Talk:/Medical Institutions in ancient india/examination registration and convocation/Registration

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A graduate in medicine had to obtain king�s permission to embark on his professional career It was the duty of the state to protect its people not only from external invaders and depredators but even from the robbers and bandits within as well as those other robbers, bandits and cheats that might rob people of their money and even life in the guise of a friend, adviser and healer. It was to prevent the ravages of the internal enemies that registration of responsible professions such as the lawyer�s and the doctor�s has come into being. This obtained even in ancient India

where the State took proper care to eliminate by strict methods the charlatan and the ignorant but ambitious crook, from endangering the welfare of the people. The men that had studied the science well, had acquired proper skill in the practice and had passed all theoretical and practical examinations could set up practice only after obtaining the permission of the king or the state Such a registered practitioner, who received the approval of the state, entered �� Visikha � (faf^sri) meaning the cessation of the student life (when he had to keep the tuft) and the actual entrance into professional life.


�Having studied the science, having fully grasped the meaning, having acquired practical skill and having performed operations on dummies, with ability to teach the science and with king�s permission, a physician should eater into his profession.


The need for such testing and previous approval of a physician before setting up his practice is explained by pointing out the duty of the king to protect his people from the harm that might otherwise befall them at the hands of false men who easily put on the airs and apparel of the real physician. The existence of such bogus men was considered a blot on the king and the state


Opposed to this are the votaries of diseases and the destroyers of life. These charlatans in the robes of doctors, thorns in the flesh of the whole world, with talents similar to those of mimes and mountebanks, move about in the land through the want of vigilance on the part of rulers.�


�A quack; ignorant of the procedures of oleation and other therapies and of the operative measures of incision, etc., will through greed destroy the lives of the people as a result of the king�s connivance or inattention to such false physicians."


Thus it would appear that in ancient India utmost care was taken to safeguard the welfare of the people from the unauthorized and ignorant exploiters in the name of medical men. They took care to maintain a high standard in the profession by the tests to which the applicants to the profession had to submit In the case of foreigners, they had to pass the same rigorous examination as the final examination before having the permission to practise either by the royal physician or by a council of physicians.

Sukracarya lays down positively that without the permission of the king no physician should be allowed to treat.

Even the veterinary surgeon had to appear before the king for registration and then be allowed to practice.