Difference between revisions of "Sixteen elements of Nyāya"

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
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#प्रमाणप्रमेयसंशयप्रयोजनदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तावयवतर्कनिर्णयवादजल्पवितण्डाहेत्वाभासच्छलजातिनिग्रहस्थानानाम्तत्त्वज्ञानात्निःश्रेयसाधिगमः। १.१.१
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*प्रमाणप्रमेयसंशयप्रयोजनदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तावयवतर्कनिर्णयवादजल्पवितण्डाहेत्वाभासच्छलजातिनिग्रहस्थानानाम्तत्त्वज्ञानात्निःश्रेयसाधिगमः। १.१.१
#pramāṇa- pramēya- samśaya- prayōjana- dṛṣṭānta- sidhdhanta- avayava- tarka- nirṇaya- vāda- jalpa- vitaṇḍā- hētvābhāsa- chala- jāti- nigrahasthānām tatvajñānānniśrēyasādhigamaḥ . 1.1.1
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*pramāṇa- pramēya- samśaya- prayōjana- dṛṣṭānta- sidhdhanta- avayava- tarka- nirṇaya- vāda- jalpa- vitaṇḍā- hētvābhāsa- chala- jāti- nigrahasthānām tatvajñānānniśrēyasādhigamaḥ . 1.1.1
  
  
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1.) Means of valid knowledge/ pramānaṃ  
 
1.) Means of valid knowledge/ pramānaṃ  
  
#प्रत्यक्षानुमानोपमानशब्दाः प्रमाणानि। १.१.३
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*प्रत्यक्षानुमानोपमानशब्दाः प्रमाणानि। १.१.३
#pratyakha- anumāna-  upamāna- śabdāḥ pramāṇāni 1.1.3
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*pratyakha- anumāna-  upamāna- śabdāḥ pramāṇāni 1.1.3
  
 
Pramā is nothing but Valid Knowledge, the source of that is pramānaṃ<ref>pramā karaṇaṃ pramāṇaṃ</ref>. Valid knowledge<ref>yathāvasthita vyavahārāṇuguṇa jñānam pramā</ref> is that which reveals a thing as it actually is and which is
 
Pramā is nothing but Valid Knowledge, the source of that is pramānaṃ<ref>pramā karaṇaṃ pramāṇaṃ</ref>. Valid knowledge<ref>yathāvasthita vyavahārāṇuguṇa jñānam pramā</ref> is that which reveals a thing as it actually is and which is
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2.) Object of right knowledge/ prameya
 
2.) Object of right knowledge/ prameya
#आत्मशरीरेन्द्रियार्थबुद्धिमनःप्रवृत्तिदोषप्रेत्यभावफलदुःखापवर्गाः तु प्रमेयम् । १.१.९
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*आत्मशरीरेन्द्रियार्थबुद्धिमनःप्रवृत्तिदोषप्रेत्यभावफलदुःखापवर्गाः तु प्रमेयम् । १.१.९
#ātma- śarīra- indriya- artha- budhdhi- manaḥ- pravṛtti- dōṣa- prētyabhāva- phala- duḥkhāpavargāstu pramēyaṃ। 1.1.9
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*ātma- śarīra- indriya- artha- budhdhi- manaḥ- pravṛtti- dōṣa- prētyabhāva- phala- duḥkhāpavargāstu pramēyaṃ। 1.1.9
  
  
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3.) Doubt/ Saṃśaya
 
3.) Doubt/ Saṃśaya
#समानानेकधर्मोपपत्तेः विप्रतिपत्तेः उपलब्ध्यनुपलब्ध्यव्यवस्थातः च विशेषापेक्षः विमर्शः संशयः।१.१.२३  
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*समानानेकधर्मोपपत्तेः विप्रतिपत्तेः उपलब्ध्यनुपलब्ध्यव्यवस्थातः च विशेषापेक्षः विमर्शः संशयः।१.१.२३  
#samānānēkadharmōpapattēḥ vipratipattēḥ upalabdhi- anupalabdhi- avyavasthātaśca viśēṣāpēkṣaḥ vimarśaḥ saṃśayaḥ।1.1.23
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*samānānēkadharmōpapattēḥ vipratipattēḥ upalabdhi- anupalabdhi- avyavasthātaśca viśēṣāpēkṣaḥ vimarśaḥ saṃśayaḥ।1.1.23
  
