Talk:/Medical Institutions in ancient india/examination registration and convocation/Theoretical Examination

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Theoretical Examination


For the theoretical test they employed what is known as the �Salaka Pariksa". This was the method adopted at the final examination in Mithila which reflourished during the thirteenth century. (Mithila was the capital of Videha, the ancient seat of learning). The test was conducted as under. The page of the manuscript was picked up by a probe at random and the student was askea to explain the matter contained. This test was equally difficult as the admission test of Nalanda and Vikramasila controlled and conducted by the Dwara Pandits. This Salaka test was a test of the students knowledge in theory.


The final examination was equally difficult. This method of test was also employed for a foreigner coming here for practice. It was the practitioner�s test. Any practitioner desirous of getting registration and the right to practise in this country, had to pass this examination before he was permitted by the State to practise.


�Now a physician should be examined by another physician on eight topics viz , the system and its interpretation, the mam sections of the system and their interpretation, the chapters (in each section) and their interpretation, and the questions and their interpretation, and thus being examined, he should give his answers, leaving out nothing, by verbatim quotations, by explanations of the quotations and by further elucidations of difficult parts of the explanations."


��The question arises - How is the system and the rest expounded verbatim, or with comment or with detailed elucidation?


To this the answer is - When a system promulgated by a seer is recited in its entirety and in the order of its (original) enunciation, then it is said to be delivered verbatim.


When, having penetrated into the truth of its meaning by means of the understanding (a system) is propounded in words that are elaborate or succint (as the occasion may demand) by the method of proposition, reason, analogy, application and conclusion, and in a manner that is intelligible and appealing to the three types of student- mind, then it constitutes an exposition (of the system) with comment.


When the difficult passages occurring in the treatise are elucidated by further glosses, then the exposition is called a detailed elucidation".


This could discriminate real scholars from quacks.

�On the completion of his studies, the physician is said to be 'reborn' and acquires the title of 'physician'. For no one is a physician by right of birth.

On the completion of his studies, the spirit of revelation or of inspiration of the truth descends into the student. It is by reason of this initiation then, that a physician is called a �Dwija� or a twice-born one."