moon day. The same calculation is continued after that, in the same way, ending with the amāvāsyā or the new-moon day.

The first fortnight is called śukla-pakṣa (bright fortnight) and the second, kṛṣṇapakṣa (dark fortnight). Consequently a tithi has to be qualified by this also. For instance, the fourth day after amāvāsyā is śukla-caturthī. The eighth day after purṇimā is kṛṣṇa-aṣṭamī.

Though the exact duration of a lunar day is of 60 ghaṭikās (equal to 24 hours), the motion of the moon being irregular, this traversing of twelve degrees varies from 54 to 65 ghaṭikās. Consequently there may be two tithis on the same unit day or the same tithi can extend over two unit days.

Nakṣatra (= star or constellation) is

actually the lunar mansion. It is the name

of — part of the path of the moon round . 1 the earth which comes to 13- degrees of

the sky. Though the moon travels through

a little less than one nakṣatra everyday,

the day can be called as having that

nakṣatra for that day. The nakṣatra in

its turn is named after a prominent star

or constellation nearby.

Twenty-seven naksatras (from Aśvini to Revatī) have been recognised by the astronomical works and incorporated into

the pañcāṅgas also. (See NAKSATRA for details.)

The next item is karaṇa. It is half of a tithi. Hence there are 60 karaṇas in a lunar month of 30 tithis.

The karaṇas are only of astrological use and have been given different names which are eleven in number. Out of them seven are cara (= moving) and four are sthira (= stationary).

The cara-karaṇas are: bava, bālava, kaulava, taitila, gara, vaṇija and viṣṭi.

The sthira-karaṇas are: śakuni,

catuṣpāda, nāga and kimstughna.

In a lunar month there are two pakṣas or fortnights (śukla and kṛṣṇa). In each pakṣa, on each of the days (like pratipad, dvitīyā and so on) there are two karaṇas. The sthira-karaṇas come only at the end of the kṛṣṇapakṣa whereas the cara-karaṇas rotate in both the pakṣas, the series of seven getting repeated. For instance, after viṣṭi (also known as bhadra or kalyāṇī) come bava, bālava and so on.

The following table gives an idea as to how many times these cara-karaṇas occur in a lunar month:

bava 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 bālava 3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 kaulava 4 11 18 25 32 39 46 53 taitila 5 12 19 26 33 40 47 54 gara 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 vaṇija 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 visti 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57

The numbers indicate the serial number in the series (1-60 karaṇas).

The sthira-karaṇas get the numbers as follows: śakuni (58); catuṣpāda (59); nāga (60); kimstughna (1).

Works on astrology indicate what type of actions can be performed and what

should not be done when these karaṇas occur. For instance, bava is auspicious for religious acts that conduce to good health; taitila for building a house.

The seventh karaṇa viṣṭi is considered as terrible and forbidden for all auspicious acts.

The last item yoga is defined as the time taken by the sun and the moon together to traverse 13° 20’ of space.

When this amounts to 13° 20’, the yoga called viṣkambha ends. When it is 26° 40’, the second yoga called prīti ends and so on.

There are 27 yogas (making a total of 360°) each of which is given a separate name. These very names describe their nature also. For example: śula, the 9th yoga is like a spear. Śobhana, the 5th is auspicious. Each yoga is said to be presided over by a deity. For instance: viṣkambha (1st) by Yama; prīti (2nd) by Viṣṇu; siddhi (16th) by Gaṇeśa and so on.

Nine of these yogas like parigha (19th), vyatīpāta (17th) and vidhṛti (27th) are considered very inauspicious and hence condemned.

The system of yoga is said to be very ancient.

There are numerous pañcāṅgas in vogue today, being followed by the various sections of the Hindu society. Though scientific-minded astronomers like Varāha-mihira (A. D. 505-587) tried to update their works to accord with the actual positions of the stars and the planets during their times, others do not seem to have done it. As a result, several anomalies have crept into the present-day pañcāṅgas. For

instance the Makara Saṅkrānti (the date of the sun leaving the zodiacal sign

Dhanus or Sagittarius and entering the sign Makara or Capricorn) is being celebrated on the 14 January every year, though the actual transit takes place on the 21st December itself, thus pushing it forward by 23 days!

