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Nyāya is one of the prominent branches of learning in the Indian knowledge system. It primarily deals with logic and it is one of the most widely applied subjects across the Vedic, Tantric, Bauddha and Jaina traditions.  It is considered to be one of the five ‘Vidyā sthānas’ or abodes of learning, one of the six canonical schools of philosophy<ref>It means Darśana.</ref> and also a sub limb<ref>It means Upaṅga in hindi.</ref> in the body of Vedic learning.
  
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Nyāya deals with the structure of knowing, learning and debating. Thus as a subject, it is component to all the schools of formal knowledge in some form. To different degrees, many principles of Nyāya are agreed upon by all schools, such as ascertaining the knowable, validating sources of learning, ascertaining validity of an argument, setting terms of debate and determining the outcome of a debate. Nyāya is not prevalent as an independent school of philosophy at present, but its influence can be seen in the most extant traditions. Nyāya plays a prominent role in many areas like jurisprudence.
  
Nyaya is one of the prominent branches of learning in Indian knowledge system. It primarily deals with logic and it is one of the most widely applied subjects across traditions, viz. Vedic, Tantric, Bauddha and Jaina.  It is considered to be one of the five ‘Vidya sthanas’ or abodes of learning, one of the six canonical schools of philosophy (Darshana) and also a sub limb(Upanga) in the body of Vedic learning.
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==Introduction==
Nyaya deals with the structure of knowing, learning and debating. Thus as a subject, it is component to all schools of formal knowledge in some form. To different degrees, many principles of Nyaya are agreed upon by all schools, such as ascertaining the knowable, validating sources of learning, ascertaining validity of an argument, setting terms of debate, determining the outcome of a debate. Nyaya is not prevalent as an independent school of philosophy at present, but its influence can be seen in most extant traditions. Nyaya plays a prominent role in many areas like jurisprudence.
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Indian theory of knowledge can be described into two metaphors. The first one is of a tree whose root is the Veda and various areas of learning are denoted as the trunk, branches and leaves. The other metaphor is of a human body, whose limbs<ref>It means aṅga.</ref> and sub-limbs<ref>It means upānga.</ref> are various areas of learning. Darśanas enunciate the worldviews and outlines the philosophy of life that results in fulfillment and happiness.  
  
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Nyāya is the discipline of logic, which provides methods for inquiry into the nature of world and knowledge, means of learning and validation. It systematizes knowledge into the knowable means and methods for knowing and procedures for ascertaining and validating knowledge. The founder of the Nyāya system was Gautama<ref>He is also called as Gotama.</ref> who is frequently referred to in the literature as Akṣapāda which means eye-footed and Dīrghatapas which means long-penance. Before Gautama, the principles of the nyāya existed as an unsorted body of philosophical thoughts in different types of literature. Gautama formulated these generally accepted principles of time and gave some elaborations wherever needed. His primary work is called ‘Nyāya Sutram’ or ‘Nyāya Darśnam’ where he introduced the philosophy of Nyāya.
  
''Introduction''
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==Prāchīna Nyāya and Navya Nyāya==
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Nyāya Darśnam as a philosophy can be divided into two sections according to time and content. They are:
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* Prāchīna Nyāya - A collection of five books which are called ‘Pancha Granthī’ are considered to be the authentic source of ‘Prāchīna Nyāya’. These were a series of commentary on the previous work, which complemented and elaborated the priors work. They are:
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# Nyāya Sutram of Gotama
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# Nyāya Bhashyam of Vātsāyana
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# Nyāya Vārtikam of Udyōtakāra
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# Tātparya Tīkā of Vāchaspati Miśrā
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# Tātparya Tīkā Pariśudhi of Udayanāchārya.
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* Navya Nyāya - Gangēśōpādhyāya’s ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi is considered to be the first work which began the new era in ‘Nyāya philosophy’. By this time the concepts which were previously dealt with separately in ‘Nyāya’ and ‘Vaiṣeṣka’ philosophies came together. This system was later termed as ‘Navya Nyāya’ or ‘Tarka Śāstram’. ‘Dīdhiti’ of Raghunātha Śrōmaṇi is considered to be the best commentary on ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi’. ‘Dīdhiti’ had the famous three commentaries ‘Māthurī’, ‘Jāgadīśī’ and ‘Gādādharī’ on it.
  