 
A conflicting judgment about the precise character of an object, arising from (1) the
 
A conflicting judgment about the precise character of an object, arising from (1) the
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18
 
18
  
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4)Motive/ prayojanaṃ
  
#यं अर्थं अधिकृत्य प्रवर्तते तत्प्रयोजनम् ।१.१.२४
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*यं अर्थं अधिकृत्य प्रवर्तते तत्प्रयोजनम् ।१.१.२४
#yaṃ arthaṃ adhikṛtya pravartatē tat prayōjanaṃ।1.1.24
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*yaṃ arthaṃ adhikṛtya pravartatē tat prayōjanaṃ।1.1.24
  
  
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reflecting upon our motives and clarifying our intent.
 
reflecting upon our motives and clarifying our intent.
  
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5)Illustrations/ dṛṣṭāntaḥ
  
#लौकिकपरीक्षकाणां यस्मिनर्थे बुद्धिसाम्यं सः दृष्टान्तः।१.१.२५  
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*लौकिकपरीक्षकाणां यस्मिनर्थे बुद्धिसाम्यं सः दृष्टान्तः।१.१.२५  
#laukikaparīkṣakāṇāṃ yasminnarthē budhdhisāmyaṃ saḥ dṛṣṭāntaḥ।1.1.25
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*laukikaparīkṣakāṇāṃ yasminnarthē budhdhisāmyaṃ saḥ dṛṣṭāntaḥ।1.1.25
  
  
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from the known to the unknown.
 
from the known to the unknown.
  
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6)Demonstrated Truth/ siddhāntaḥ
  
#तन्त्राधिकरणाभ्युपगमसंस्थितिः सिद्धान्तः।१.१.२६  
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*तन्त्राधिकरणाभ्युपगमसंस्थितिः सिद्धान्तः।१.१.२६  
#tantrādhikaraṇābhyupagamasaṃsthitiḥ sidhdhāntaḥ।1.1.26
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*tantrādhikaraṇābhyupagamasaṃsthitiḥ sidhdhāntaḥ।1.1.26
  
 
A conclusion of an hypothesis, reached and agreed upon by a school of philosophy
 
A conclusion of an hypothesis, reached and agreed upon by a school of philosophy
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7)Factors of Reasoning — syllogism/ avayavaḥ
  
#प्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनानि अवयवाः।१.१.३२
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*प्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनानि अवयवाः।१.१.३२
#pratijñā hētūdāharaṇōpanayanigamanāni avayavāḥ
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*pratijñā hētūdāharaṇōpanayanigamanāni avayavāḥ
  
  
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8)Reasoning and confutation/ tarkaḥ
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*अविज्ञाततत्वे अर्थे कारणोपपत्तितः तत्त्वज्ञानार्थं उहः तर्कः।१.१.४०
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*avijñātatvē arthē kāraṇōpapattitaḥ tatvajñānārthaṃ ūhaḥ tarkaḥ
  
#अविज्ञाततत्वे अर्थे कारणोपपत्तितः तत्त्वज्ञानार्थं उहः तर्कः।१.१.४०
 
#avijñātatvē arthē kāraṇōpapattitaḥ tatvajñānārthaṃ ūhaḥ tarkaḥ
 
{तर्कलक्षणम्}
 
 
A process for ascertaining the real nature of a thing of which the character is not known.
 
A process for ascertaining the real nature of a thing of which the character is not known.
 
A method of arriving at the truth by showing the absurdity of all contrary ideas.
 
A method of arriving at the truth by showing the absurdity of all contrary ideas.
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considered to be a supporting technique and is, therefore mentioned separately.  
 
considered to be a supporting technique and is, therefore mentioned separately.  
  
9# विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यां अर्थावधारणं निर्णयः।१.१.४१
 
vimṛśya pakṣapratipakṣābhyāṃ arthāvadhāraṇaṃ nirṇyaḥ
 
  
प्रमाणतर्कसादनोपालम्भः सिद्दान्ताविरुद्दः पंचावयवोपपन्नः पक्षप्रतिपक्षपरिग्रहो वादः। 1-2-1
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9)Discernment/ nirṇayaḥ
pramāṇa tarkasādhanōpālaṃbhaḥ sidhdāntāvirudhdaḥ paṃcāvayavōpapannaḥ pakṣapratipakṣa parigrahaḥ vādaḥ
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यथोक्तोपपन्नः छलजातिनिग्रहस्थान साधनोपालम्भः जल्पः। 1-2-2
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*विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यां अर्थावधारणं निर्णयः।१.१.४१
yathōktōpapannaḥ chalajātinigrahasthānōpālaṃbhaḥ jalpaḥ
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*vimṛśya pakṣapratipakṣābhyāṃ arthāvadhāraṇaṃ nirṇyaḥ
  
स प्रतिपक्षस्थापनाहीनः वितण्डा। 1-2-3
 
sa pratipakṣa sthāpanāhīnaḥ vitaṇḍā
 
  
सव्यभिचारविरुध्द- प्रकरणसम- साध्यसम- कालातीताः हेत्वाभासाः। 1-2-4
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10)Discussion/ vādaḥ
savyabhicāra virudhda prakaraṇasama sādhyasama kālātītā hētvābhāsāḥ
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*प्रमाणतर्कसादनोपालम्भः सिद्दान्ताविरुद्दः पंचावयवोपपन्नः पक्षप्रतिपक्षपरिग्रहो वादः। 1-2-1
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*pramāṇa tarkasādhanōpālaṃbhaḥ sidhdāntāvirudhdaḥ paṃcāvayavōpapannaḥ pakṣapratipakṣa parigrahaḥ vādaḥ
  
[http://www.hindupedia.com/en/Talk:Nyaya_Introduction_to_Hetvabhasa Introduction to Hētvābhāsāḥ]
 
'''Content List'''
 
#1. Brief introduction to Nyāya Darśnam
 
##1.1. Definition of the term Nyāya
 
##1.2. Introduction to Nyāya prayōgaḥ
 
#2. Constituents of Nyāya Darśnam
 
##2.1. Brief introduction to the sixteen elements of Nyāya Darśnam
 
##2.2. Epistemology or the pramāṇa vimarśaḥ   
 
###2.2.1. Perceptual cognition or pratyakṣaṃ
 
###2.2.2. Inferential cognition or anumānaṃ
 
###2.2.3. Analogical cognition or upamānaṃ
 
###2.2.4. Verbal cognition or śabdaḥ
 
#3. Introduction to fallacious grounds or hētvābhāsāḥ
 
##3.1. Usage of hētvābhāsāḥ in argumentation
 
#4. Logic in Nyāya Darśnam
 
##4.1. Usage of logic shown in Nyāya sūtraṃ
 
#5. vyāptiḥ and its types
 
#6.Nyāya in the traditional knowledge system
 
##6.1. Nyāya - an Astika darshana
 
##6.2.  mōkṣaḥ or niśrēyasaṃ in Nyāya Darśnam (world view)
 
#7. Nyāya - an independent sastra (attributes to make it an independent one)
 
##7.1. Different traditions of Nyāya - navyaḥ and prācīnaḥ
 
##7.2. Application of Nyāya Darśnam ideas in different traditions)
 
(''1.1 Definition of the term Nyāya''
 
  
‘Vātsāyana’ in his ‘Nyāya Bhashya’, the commentary on ‘Nyāya sutram’ gave a detailed technical explanation for the word ‘Nyāya’ and also briefly explained the usage of ‘Nyāya’ . 
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11)Disputation/ jalpaḥ
‘कः पुनरयं न्यायः? प्रमाणैः अर्थपरीक्षणं न्यायः ’ (Kah Punarayam Nyāyah? Pramāṇaih Arthaparīkṣṇam Nyāyah) – What does the term ‘Nyāya’ depicts? Nyāya is an examination of objects by evidence. To understand the evidence that examines the objects stated in the definition, some background knowledge about the usage of ‘Nyāya’ is needed. In a debate generally, we have two or more contenders who present two or more contradictory statements. (Generally these two contradictory statements are not directly known by sense organs – ‘प्रत्यक्षप्रमाणम्’ So the Instrument of Inference – ‘अनुमानप्रमाणम्’ plays its significant role to prove the truth.) Here to prove his statement the contenders use evidence. This process of debate has a logical structure In ‘Nyāya philosophical system’.
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Here we take evidence or ‘Pramāṇās’ to signify a syllogism which consists of five members. 1. ‘Pratigyā’ , 2. ‘Hētu’ , 3. ‘Udāharaṇa’ , 4. ‘Upanaya’ and 5. ‘Nigamanam’.
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*यथोक्तोपपन्नः छलजातिनिग्रहस्थान साधनोपालम्भः जल्पः। 1-2-2
These five members are called ‘Panchāvayava ’. So using these five members to prove the merit of their cause can be called ‘Nyāya’. As ‘Nyāya’ had a predominant place in ‘Gōtama’s’ work it is called ‘Nyāya Darśanam’ or ‘Nyāya Sūtram’.
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*yathōktōpapannaḥ chalajātinigrahasthānōpālaṃbhaḥ jalpaḥ
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12)Cavil or objection/ vitaṇḍā
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*स प्रतिपक्षस्थापनाहीनः वितण्डा। 1-2-3
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*sa pratipakṣa sthāpanāhīnaḥ vitaṇḍā
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13) Fallacious Reasoning/ hetvābhāsaḥ
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*सव्यभिचारविरुध्द- प्रकरणसम- साध्यसम- कालातीताः हेत्वाभासाः। 1-2-4
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*savyabhicāra virudhda prakaraṇasama sādhyasama kālātītā hētvābhāsāḥ
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[http://www.hindupedia.com/en/Talk:Nyaya_Introduction_to_Hetvabhasa Introduction to Hētvābhāsāḥ]
  
