Difference between revisions of "Prameya"

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==Pramēyaṃ==
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{{Author|Jammalamadaka Suryanarayana}}
<blockquote>आत्मशरीरेन्द्रियार्थबुद्धिमनःप्रवृत्तिदोषप्रेत्यभावफलदुःखापवर्गाः तु प्रमेयम् । १.१.९</blockquote>
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{{AlternateSpellings|pramēya, prameyam, viṣayaḥ, vishaya}}
  
<blockquote>ātma- śarīra- indriya- artha- budhdhi- manaḥ- pravṛtti- dōṣa- prētyabhāva- phala- duḥkhāpavargāstu pramēyaṃ। 1.1.9</blockquote>
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The elaboration of the term 'Pramēya' is pramā viṣaya. Pramā means valid knowledge and being a subject to it is pramēya. According to Gōtama the world is of sixteen elements, which were named in the beginning<ref>प्रमाणप्रमेयसंशयप्रयोजनदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्त- तर्कनिर्णयवादजल्पवितण्डा- हेत्वाभासछलजातिनिग्रहस्थानानां तत्वज्ञानात् निश्रेयसाधिगमः(1.1.1-Nyāya sūtraṃ)</ref> of Nyāya sūtraṃ. After defining Pramāṇa or means of valid knowledge and its types, definition of the second element pramēya is discussed. Even though there are many things that might be accounted to be valid knowledge, but Gōtamaḥ mentions only twelve pramēyās or the subject to validate knowledge. These are especially significant because the true knowledge about them dispels all the delusions and lead to mōkṣaḥ/ freedom from suffering; while the false knowledge concerning these topics perpetuates rebirth and suffering.
 
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The elaboration of the term pramēyaṃ is pramā viṣayaḥ. Pramā means valid knowledge and being a subject to it is pramēyaṃ. According to Gōtamaḥ the world is of seven elements, which were named in the first sūtraṃ of Nyāya sūtraṃ. After defining Pramāṇaṃ/ means of valid knowledge and its types, He starts defining the second element pramēyaṃ.
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 +
==Types of Pramēya==
  
==Types of Pramēyaṃ as per Gōtamaḥ==
 
According to Gōtamaḥ, pramēyaṃ are twelve in number. They can be enlisted as follows:
 
# Self/ ātmā
 
# The body/ śarīraṃ
 
# Senses/ indriyaṃ
 
# Experiences/ arthaḥ
 
# Intelligence/ buddhiḥ
 
# Intellect/ manaḥ
 
# Activity/ pravṛttiḥ
 
# Imbalances/ doṣaḥ
 
# Re-birth/ prētyabhāvaḥ
 
# Consequence/ phalaṃ
 
# Suffering/ duḥkhaṃ
 
# Liberation/ apavargaḥ
 
  
There are many things that might be accounted to be valid knowledge, but the above mentioned topics are especially significant because the true knowledge about them dispels all the delusions and lead to freedom from suffering; while the false knowledge concerning these topics perpetuates rebirth and suffering.
+
<blockquote>Ātma- śarīra- indriya- artha- budhdhi- manaḥ- pravṛtti- dōṣa- prētyabhāva- phala- duḥkhāpavargāstu pramēyaṃ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.9</ref></blockquote>
  
===Ātmā or soul===
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According to Gōtamaḥ, there are twelve pramēyas. They can be enlisted as follows:
<blockquote>इच्छाद्वेषप्रयत्नसुखदुःखज्ञानानि आत्मनः लिङ्गं इति। १..१०</blockquote>
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# Self - It is called as ātmā.
<blockquote>Ichā- dvēṣa- prayatna- sukha- dukha- jñānāni ātmanō lingam iti। 1.1.10</blockquote>
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# Body - It is called as śarīraṃ.
 +
# Senses - It is called as indriyaṃ.
 +
# Experiences - It is called as arthaḥ.
 +
# Intelligence - It is called as buddhiḥ.
 +
# Intellect - It is called as manaḥ.
 +
# Activity - It is called as pravṛttiḥ.
 +
# Imbalances - It is called as doṣaḥ.
 +
# Re-birth - It is called as prētyabhāvaḥ.
 +
# Consequence - It is called as phalaṃ.
 +
# Suffering - It is called as duḥkhaṃ.
 +
# Liberation - It is called as apavargaḥ.
  