The Government of India appointed a committee called the Calendar Reform Committee in A. D. 1952, with Dr. Meghanād Saha (A. D. 1893-1956) as its chairman. After examining all the existing calendars, the committee submitted its proposals in November 1955 for an accurate and uniform calendar for the whole of India. The proposals covered both the civil calendar and the religious calendar.

The following are the important recommendations of the committee:

1) The Śaka era should be used in the unified national calendar. The Śaka year 1876 corresponds to 1954-55 A. D.

2) The year should start from the day following the vernal equinox day.

3) Normal year is to consist of 365 days, while a leap year would have 366 days. After adding 78 to the Śaka era year, if the sum is divisible by 4, then it would be a leap year. But when the sum becomes a multiple of 100, it would be a leap year only when it is divisible by 400; otherwise it would be a common year.

4) Caitra (or Chaitra as often written) should be the first month of the year and the lengths of the different months should be fixed as follows:—

Caitra—30 days

(31 days in a leap year).

Vaiśākha—31 days.

Jyestha—31 days.

Āṣāḍha—31 days.

Śrāvaṇa—31 days.

Bhādrapada—31 days.

Āśvina—30 days Kārttika—30 days.

Mārgaśīrṣa—30 days.

Pauṣa—30 days.

Māgha—30 days.

Phālguna—30 days.

The dates of the reformed Indian calendar would thus have a permanent correspondence with the Gregorian calendar. The corresponding dates would be:

Hindu Gregorian

Caitra 1 March 22 in a

common year and 21 in a leap year. Vaiṣākha 1 April 21.

Jyeṣṭha 1 May 22.

Āṣāḍha 1 June 22.

Śrāvaṇa 1 July 23.

Bhādrapada 1 August 23.

Āśvina 1 September 23.

Kārttika 1 October 23.

Mārgaśīrṣa 1 November 22.

Pauṣa 1 December 22.

Māgha 1 January 21.

Phālguna 1 February 20.

Unfortunately however, it did not gain popular acceptance due to the people being habituated to the old and traditional almanacs.


References

  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

OLD CONTENT

Pañcānana (‘the Five-faced One) Comparable to the vyuhas or emana¬tions of Lord Viṣṇu, is the Pañcānana form of Lord Siva. Pañcānana or the five-faced one represents the five aspects of Siva vis-a-vis the created universe. The five faces are respectively īśāna, Tat- puruṣa, Aghora, Vāmadeva and Sadyojāta. The face īśāna turned towards the zenith, represents the highest aspect and is also called Sadāśiva. On the physical plane, it represents the power that rules over ether or sky and on the spiritual plane, it is the deity that grants Mokṣa or liberation. Tatpuruṣa facing east, stands for the power that rules over air and represents the forces of darkness and obscuration on the spiritual plane. Aghora, facing south and ruling over the element fire, stands for the power that absorbs and renovates the universe. Vāmadeva facing north, ruling over the element water, is respon¬sible for preservation. Sadyojāta, facing west represents the power that creates.

File:Pañcānana.jpg

Iconographical works describe Pañcānana (Śiva) as five-faced and ten¬armed. He has fifteen eyes. Seated on a bull he wears an elephant’s hide round his waist and a tiger’s skin as the upper garment. He has an immense body and matted hair dressed up as a tall crown. He holds in his hands the following objects: śakti (a weapon), khaṭvāṅga (a magical wand), triśula (trident), akṣamālā (rosary), abhayamudrā (gesture of protection), varadamudrā (gesture of bestowal of boons), a fruit, a snake, ḍamaru (hand- drum) and utpala flower. Sinners can get their sins absolved by worshipping this aspect of Siva.