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14)Casuistry (unfair reasoning)/ chalaḥ
In the first chapter (1st adhyāya 1st ānhika 1st pāda) of nyāya sūtraṃ all the sixteen elements are defined elaborately. As nyāya sūtraṃ was written in sutra-format(Ref: What is a sūtraṃ? In the tradition we get an elaborated description.. “alpākṣkaraṃ asaṃdigdhaṃ sāravadviśvatōmukhaṃ; astōbhaṃ anavadyaṃca sūtraṃ sūtravidō viduḥ”. According to this, a sūtraṃ has very less number of letters, which always gives a firm conviction to the reader, which has an inner meaning with greater scope to contemplate with and which is faultless. In the śāstrā tradition, we find six sūtra-literature.  bramhamīmāṃsā sūtraṃ, dharmamīmāṃsā sūtraṃ, nyāya sūtraṃ, vaiśēṣika sūtraṃ, sāṃkhya sūtraṃ, and yōga sūtraṃ )lot of information is to be derived from the text. So later on nyāya bhāṣyaṃ explained the details.
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#The contents in Nyāya sutram:
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#Chapter 1.1 (41 Sutras)
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Subject matter and statement of purpose of the text. Four reliable instruments of correct knowledge. Definitions. Nature of argument and nature of the process of valid proof.
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#Chapter 1.2  (20 Sutras)
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How to analyze opposing views, presents its theory of five membered arguments, correct conclusions are those where contradictions do not exist, theory of reasoning methods that are flawed, what is a quibble and how to avoid it.
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#Chapter 2.1 (69 Sutras)
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*वचनविघातो अर्थविकल्पोपपत्या छलम्। 1-2-10
Presents its theory of Doubt. Discusses epistemology, when perception, inference and comparison is unreliable and reliable. Theory that the reliability of testimony depends on the reliability of the source. #Chapter 2.2  (71 Sutras)
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*vacanavighātō arthavikalpōpapatyā chalaṃ
Instruments of knowledge are fourfold, Confusion caused by presumption and prejudice, Sound is noneternal theory, Theory of three meaning of words (vyakti, akrti and jati)
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#Chapter 3.1 (73 Sutras)
 
Presents its theory of body, followed by theory of sensory organs and their role in correct and incorrect knowledge, states that the soul is not a sense organ nor an internal organ.
 
#Chapter 3.2  (72 Sutras)
 
Presents its theory of soul (self, atman), that the essence of a person and source of judgments is the soul, states its “judgment is non-eternal” theory, presents theory of Karma.
 