It means that the ātmā cannot be known by the sense organs, hence it can be inferred that ichā means desire, dvēṣa means aversion, prayatnaḥ means internal effort, sukhaṃ means happiness, dukkha means unhappiness and jñānaṃ means cognition. Then the question arises that from where does these six emotions initiate from. It originates from the ātmā and not body oor manas. As we can sense desire etc. easily, we can infer the ātmā with them.
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===Ātmā===
  
===Śarīraṃ or body===
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<blockquote>Ichā- dvēṣa- prayatna- sukha- dukha- jñānāni ātmanō lingam iti।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.10</ref></blockquote>
<blockquote>चेष्टेन्द्रियार्थाश्रयः शरीरम् ।१..११</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Cēṣṭēndriyārthāśrayaḥ śarīraṃ।1.1.11</blockquote>
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This verse denotes that the body is the place which has cēṣṭā/motion, indriyaṃ/sense organs and arthaḥ/experiences. It has been widely accepted in the tradition that how the knowledge of an object leads to an effort. A person first knows about something and then starts liking or disliking it and then makes an effort to own or disown it<ref>Jānati ichati yatati</ref>. Here the actions which leads to obtaining or leaving an object is called cēṣṭā.
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It means that the ātmā cannot be known by any sense organs. That means that we can not see, hear, smell, touch and taste ātmā. Then can how could we know ātmā? it can be inferred by ichā means desire, dvēṣa means aversion, prayatnaḥ means internal effort, sukhaṃ means happiness, dukkha means unhappiness and jñānaṃ means cognition. Then the question arises from where do these six emotions initiate from. It originates from the ātmā and not the body or manas. As we can sense all these emotions very easily, we can infer the ātmā with them. The inference may be "This is ātmā, because of ichā<ref>ayaṃ ātmā icchātaḥ</ref>
  
===Indriyaṃ/Senses===
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===Śarīraṃ===
<blockquote>घ्राणरसनचक्षुस्त्वक्श्रोत्राणि इन्द्रियाणि भूतेभ्यः। १.१.१२</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Ghrāṇa- rasana- cakṣhustvak- śrōtrāṇi indriyāṇi bhūtēbhyaḥ। 1.1.12</blockquote>
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Here the sūtrakāra states the five indriyāṇi or sense organs namely:
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<blockquote>Cēṣṭēndriyārthāśrayaḥ śarīraṃ|<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.11</ref></blockquote>
# Nose/ghrāṇaṃ
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#Tongue/rasanaṃ
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#Eye/cakṣhuḥ
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#Skin/tvak
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#Ear/śrōtraṃ
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At the end of the sūtraṃ we can see the word bhūtēbhyaḥ which is the plural form of bhūtāt. Hence it can be inferred that the cause for each sense organ is different. The sūtraṃ defining Pancha būtāni/ Five elements are:
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This verse denotes that the body is the place which has cēṣṭā(It is called as motion), indriyaṃ(It is called as sense organs) and arthaḥ(It is called as experiences). It has been widely accepted in the tradition that how the knowledge of an object leads to an effort. A person first knows about something and then starts liking or disliking it and then makes an effort to own or disown it(Jānati icchati yatati) Here the actions which lead to obtaining or leaving an object is called cēṣṭā.
<blockquote>पृथिवी आपः तेजः वायुः आकाशं इति भूतानि। १.१.१३</blockquote>           
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<blockquote>* pṛthivī- āpaḥ- tējaḥ- vāyurākāśaṃ iti bhūtāni।1.1.13</blockquote>
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===Indriyaṃ===
 +
 
 +
<blockquote>Ghrāṇa- rasana- cakṣhustvak- śrōtrāṇi indriyāṇi bhūtēbhyaḥ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.12</ref></blockquote>
 +
 
 +
Here the Gowtama states the five indriyās or sense organs namely:
 +
# Ghrāṇaṃ - It is called as nose.
 +
# Rasanaṃ - It is called as tongue.
 +
# Cakṣhuḥ - It is called as eyes.
 +
# Tvak - It is called as skin.
 +
# Śrōtraṃ - It is called as ears.
 +
 
 +
At the end of the sūtraṃ we can see the word bhūtēbhyaḥ is the plural form of bhūtāt. Hence it can be inferred that the cause for each sense organ is different. The sūtraṃ defining Pancha būtāni<ref>It refers to the five elements.</ref> are:
 +
            
 +
<blockquote>Pṛthivī- āpaḥ- tējaḥ- vāyurākāśaṃ iti bhūtāni।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.13</ref></blockquote>
  
 
Pancha bhūtāni are referred to as five elements of nature. Here:  
 
Pancha bhūtāni are referred to as five elements of nature. Here:  
# Nose/ghrāṇaṃ is related to earth.
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# Nose or ghrāṇaṃ is related to earth.
#Tongue/rasanaṃ is related to water.
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#Tongue or rasanaṃ is related to water.
 
