Difference between revisions of "Talk:Dharma sastra-Saṃskāra"

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saṃskāra is a means through which one (person/object) is considered to be fit for certain purpose. Fitness is again two types -
 
saṃskāra is a means through which one (person/object) is considered to be fit for certain purpose. Fitness is again two types -
 
<blockquote>yogyatā ca sarvatra dviprakārā doṣāpanayanena guṇāntaropajanane ca bhavati<ref>tantravārtika, Jaimini Sutra - 3-8-9, p.no.1115</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>yogyatā ca sarvatra dviprakārā doṣāpanayanena guṇāntaropajanane ca bhavati<ref>tantravārtika, Jaimini Sutra - 3-8-9, p.no.1115</ref></blockquote>
#Fitness attained by the removal of tainta (sins).
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#Fitness attained by the removal of taints (sins).
 
#Fitness attained by generation of new qualities.
 
#Fitness attained by generation of new qualities.
For example, saṃskāras such as upanayana makes a person eligible for Vedic study. And saṃskāras such as Jātakarma removes the taint that may have been generated by seed and uterus.    
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For example, saṃskāras such as upanayana makes a person eligible for Vedic study. And saṃskāras such as Jātakarma removes the taint that may have been generated by seed and uterus.
According to the sanātana tradition, there is the tradition of performing certain rituals at the different stages of life which are called as ‘saṃskāra’s. The etymological meaning of the word saṃskāra is ‘the means of refining’. In the present context it means the rituals which are meant for refining the body and soul.  Angira, a sage saṃskāras are like the colors in a painting. Colors in a painting make the painting gradually beautiful and complete. In the same way saṃskāras refine a person peripherally and internally i.e. in the seen and un-seen arena.
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The word 'saṃskāra' is formed from the verbal root - 'kṛ', with the prefix 'sam', and suffix 'ghay'. In the present context it means - 'a sacred or sanctifying ceremony',   
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i.e. The rituals which are meant for refining the body and soul.  Angira, a sage saṃskāras are like the colors in a painting. Colors in a painting make the painting gradually beautiful and complete. In the same way saṃskāras refine a person peripherally and internally i.e. in the seen and un-seen arena.
  
 
<blockquote> “Chitrakarma yathānekai raṃgairunmīlyate śanaiḥ| brāmhhaṇyamapi tadvatsyāt saṃskārairvidhipūrvakaiḥ||”<ref>Angīra smṛti, smṛti muktāphalaṃ, p.no. 72</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote> “Chitrakarma yathānekai raṃgairunmīlyate śanaiḥ| brāmhhaṇyamapi tadvatsyāt saṃskārairvidhipūrvakaiḥ||”<ref>Angīra smṛti, smṛti muktāphalaṃ, p.no. 72</ref></blockquote>
  
==Types of Saṃskāras==
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====Purpose of Saṃskāras====
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The purpose of saṃskāras according to Manu, in the case of dvijatis i.e. brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya and vaiśya is to get rid of the taints acquired due to seed and uterus derived from the parents. In order to achieve this homas (burnt oblations) are performed during pregnancy and by ceremonies such as jātakarma etc. Similar purpose is stated even by yākjnavakya. In vīramitrodaya Mitramiśra divides the saṃskāras into two categories based on their purposes. One type acquires the fitness to study vedas such as Upanayana. And the other does only serve the purpose of getting rid of the taint of seed and uterus, such as Jātakarma<ref>sa ca dvividhaḥ| ekastāvat karmāntarādhikāre anukūlaḥ yathā upanayanajanyaḥ vedādhyayanadyadhikārāpādakaḥ| aparaḥ utpannaduritamātranāśakaḥ yathā bījagarbhasamudbhavainonibarhaṇo jātakarmādi| vīramitrodaya-Vol2-p.no.132</ref>. 
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====Number of Saṃskāras====
 
According to Gautama there are 48 saṃskāras<ref>Gautama dharma sutra 8|14-24, smṛti muktāphalaṃ,p.no. 73</ref>. They are:
 
According to Gautama there are 48 saṃskāras<ref>Gautama dharma sutra 8|14-24, smṛti muktāphalaṃ,p.no. 73</ref>. They are:
 
# Garbhādānaṃ  
 
# Garbhādānaṃ  

Revision as of 15:30, 11 July 2019

By Jammalamadaka Srinivas


The word saṃskāra generally means 'act of purification'. Śabara, commentator of Jaimini Sutras explains -

samskāro nāma sa bhavati yasimn jāte padārtho bhavati yogyaḥ kasyachidarthasya[1]

saṃskāra is a means through which one (person/object) is considered to be fit for certain purpose. Fitness is again two types -

yogyatā ca sarvatra dviprakārā doṣāpanayanena guṇāntaropajanane ca bhavati[2]
  1. Fitness attained by the removal of taints (sins).
  2. Fitness attained by generation of new qualities.