  
#Chapter 4.1 (68 Sutras)
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15)Futile Rejoinder/ jātiḥ
Presents its theory of defects, then its theory that “everything has cause, and consequences”, and its “some things are eternal, some non-eternal” theory. Defines and describes Fruits, Pain, Release.
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#Chapter 4.2  (50 Sutras)
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Presents correct knowledge is necessary and sufficient to destroy defects. Both whole and part must be known. Establishes external world exists, and phenomenon are as real as objects. Refutes “the everything is false” theory. Presents ways to produce and maintain correct knowledge, Need to seek and converse with those with knowledge.
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#Chapter 5.1 (43 Sutras)
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*साधर्म्य वैधर्म्याभ्यां प्रत्यवस्थानं जातिः।1-2-18
24 futile rejoinders, how to avoid errors and present relevant rejoinders.
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*sādharmya vaidharmyābhāṃ pratyavasthānaṃ jātiḥ
#Chapter 5.2  (24 Sutras)
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22 ways of losing an argument.
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The Nyaya-Sutra has, since its composition, enjoyed a very great popularity as is evident from the numerous commentaries that have from time to time, centred round it.A few of the commentaries are mentioned below:
 
1. Nyaya-Sutra by Gotama or Aksapada
 
Commentaries.
 
2. Nyaya-Bhaisya by. Vaitsyayana
 
3. Nyaya-Vairtlka by Udyotakara.
 
4. Nyaya-Yairtika tatparya-lika by Vacaspati Misra.
 
5. Nyaya-Yartika-tatparyacika-parnuddhi by Udayana.
 
6. Pari-iuddiprakasa by Vardhamaina.
 
7. Vardhamanendu by Padmanabha Misra.
 
8. Nyaiyailaukara by Srikantha.
 
9. Nyayalaiikara Vrtti by Jayanta.
 
10. Nyaya liianjari by Jayanta.
 
11. Nyaya-Vrtti by Abhayatilakopadhyaya.
 
12. Mitabhasini Vatti by Mahadeva Vedanti.
 
14. Nyayaprakasa by Kesaava Misra.
 
15.  Nyayabodhint by Govardliana.
 
16. Nyaya Sutra Vyakhya by Mathurfinfltha.)
 
  
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16)Clinchers/ nigraha-sthānaṃ
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*विप्रतिपत्तिरप्रतिपत्तिश्च निग्रहस्थानम्।1-2-19
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*vipratipattirapratipattiśca nigrahasthānaṃ

Revision as of 10:02, 1 March 2019

Brief introduction to the sixteen elements of Nyāya Darśnam

Sometimes transliterated as: Sixteen elements of Nyaya, Sixteen elements of NyAya, Sixteen elements of Nyaaya


Nyāya darśanaṃ is one among the six traditional philosophies, which consider the vēdaḥ as the unchallenged source of knowledge. As all the philosophies have their own way to understand the world, here sorrow/ duḥkhaṃ is stated as the main problem faced by mankind and liberation from it 'ātyantika duḥkha-nivṛttiḥ' is the main goal of our life. So to attain this goal, the true knowledge of all the elements is primary. These elements are sixteen in number.


  • प्रमाणप्रमेयसंशयप्रयोजनदृष्टान्तसिद्धान्तावयवतर्कनिर्णयवादजल्पवितण्डाहेत्वाभासच्छलजातिनिग्रहस्थानानाम्तत्त्वज्ञानात्निःश्रेयसाधिगमः। १.१.१
  • pramāṇa- pramēya- samśaya- prayōjana- dṛṣṭānta- sidhdhanta- avayava- tarka- nirṇaya- vāda- jalpa- vitaṇḍā- hētvābhāsa- chala- jāti- nigrahasthānām tatvajñānānniśrēyasādhigamaḥ . 1.1.1


This is the first sutra of nyāya sūtraṃ which states that the true knowledge of the sixteen elements/ padārthāḥ leads to niśrēyasa or the mōkṣhaḥ[1].

  1. Means of valid knowledge/ pramānaṃ
  2. Object of right knowledge/ prameyaḥ
  3. Doubt/ Saṃśayaḥ
  4. Motive/ prayojanaṃ
  5. Illustrations/ dṛṣṭāntaḥ
  6. Demonstrated Truth/ siddhāntaḥ
  7. Factors of Reasoning — syllogism/ avayavaḥ
  8. Reasoning and confutation/ tarkaḥ
  9. Discernment/ nirṇayaḥ
  10. Discussion/ vādaḥ
  11. Disputation/ jalpaḥ
  12. Cavil or objection/ vitaṇḍā
  13. Fallacious Reasoning/ hetvābhāsaḥ
  14. Casuistry (unfair reasoning)/ chalaḥ
  15. Futile Rejoinder/ jātiḥ
  16. Clinchers/ nigraha-sthānaṃ