# Eye or cakṣhuḥ is related to fire.
 
# Eye or cakṣhuḥ is related to fire.
 
# Skin or tvak is related to air.
 
# Skin or tvak is related to air.
 
# Ear or śrōtraṃ is related to Space.
 
# Ear or śrōtraṃ is related to Space.
  
===Arthaḥ/Experiences===
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===Arthaḥ===
<blockquote>गन्धरसरूपस्पर्शशब्दाः पृथिव्यादिगुणाः तदर्थाः।१.१.१४</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Gandha- rasa- rūpā- sparśa- śabdāḥ pṛthivyādiguṇāstadarthāḥ।1.1.14</blockquote>
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Five sense organs sense different types of objects via. smell, taste, color, touch and sound. These senses are objects derived from pancha bhūtāni or five elements.
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<blockquote>Gandha-rasa- rūpā- sparśa- śabdāḥ pṛthivyādiguṇāstadarthāḥ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.14</ref></blockquote>
  
===Buddhiḥ/Intelligence===
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Five sense organs sense different types of subjects via. smell, taste, color, touch, and sound. These senses are objects derived from pancha bhūtāni or five elements. Here the term arthaḥ is used to mean these five subjects of sense organs.
<blockquote>बुद्धिः उपलब्धिः ज्ञानं इति अनर्थान्तरम् ।१..१५</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Budhdhirupalabdhiḥ jñānamityanarthāntaraṃ।1.1.15</blockquote>
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There is no difference between the words Buddhi, Upalabdhi and Jñānaṃ which means that the meaning of these words are same. They all represent cognition.  
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===Buddhiḥ===
 +
 
 +
<blockquote>Budhdhirupalabdhiḥ jñānamityanarthāntaraṃ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.15</ref></blockquote>
 +
 
 +
There is no difference between the words Buddhi, Upalabdhi, and Jñānaṃ which have the same meaning. They all represent cognition.  
 
   
 
   
===Manaḥ/Intelligence===
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===Manaḥ===
<blockquote>युगपत्ज्ञानानुत्पत्तिः मनसः लिङ्गम् ।१.१.१६</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Yugapat jñānānutpattirmanasō lingaṃ।1.1.16</blockquote>
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According to nyāya darśanaṃ there are many reasons behind the birth of a cognition. A unique relation between manaḥ and indriyaṃ is also one of them. Not every object related to a sense organ is known except the manaḥ is related with that sense organ. That is why we cannot identify different types of cognition at any given point of time.
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<blockquote>Yugapat jñānānutpattirmanasō lingaṃ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.16</ref></blockquote>
  
===Pravṛttiḥ/Activity===
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According to nyāya darśanaṃ there are many reasons behind the birth of a cognition. A unique relation between manaḥ and indriyaṃ is also one of them. Every object is not related to a sense organ except for the manaḥ which is related with that sense organ. That is why we cannot identify different types of cognition at any given point of time.
<blockquote>प्रवृत्तिः वाग्बुद्धिशरीरारम्भः इति।१..१७</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Pravṛttirvāgbudhdhi- śrīrāraṃbhaḥ iti। 1.1.17</blockquote>
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The extrovert activity which sets mind, body and voice in motion for good or bad. In general, the word buddhi refers cognition but here the sūtra kāra is referring to manaḥ.
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===Pravṛttiḥ===
  
===Doṣaḥ/Imbalances===
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<blockquote>Pravṛttirvāgbudhdhi- śrīrāraṃbhaḥ iti।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.17</ref></blockquote>
<blockquote>प्रवर्त्तनालक्षणाः दोषाः।१..१८</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Pravartanālakṣaṇāḥ dōṣaḥ।1.1.18</blockquote>
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Here  pravartanā means the cause of extrovert activity. Sutrakarā concludes that every dōṣaḥ will be the cause of extrovert activity.
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Pravṛttiḥ is the extrovert activity which sets mind, body, and voice in motion for good or bad. In general, the word buddhi refers to cognition but here the sūtrakāra is referring it to manaḥ.  
  