The body of Indian knowledge is described in two metaphors. One is of a tree, whose root is the Veda and various areas of learning likened to trunk, branches and leaves. The other is of a human body, whose limbs (anga) and sub-limbs (upānga) are various areas of learning. Darśanas enunciate the worldviews as found in these, and outline the philosophy of life that results in fulfillment and happiness.  
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Hence we can conclude that ‘Prāchīna Nyāya’ dealt with all the original concepts which an ‘Āstika Darśana’ needs whereas ‘Navya Nyāya’ mainly dealt with only the topics which are useful in debate.
  
Nyāya is the discipline of logic, which provides methods for inquiry into the nature of world, nature of knowledge, means of learning and validation. It systematizes knowledge into the knowable, means for knowing, methods for knowing and methods for ascertaining and validating knowledge. Its elements include identification of right Knowledge (pramā), validation, identifying explanations, methods to establish an argument, and means to identify a valid argument from invalid.  
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==Nyāya as a Darśana==
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Nyāya is considered to be the one amongst the six canonical Indian philosophies along with Vaiśeśika, Sānkhya, Yoga, Mimāmsā and Vedānta. On inquiring about the difference between a normal book and a Darśana, one knows the characteristics of a Darśana. Every Darśana is expected to present its view on the world<ref>It is called as saṅsāra.</ref> and suggest a permanent solution for the problem faced by all.  
  
The term Nyāya ‘नीयते प्राप्यते विवक्षितार्थसिद्धिः अनेन इति न्यायः’(nīyatē prāpyatē vivakṣitārthasiḍih anēna iti 'nyāyah')  in Sanskrit signifies "going into a subject," — that is, an analytical investigation of the subject through the process of logical reasoning. Vatsyāyana, the classic commentator on the Nyāya-Sūtra, defines it as: "a critical examination of the objects of knowledge by means of the logical proof." The Nyāya is also called Tarka-vidya, "science of reasoning," or Vāda-vidya "science of argument."
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According to Nyāya, the biggest problem is suffering<ref>It means duhkha.</ref> and it prescribes a theory for liberation from it. To establish its theory, it has to define certain terms and change the perception of the seeker. In this process, a detailed discussion on the means of knowledge,<ref>It is called as epistemology.</ref> which distinguishes the truth from false becomes a critical inquiry, argumentation etc.  
The founder of the Nyāya system was Gautama (Gotama) who is frequently referred to in the literature as Akṣapāda, "Eye-footed," and Dīrghatapas, "Long-penance." Before Gautama, the principles of the Nyāya existed as an unsorted body of philosophical thought situated in different types of literature. Gautama formulated the generally accepted principles of the time and gave some elaborations where ever needed. His primary work is called ‘Nyāya Sutram’ or ‘Nyāya Darśnam’, where he introduced the philosophy of Nyāya.  
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According to Indian literature, there are four puruśārthas or motives for men:
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# Dharma
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# Artha
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# Kāma
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# Mokṣa
  
''Prāchīna Nyāya and Navya Nyāya''
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The fourth puruśārtha is considered to be eternal, hence superior.  Generally, every Darśana deals with the eternal truth and the way to attain it. Goutama describes that the liberation from suffering is the highest goal of life. According to him, the world is a chain of consequences starting with illusion, which eventually ends with suffering. It has to be broken in order to attain liberation from suffering.
  
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According to the text, misapprehension/illusion<ref>It is called as ajnāna.</ref> leads to distorted views<ref>It is called as doṣa.</ref> that leads to activity<ref>It is called as karma.</ref>, which in turn leads to rebirth<ref>It is called as janma.</ref>. This whole cycle ultimately leads to suffering duhkha. To break this chain Goutama prescribes an antidote to each member.
  