1.) Means of valid knowledge/ pramānaṃ

  • प्रत्यक्षानुमानोपमानशब्दाः प्रमाणानि। १.१.३
  • pratyakha- anumāna- upamāna- śabdāḥ pramāṇāni 1.1.3

Pramā is nothing but Valid Knowledge, the source of that is pramānaṃ[2]. Valid knowledge[3] is that which reveals a thing as it actually is and which is used daily. It can be identified as valid knowledge when it is corresponding to the actual nature of the object as it is.[4] We can also know that it is valid when we successfully obtain the object stated.[5]Valid knowledge/ pramā corresponds to the thing as it really is, and leads to successful utilization thereof. According to Nyāya tradition, there are four pramāṇāni. Namely 1.pratyakhaṃ, 2.anumānaṃ, 3.upamānaṃ, 4.śabdāḥ. Each school of Indian thought has its own theory of the Means to obtain valid knowledge.

  1. Cārvākas: 1.Perception [pratyakṣa]
  2. Mīmāmsakas: 1.Verbal Testimony [śabda]
  3. Vaiśeṣika & Buddhists: 1.perception [pratyakṣa] & 2. inference [anumāna]
  4. Saṅkhyas: 1.perception [pratyakṣa], 2. inference [anumāna] & 3. verbal testimony[śabda]
  5. Naiyāyika: 1.perception [pratyakṣa], 2. inference [anumāna], 3. comparison[upamāna], 4. verbal testimony [śabda]
  6. Prābhākaras: 1. perception [pratyakṣa], 2. inference [anumāna], 3. comparison [upamāna], 4. verbal testimony [śabda], 5. presumption [arthapatti],
  7. Bhāṭṭas & Vedāntins: 1. perception [pratyakṣa], 2. inference [anumāna], 3. comparison [upamāna], 4. verbal testimony [śabda], 5. presumption [arthapatti], 6. non-existence [abhāva].
  8. Paurāṇikas: 1. perception [pratyakṣa], 2. inference [anumāna], 3. comparison [upamāna], 4. verbal testimony [śabda], 5. presumption [arthapatti], 6. non-existence [abhāva], 7. probability [saṃbhava] and 8. tradition [aitihya] .


2.) Object of right knowledge/ prameya

  • आत्मशरीरेन्द्रियार्थबुद्धिमनःप्रवृत्तिदोषप्रेत्यभावफलदुःखापवर्गाः तु प्रमेयम् । १.१.९
  • ātma- śarīra- indriya- artha- budhdhi- manaḥ- pravṛtti- dōṣa- prētyabhāva- phala- duḥkhāpavargāstu pramēyaṃ। 1.1.9


After defining pramāṇāni the sūtrakāra/ gōtamaḥ is defining pramēya. An object of a valid knowledge is pramēya, and it is of twelve types.

  1. Self/ ātmā
  2. The body/ śarīraṃ
  3. Senses/ indriyaṃ
  4. Experiences/ arthaḥ
  5. Intelligence/ buddhiḥ
  6. Intellect/ manaḥ
  7. Activity/ pravṛttiḥ
  8. Imbalances/ doṣaḥ
  9. Re-birth/ prētyabhāvaḥ
  10. Consequence/ phalaṃ
  11. Suffering/ duḥkhaṃ
  12. Liberation/ apavargaḥ

There are many things that might be regarded as topics of right knowledge, but these 12 are especially significant because the true knowledge about them will dispel all delusions and lead to freedom from suffering; while false knowledge concerning these topics perpetuates rebirth and suffering. Nyāya only establishes these principles on a rational basis but does not attempt to dilate upon them. Nyāya does not attempt to explain all that is known about these several topics, that is left for the more speculative systems of philosophy.