For example, saṃskāras such as upanayana makes a person eligible for Vedic study. And saṃskāras such as Jātakarma removes the taint that may have been generated by seed and uterus. The word 'saṃskāra' is formed from the verbal root - 'kṛ', with the prefix 'sam', and suffix 'ghay'. In the present context it means - 'a sacred or sanctifying ceremony', i.e. The rituals which are meant for refining the body and soul. Angira, a sage saṃskāras are like the colors in a painting. Colors in a painting make the painting gradually beautiful and complete. In the same way saṃskāras refine a person peripherally and internally i.e. in the seen and un-seen arena.

“Chitrakarma yathānekai raṃgairunmīlyate śanaiḥ| brāmhhaṇyamapi tadvatsyāt saṃskārairvidhipūrvakaiḥ||”[3]

Purpose of Saṃskāras

The purpose of saṃskāras according to Manu, in the case of dvijatis i.e. brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya and vaiśya is to get rid of the taints acquired due to seed and uterus derived from the parents. In order to achieve this homas (burnt oblations) are performed during pregnancy and by ceremonies such as jātakarma etc. Similar purpose is stated even by yākjnavakya. In vīramitrodaya Mitramiśra divides the saṃskāras into two categories based on their purposes. One type acquires the fitness to study vedas such as Upanayana. And the other does only serve the purpose of getting rid of the taint of seed and uterus, such as Jātakarma[4].

Number of Saṃskāras

According to Gautama there are 48 saṃskāras[5]. They are:

  1. Garbhādānaṃ
  2. Puṃsavanaṃ
  3. Sīmantōnnayanaṃ
  4. Jātakarma
  5. Nāmakaraṇam
  6. Annaprāśanaṃ
  7. Chaulaṃ
  8. Upanayanaṃ
  9. 4 Vedavratas
  10. Snātakaṃ
  11. Vivāhaḥ
  12. Deva
  13. Pitṛ
  14. Manuṣya
  15. Bhūta
  16. Brāmhaṇa yajnas
  17. 7 Pākayajnas
  18. 7 Haviryajna saṃsthas
  19. 7 Sōma saṃsthas
  20. 8 Ātma guṇas[6]

But popularly the first fourteen of the above saṃskāras are performed in the present times. Deva-pitṛ-manuṣya-bhūta-brāmhaṇa yajnas, 7 Pākayajnas, 7 Haviryajna saṃsthas, 7 sōma saṃsthas are rarely performed that too by selective people. 8 Ātma guṇas are normally imparted by the moral stories in sanātana culture. Antyēṣṭi is also another ritual considered as saṃskāra. Antyēṣṭi is the saṃskāra which is performed after one's death to dispose the body which the soul left. The primary purpose of these 48 saṃskāras is Mokṣa[7] But Gautama says it in a different manner:

Yasyaitē chatvārimśat saṃskārā na cāṣṭāvātmaguṇā na sa brahmaṇaḥ sāyujyaṃ sālōkuaṃ ca gacchati|[8]

One who does not get refined himself with these 48 saṃskāras, is not permitted to the sāyujyaṃ and sālōkuaṃ of the bramhan. This means that he does not attain Mokṣa.

References

  1. Jaimini Sutra 3-1-3, p.no. 660
  2. tantravārtika, Jaimini Sutra - 3-8-9, p.no.1115
  3. Angīra smṛti, smṛti muktāphalaṃ, p.no. 72
  4. sa ca dvividhaḥ| ekastāvat karmāntarādhikāre anukūlaḥ yathā upanayanajanyaḥ vedādhyayanadyadhikārāpādakaḥ| aparaḥ utpannaduritamātranāśakaḥ yathā bījagarbhasamudbhavainonibarhaṇo jātakarmādi| vīramitrodaya-Vol2-p.no.132
  5. Gautama dharma sutra 8|14-24, smṛti muktāphalaṃ,p.no. 73
  6. They are dayā-kṣānti-anasūyā-śauchaṃ-anāyāsa-mangalaṃ-akārpanyam-aspṛhā.
  7. It is the final emancipation, the deliverance of the soul from recurring births or transmigration.
  8. Gautama dharma sutra 8|25, smṛti muktāphalaṃ,p.no. 73