===Prētyabhāvaḥ/Re-birth===
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===Doṣaḥ===
<blockquote>पुनरुत्पत्तिः प्रेत्यभावः।१.१.१९</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Punarutpattiḥ prētyabhāvaḥ।1.1.19</blockquote>
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It explains the re-embodiment of the Self/jīva in another physical form after death. Birth consists of the connection of the jīva with a new body and mind complex. Therefore, birth is not the production of a new circumstance, but only re-association; while death is not the destruction of anything, but only separation.  
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<blockquote>Pravartanālakṣaṇāḥ dōṣaḥ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.18</ref></blockquote>
  
===Phalaṃ/Consequence===
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Pravartanā means the cause of extrovert activity. Sutrakarā concludes that every dōṣaḥ will be the cause of extrovert activity. Generally the term dōṣaḥ is used to mean an action or an attribute, which results in negativity. According to Gōtamaḥ, as extrovert activity leads to suffering he states the cause for extrovert activity as dōṣaḥ.    
<blockquote>प्रवृत्तिदोषजनितः अर्थः फलम् ।१..२०</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Pravṛttidōṣa- janitōrthaḥ phalaṃ।1.1.20</blockquote>
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The reason behind extrovert activities are attraction<ref>Here Attraction is denoted by rāgaḥ.</ref> or aversion<ref>Here aversion means dvēṣaḥ.</ref> or delusion.<ref>Delusion here implies mōhaḥ.</ref> Any persons extrovert activity results in pleasure<ref>It means sukhaṃ.</ref> or pain.<ref>It means dukhaṃ.</ref> Sutrakara described this as phalaṃ.
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===Prētyabhāvaḥ===
 +
 
 +
<blockquote>Punarutpattiḥ prētyabhāvaḥ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.19</ref></blockquote>
 +
 
 +
It explains the re-embodiment of the Self or jīva in another physical form after death. Birth is nothing but jīva having a relation with a new body and mind complex. Therefore, birth is not the production of a new circumstance, but only re-association; while death is not the destruction of anything just separation. So re-birth is called prētyabhāvaḥ.
 +
 
 +
===Phalaṃ===
 +
 
 +
<blockquote>Pravṛttidōṣa- janitōrthaḥ phalaṃ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.20</ref></blockquote>
 +
 
 +
The reason behind the extrovert activities are attraction(Here Attraction is denoted by rāgaḥ) or aversion(Here aversion means dvēṣaḥ.) or delusion (Delusion here implies mōhaḥ). Any extrovert activity results either in pleasure(It means sukhaṃ) or pain(it means dukhaṃ). Sutrakara described this as phalaṃ. So the result of extrovert activities may be called phalaṃ.  
  
 
===Duḥkhaṃ/Suffering===
 
===Duḥkhaṃ/Suffering===
<blockquote>बाधनालक्षणं दुःखम् ।१.१.२१</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Bādhanālakṣaṇaṃ duḥkhaṃ।1.1.21</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Bādhanālakṣaṇaṃ duḥkhaṃ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.21</ref></blockquote>
 +
 
 +
Generally, we suffer a lot in our lifetime. Sometimes the situation or action, which gives happiness may also result in suffering. Like when we are very hungry a small quantity of food gives happiness, but that same thing may result in suffering when we are not hungry or when we are sick. The Nyaya tradition suggests that the whole concept of suffering is because of not knowing the original characteristics of the elements. So the true knowledge about them would eventually eradicate them. So any type of suffering may be called Duḥkhaṃ.     
  
 
===Apavargaḥ/Liberation===
 
===Apavargaḥ/Liberation===
<blockquote>तदत्यन्तविमोक्षः अपवर्गः।१.१.२२</blockquote>
 
<blockquote>Tadatyanta- vimōkṣōpavargaḥ।1.1.22</blockquote>
 
  
Apavargaḥ<ref>upāttasya janmanaḥ hānaṃ anyasya ca anupādānaṃ, ētāṃ avasthāṃ aparyantāṃ apavargaṃ vēdayantē apavargavidaḥ</ref> is defined after describing duḥkhaṃ i.e suffering. In the āstika doctrine, we believe that there is always a birth after death according to our sins and virtues. This cycle is called sasāraḥ. By contrast, apavargaḥ is a state where one comes out of that cycle and never takes birth. Gōtama states that suffering starts from birth, so complete end of the suffering would only be possible by the absence of birth and re-birth.
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<blockquote>Tadatyanta- vimōkṣōpavargaḥ।<ref>Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.22</ref></blockquote>
 +
 