3.) Doubt/ Saṃśaya

  • समानानेकधर्मोपपत्तेः विप्रतिपत्तेः उपलब्ध्यनुपलब्ध्यव्यवस्थातः च विशेषापेक्षः विमर्शः संशयः।१.१.२३
  • samānānēkadharmōpapattēḥ vipratipattēḥ upalabdhi- anupalabdhi- avyavasthātaśca viśēṣāpēkṣaḥ vimarśaḥ saṃśayaḥ।1.1.23

A conflicting judgment about the precise character of an object, arising from (1) the recognition in it of properties common to many objects, or (2) of properties not common to any of the objects, (3) from conflicting testimony, and from (4) irregularity of perception and non-perception. Doubt must not be confused with error, which is false knowledge. Doubt is incomplete knowledge which serves as the incentive for further investigation — it is therefore a very positive and desirable quality to have. False knowledge/error may produce an erroneous conviction which sedates the mind by removing all desire for further knowledge or even entertaining viable alternatives. Error is defined as “that knowledge which does not lead to successful action”. For example, it is impossible to fulfil the expectations created by hallucinations. In other words, the ideal world of thought must correspond to the outer reality in order to be considered true. The rules and methodology of Nyāya are to be applied when doubt has arisen, and it becomes necessary, therefore, to examine reality for confirmation or clarification of the truth. There are 4 kinds of doubt:- (1) Perception of common properties or failure to perceive the difference e.g. in the dark a post may be mistaken for a person, or a coiled rope mistaken for a snake. (2) Conflicting testimony of witnesses or news reports, or differing opinions on the same subject by two or more people. (3) Irregularity of perception; e.g. being unable to determine whether water is perceived when it is seen in a pond where it actually exists, or when it is seen in a mirage where it really does not exist. e.g. Hearing the rustle of leaves in the bush and having some doubt that it could be an animal or a human. (4) Irregularity of non-perception; e.g. being unable to believe that something exists based on never having perceived a thing with qualities as described or inability to believe that such a thing exists. Like a kangaroo which is a big jumping rat! 18

4)Motive/ prayojanaṃ

  • यं अर्थं अधिकृत्य प्रवर्तते तत्प्रयोजनम् ।१.१.२४
  • yaṃ arthaṃ adhikṛtya pravartatē tat prayōjanaṃ।1.1.24


A desire which impels one to act Purpose serves as the motive behind all action which may be to attain something pleasurable or to avoid something undesirable. Until there is purpose, there can be no successful action; therefore, a wise person never engages in purposeless action. It is also the purpose or motive which determines if an act is morally right or wrong. No act is of itself either good or bad – it is the intention with which it is done that determines its moral character. Therefore as sincere spiritual aspirants we should always be examining and reflecting upon our motives and clarifying our intent.

5)Illustrations/ dṛṣṭāntaḥ

  • लौकिकपरीक्षकाणां यस्मिनर्थे बुद्धिसाम्यं सः दृष्टान्तः।१.१.२५
  • laukikaparīkṣakāṇāṃ yasminnarthē budhdhisāmyaṃ saḥ dṛṣṭāntaḥ।1.1.25


The thing about which a layman and an expert entertain the same opinion. This is also known as “familiar example” and is a common observation of both common folk and experts. Both scientists and laymen accept the general proposition that whenever there is rain there must be clouds; therefore, such an example can be used in the process of reasoning from the known to the unknown.

6)Demonstrated Truth/ siddhāntaḥ

  • तन्त्राधिकरणाभ्युपगमसंस्थितिः सिद्धान्तः।१.१.२६
  • tantrādhikaraṇābhyupagamasaṃsthitiḥ sidhdhāntaḥ।1.1.26

A conclusion of an hypothesis, reached and agreed upon by a school of philosophy Siddhānta is a conclusion that is recognised as being logically proven by a certain school of philosophy. These are of four kinds of Siddhānta:— (1) A commonly accepted truth — is a tenet which is not opposed by any school of philosophy and which is claimed by at least one school; e.g. All schools of Hindu Philosophy accept earth, water, light, air, and ether as the basic five elements, and smell, taste, colour, touch, and sound as the objects of the five senses. (2) A peculiar truth — is a tenet which is accepted by similar schools, but rejected by opposite schools. e.g., the 3 Abrahamic schools all accept that God creates the world from nothing. All schools of Indian philosophy reject this conclusion, as a something cannot come into existence out of nothing. (ex nihilo nihilo fit). 19 (3) A consequential truth — is a tenet which if accepted, leads to the acceptance of another tenet; e.g., the acceptance of the doctrine that there is a Self separate from the 5 senses, because it can recognise one and the same object by seeing and touch, implies:— (a) that the senses are more than one, (b) that each of the senses has its particular object; (c) that the Self derives its knowledge through the channels of the senses; and (d) that a substance which is distinct from its qualities is the locus of them. (4) An implied truth — is a tenet which is not explicitly declared as such, but which follows from the examination of particulars concerning it. e.g., the discussion whether certain people should be allowed to vote implies that those people are capable of understanding and making political decisions.


