Talk:/Medical Institutions in ancient india/method of theoretical and practical study/Clinical Examination

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Clinical Examination

The greatest importance to practical training is given in the clinical examination of the patient.

�Seeking to know the nature of a disease by direct observation, the physician should explore by means of his sense- organs, with the exception of the tongue. The entire field of sensible data presented by the patients body.�


�Having considered all factors and from all points of view, as far as is possible, the learned physician should, thereafter, formulate his opinion first as regards the nature of the disease and next as regards the line of treatment".


�The physicians, knowing all that is to be known, examining everything m every respect possible and diagnosing after full investigation will never be mistaken and will be able to achieve the desired result ".

�But the wise ascertaining, in every way, everything that is to be examined will never blunder in the proper line of treatment��.


��Thus are declared the signs and symptoms of fatal prognosis in the subject of complexion and voice. He who knows these thoroughly well, will not be confused in the art of prognosis".


"The physician who by palpation ascertains these various palpable signs, will never be confounded in the matter of prognostic knowledge of the life-span of a patient.��


"The physician who perceives these foreboding symptoms of the sense-faculties in their right nature knows the death or survival of a patient.�

�Thus we have propounded the subject under consideration correctly. The student of the medical science should pay constant heed to it. Thus alone, will he become a successful practitioner, securing for himself success, enduring fame and riches.�'

" The physician who keeps on observing repeatedly the deve�lopment of diseases and the condition of the patient will not eir in treatment."


Hence those alone that act after investigation are considered wise."

The wise physician should carefully investigate even the minutest changes in the hypertrophy, normality and the atrophy of the morbid element as well as the strength of the body, gastric fire, vitality and mind.


The circumspect physician, constantly observing the variations in the stages of the disease should prescribe such treatment as is help�ful in attaining the fourfold blessing of therapeusis�.


Caraka is even so particular as to prescribe that the clinician must possess the normal and healthy condition of the mind and hands which are used to examine the patient.


�Therefor the physician who is of sound mind and under�standing should know accurately the diseases from the view-points of etiology and symptomatology etc".


�The physician desirous of ascertaining by the method of palpation the measure of life left to the patient, should palpate the latter�s entire body with his hand which must be in a normal condition. If it is not so, he should get the palpation done by someone else�.


�One who investigates very minutely all these in the determination of the morbid condition as well as in deciding the line of treatment and then starts the actual treatment, can never fail in his task�.

To illustrate the importance of constant practice, Vagbhata compares the medical training to other practical art.

� Practice bestows on a man true insight which leads to success in treatment even as the skill to distinguish between the good and the bad among precious stones is not derived from a mere acquaintance with the theoretical knowledge of gems."


It must be noted that the Guru was accompanied by his students when going for clinical examination of the patient. The following Jivaka�s story bears ample evidence of this fact.