 +
Apavargaḥ(Upāttasya janmanaḥ hānaṃ anyasya ca anupādānaṃ, ētāṃ avasthāṃ aparyantāṃ apavargaṃ vēdayantē apavargavidaḥ) is defined after describing duḥkhaṃ i.e suffering. In the āstika doctrine, we believe that there is always a birth after death according to our sins and virtues. This cycle is called sasāraḥ. By contrast, apavargaḥ is a state where one comes out of that cycle and never takes birth. Gōtama states that suffering starts from birth, so the complete end of the suffering would only be possible by the absence of birth and re-birth.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}

Latest revision as of 08:17, 26 October 2019

By Jammalamadaka Suryanarayana

Sometimes transliterated as: pramēya, prameyam, viṣayaḥ, vishaya


The elaboration of the term 'Pramēya' is pramā viṣaya. Pramā means valid knowledge and being a subject to it is pramēya. According to Gōtama the world is of sixteen elements, which were named in the beginning[1] of Nyāya sūtraṃ. After defining Pramāṇa or means of valid knowledge and its types, definition of the second element pramēya is discussed. Even though there are many things that might be accounted to be valid knowledge, but Gōtamaḥ mentions only twelve pramēyās or the subject to validate knowledge. These are especially significant because the true knowledge about them dispels all the delusions and lead to mōkṣaḥ/ freedom from suffering; while the false knowledge concerning these topics perpetuates rebirth and suffering.

Types of Pramēya

Ātma- śarīra- indriya- artha- budhdhi- manaḥ- pravṛtti- dōṣa- prētyabhāva- phala- duḥkhāpavargāstu pramēyaṃ।[2]

According to Gōtamaḥ, there are twelve pramēyas. They can be enlisted as follows:

  1. Self - It is called as ātmā.
  2. Body - It is called as śarīraṃ.
  3. Senses - It is called as indriyaṃ.
  4. Experiences - It is called as arthaḥ.
  5. Intelligence - It is called as buddhiḥ.
  6. Intellect - It is called as manaḥ.
  7. Activity - It is called as pravṛttiḥ.
  8. Imbalances - It is called as doṣaḥ.
  9. Re-birth - It is called as prētyabhāvaḥ.
  10. Consequence - It is called as phalaṃ.
  11. Suffering - It is called as duḥkhaṃ.
  12. Liberation - It is called as apavargaḥ.

Ātmā

Ichā- dvēṣa- prayatna- sukha- dukha- jñānāni ātmanō lingam iti।[3]

It means that the ātmā cannot be known by any sense organs. That means that we can not see, hear, smell, touch and taste ātmā. Then can how could we know ātmā? it can be inferred by ichā means desire, dvēṣa means aversion, prayatnaḥ means internal effort, sukhaṃ means happiness, dukkha means unhappiness and jñānaṃ means cognition. Then the question arises from where do these six emotions initiate from. It originates from the ātmā and not the body or manas. As we can sense all these emotions very easily, we can infer the ātmā with them. The inference may be "This is ātmā, because of ichā[4]"

Śarīraṃ

Cēṣṭēndriyārthāśrayaḥ śarīraṃ|[5]

This verse denotes that the body is the place which has cēṣṭā(It is called as motion), indriyaṃ(It is called as sense organs) and arthaḥ(It is called as experiences). It has been widely accepted in the tradition that how the knowledge of an object leads to an effort. A person first knows about something and then starts liking or disliking it and then makes an effort to own or disown it(Jānati icchati yatati) Here the actions which lead to obtaining or leaving an object is called cēṣṭā.

Indriyaṃ

Ghrāṇa- rasana- cakṣhustvak- śrōtrāṇi indriyāṇi bhūtēbhyaḥ।[6]

Here the Gowtama states the five indriyās or sense organs namely:

  1. Ghrāṇaṃ - It is called as nose.
  2. Rasanaṃ - It is called as tongue.
  3. Cakṣhuḥ - It is called as eyes.
  4. Tvak - It is called as skin.
  5. Śrōtraṃ - It is called as ears.

At the end of the sūtraṃ we can see the word bhūtēbhyaḥ is the plural form of bhūtāt. Hence it can be inferred that the cause for each sense organ is different. The sūtraṃ defining Pancha būtāni[7] are:

Pṛthivī- āpaḥ- tējaḥ- vāyurākāśaṃ iti bhūtāni।[8]

Pancha bhūtāni are referred to as five elements of nature. Here:

  1. Nose or ghrāṇaṃ is related to earth.
  2. Tongue or rasanaṃ is related to water.
  3. Eye or cakṣhuḥ is related to fire.
  4. Skin or tvak is related to air.
  5. Ear or śrōtraṃ is related to Space.