7)Factors of Reasoning — syllogism/ avayavaḥ

  • प्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनानि अवयवाः।१.१.३२
  • pratijñā hētūdāharaṇōpanayanigamanāni avayavāḥ


Introduction to Avayavāḥ


8)Reasoning and confutation/ tarkaḥ

  • अविज्ञाततत्वे अर्थे कारणोपपत्तितः तत्त्वज्ञानार्थं उहः तर्कः।१.१.४०
  • avijñātatvē arthē kāraṇōpapattitaḥ tatvajñānārthaṃ ūhaḥ tarkaḥ

A process for ascertaining the real nature of a thing of which the character is not known. A method of arriving at the truth by showing the absurdity of all contrary ideas. Tarka is a method of attaining knowledge of the truth about an unknown or uncertain thing by comparing and then gradually eliminating all the competing suppositions; E.g. Is the Self a product or a non-Product? If the Self is a non-product, it will experience the result of its action and will, on the eradication of the causes of re-birth, attain release; therefore, re-birth and release are indeed possible. If it is a product, these will not be possible, because the Self's connection with the body, mind, and senses will not be the result of its own action, nor will it experience the fruit of its own actions. The phenomenon of re-birth and release is well known and established; therefore, the Self must be a non-product. This form of reasoning is also called Confutation. This is not a method which ascertains, determines and verifies that the Self is a particular thing and nothing else. It simply eliminates all other contesting theories to the supposition it supports; after which Truth is established through the application of other means of Right Knowledge. For this reason Confutation is considered to be a supporting technique and is, therefore mentioned separately.


9)Discernment/ nirṇayaḥ

  • विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यां अर्थावधारणं निर्णयः।१.१.४१
  • vimṛśya pakṣapratipakṣābhyāṃ arthāvadhāraṇaṃ nirṇyaḥ


10)Discussion/ vādaḥ

  • प्रमाणतर्कसादनोपालम्भः सिद्दान्ताविरुद्दः पंचावयवोपपन्नः पक्षप्रतिपक्षपरिग्रहो वादः। 1-2-1
  • pramāṇa tarkasādhanōpālaṃbhaḥ sidhdāntāvirudhdaḥ paṃcāvayavōpapannaḥ pakṣapratipakṣa parigrahaḥ vādaḥ


11)Disputation/ jalpaḥ

  • यथोक्तोपपन्नः छलजातिनिग्रहस्थान साधनोपालम्भः जल्पः। 1-2-2
  • yathōktōpapannaḥ chalajātinigrahasthānōpālaṃbhaḥ jalpaḥ


12)Cavil or objection/ vitaṇḍā

  • स प्रतिपक्षस्थापनाहीनः वितण्डा। 1-2-3
  • sa pratipakṣa sthāpanāhīnaḥ vitaṇḍā

13) Fallacious Reasoning/ hetvābhāsaḥ

  • सव्यभिचारविरुध्द- प्रकरणसम- साध्यसम- कालातीताः हेत्वाभासाः। 1-2-4
  • savyabhicāra virudhda prakaraṇasama sādhyasama kālātītā hētvābhāsāḥ


Introduction to Hētvābhāsāḥ

14)Casuistry (unfair reasoning)/ chalaḥ

  • वचनविघातो अर्थविकल्पोपपत्या छलम्। 1-2-10
  • vacanavighātō arthavikalpōpapatyā chalaṃ


15)Futile Rejoinder/ jātiḥ

  • साधर्म्य वैधर्म्याभ्यां प्रत्यवस्थानं जातिः।1-2-18
  • sādharmya vaidharmyābhāṃ pratyavasthānaṃ jātiḥ


16)Clinchers/ nigraha-sthānaṃ

  • विप्रतिपत्तिरप्रतिपत्तिश्च निग्रहस्थानम्।1-2-19
  • vipratipattirapratipattiśca nigrahasthānaṃ
  • Destruction of the final sorrow is mōkṣhaḥ according to nyāya
  • pramā karaṇaṃ pramāṇaṃ
  • yathāvasthita vyavahārāṇuguṇa jñānam pramā
  • tadvati-tat-prakāraka-anubhavaḥ
  • pravṛtti-samārthya