Arthaḥ

Gandha-rasa- rūpā- sparśa- śabdāḥ pṛthivyādiguṇāstadarthāḥ।[9]

Five sense organs sense different types of subjects via. smell, taste, color, touch, and sound. These senses are objects derived from pancha bhūtāni or five elements. Here the term arthaḥ is used to mean these five subjects of sense organs.

Buddhiḥ

Budhdhirupalabdhiḥ jñānamityanarthāntaraṃ।[10]

There is no difference between the words Buddhi, Upalabdhi, and Jñānaṃ which have the same meaning. They all represent cognition.

Manaḥ

Yugapat jñānānutpattirmanasō lingaṃ।[11]

According to nyāya darśanaṃ there are many reasons behind the birth of a cognition. A unique relation between manaḥ and indriyaṃ is also one of them. Every object is not related to a sense organ except for the manaḥ which is related with that sense organ. That is why we cannot identify different types of cognition at any given point of time.

Pravṛttiḥ

Pravṛttirvāgbudhdhi- śrīrāraṃbhaḥ iti।[12]

Pravṛttiḥ is the extrovert activity which sets mind, body, and voice in motion for good or bad. In general, the word buddhi refers to cognition but here the sūtrakāra is referring it to manaḥ.

Doṣaḥ

Pravartanālakṣaṇāḥ dōṣaḥ।[13]

Pravartanā means the cause of extrovert activity. Sutrakarā concludes that every dōṣaḥ will be the cause of extrovert activity. Generally the term dōṣaḥ is used to mean an action or an attribute, which results in negativity. According to Gōtamaḥ, as extrovert activity leads to suffering he states the cause for extrovert activity as dōṣaḥ.

Prētyabhāvaḥ

Punarutpattiḥ prētyabhāvaḥ।[14]

It explains the re-embodiment of the Self or jīva in another physical form after death. Birth is nothing but jīva having a relation with a new body and mind complex. Therefore, birth is not the production of a new circumstance, but only re-association; while death is not the destruction of anything just separation. So re-birth is called prētyabhāvaḥ.

Phalaṃ

Pravṛttidōṣa- janitōrthaḥ phalaṃ।[15]

The reason behind the extrovert activities are attraction(Here Attraction is denoted by rāgaḥ) or aversion(Here aversion means dvēṣaḥ.) or delusion (Delusion here implies mōhaḥ). Any extrovert activity results either in pleasure(It means sukhaṃ) or pain(it means dukhaṃ). Sutrakara described this as phalaṃ. So the result of extrovert activities may be called phalaṃ.

Duḥkhaṃ/Suffering

Bādhanālakṣaṇaṃ duḥkhaṃ।[16]

Generally, we suffer a lot in our lifetime. Sometimes the situation or action, which gives happiness may also result in suffering. Like when we are very hungry a small quantity of food gives happiness, but that same thing may result in suffering when we are not hungry or when we are sick. The Nyaya tradition suggests that the whole concept of suffering is because of not knowing the original characteristics of the elements. So the true knowledge about them would eventually eradicate them. So any type of suffering may be called Duḥkhaṃ.

Apavargaḥ/Liberation

Tadatyanta- vimōkṣōpavargaḥ।[17]

Apavargaḥ(Upāttasya janmanaḥ hānaṃ anyasya ca anupādānaṃ, ētāṃ avasthāṃ aparyantāṃ apavargaṃ vēdayantē apavargavidaḥ) is defined after describing duḥkhaṃ i.e suffering. In the āstika doctrine, we believe that there is always a birth after death according to our sins and virtues. This cycle is called sasāraḥ. By contrast, apavargaḥ is a state where one comes out of that cycle and never takes birth. Gōtama states that suffering starts from birth, so the complete end of the suffering would only be possible by the absence of birth and re-birth.

References

  1. प्रमाणप्रमेयसंशयप्रयोजनदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्त- तर्कनिर्णयवादजल्पवितण्डा- हेत्वाभासछलजातिनिग्रहस्थानानां तत्वज्ञानात् निश्रेयसाधिगमः(1.1.1-Nyāya sūtraṃ)
  2. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.9
  3. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.10
  4. ayaṃ ātmā icchātaḥ
  5. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.11
  6. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.12
  7. It refers to the five elements.
  8. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.13
  9. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.14
  10. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.15
  11. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.16
  12. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.17
  13. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.18
  14. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.19
  15. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.20
  16. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.21
  17. Nyāya sūtraṃ - 1.1.22