Nyāya Darśnam as a philosophy can be divided into two according to time and content. 1. Prāchīna Nyāya and 2. Navya Nyāya. A collection of five books which are called ‘Pancha Granthī’ are considered to be the authentic source of ‘Prāchīna Nyāya ’. These were a series of commentary on the previous work, which complemented and elaborated the priors work. 1. Nyāya Sutram of Gotama, 2. Nyāya Bhashyam of Vātsāyana, 3. Nyāya Vārtikam of Udyōtakāra, 4. Tātparya Tīkā of Vāchaspati Miśrā and 5. Tātparya Tīkā Pariśudhi of  Udayanāchārya.
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<blockquote>Duḥkha- janma-pravṛtti-dōṣa-mithyājñānānāṃ uttarōttarāpāyē tadanantarāpāyādapavargaḥ<ref>1.1.2 Nyāya sutram</ref></blockquote>
Gangēśōpādhyāya’s ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi is considered to be the first work which began the new era in ‘Nyāya philosophy’. By this time the concepts which were previously dealt with separately in ‘Nyāya’ and ‘Vaiṣeṣka’ Philosophies came together. This system is later called as ‘Navya Nyāya ’ or ‘Tarka Śāstram’. ‘Dīdhiti’ of Raghunātha Śrōmaṇi is considered to be the best commentary on ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi’. ‘Dīdhiti’ had the famous three commentaries ‘Māthurī’, ‘Jāgadīśī’ and ‘Gādādharī’ on it.
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‘Prāchīna Nyāya’ dealt with all the original concepts which an ‘Āstika Darśana’ needs. But whereas ‘Navya Nyāya’ mainly dealt only the topics which are useful in debate.
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Tattvajñāna or the true knowledge eradicates mithyājñāna or misapprehension. As illusion is the root cause of all activity like dōṣa, pāpaṃ, puṇyaṃ, eradication of illusion will eradicate all of them. When there is no dōṣa there is no pravṛtti or cause of birth. When there is no pravṛtti there is no janma or birth. When there is no birth there will be no duḥkha or sorrow. So according to nyāya sūtraṃ, tattvajñāna of the sixteen elements<ref>Goutama divides the world into sixteen elements.</ref> would successively eliminate sorrow.
  
''Nyaya as a Darshana''
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==Elements of Nyāya==
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The elements of Nyāya include identification of the right knowledge,<ref>It is known as pramā.</ref> validation, verifying explanations, methods to establish an argument and means to identify a valid argument from invalid. The term nyāya in Sanskrit signifies detailing the subject with an analytical investigation of it through the process of logical reasoning. It can be explained in the following verse:
  
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<blockquote>‘नीयते प्राप्यते विवक्षितार्थसिद्धिः अनेन इति न्यायः’</blockquote>
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<blockquote>Nīyatē prāpyatē vivakṣitārthasiḍih anēna iti 'nyāyah'</blockquote>
  
Nyaya is considered to be one amongst the six canonical Indian Philosophies along with Vaisheshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. (When we enquire the difference between a normal book and a Darshana, We will get to know the characteristics of a Darshana.) Every Darshana is expected to present its view on the world (samsara) and suggest a permanent solution for the problem we all face. According to Nyaya the biggest problem is suffering(duhkha) and it prescribes a theory for liberation from it. To establish its theory it has to define certain terms and change the perception of the seeker.
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Vatsyāyana, the classic commentator on the Nyāya-Sūtra, defines it as a critical examination of the objects of knowledge by the means of logical proof. Nyāya is also called as 'Tarka-vidyā'<ref>It means science of reasoning.</ref> or 'Vāda-vidya'<ref>It means science of argument.</ref>.
In this process, we find a detailed discussion on the means of knowledge (epistemology), distinguishing the truth from false, critical inquiry, argumentation etc.
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(Problem and the Solution)
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According to Indian literature, there are four purushartha or Motives for men which are 1.dharma, 2.artha, 3.kama and 4.moksha. The fourth purushartha is considered to be eternal, hence superior.  Generally, every Darshana deals with the eternal truth and the way to attain it. Here Gowtama described that the liberation from suffering (duhkha) is the highest goal of life. According to him, the world (samsara) is a chain of consequences starting with illusion, which eventually ends with suffering. It has to be broken in order to attain liberation from suffering.
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According to the text misapprehension/ illusion (ajnana) leads to distorted views (dosa), that leads to activity (karma), that leads to rebirth (janma), which ultimately leads to suffering (duhkha). To break this chain Gowtama prescribes an antidote to each member.  
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===Introduction===
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As Nyāya is a traditional philosophy there are some unique concepts introduced to understand the world in a very logical way. Even though Goutama divided everything into sixteen, but a special focus was there on the means, structure and debate of the knowledge i.e pramāṇaṃ and vādaḥ. According to this philosophy, the world should be understood in its true form to liberate an individual from suffering. To know the true sense of anything, one needs to understand the process of knowing the accurate knowledge and its types. Thus epistemology or the study of pramāṇa got a prominent place in the Nyāya sutras. In fact, in the list of the sixteen elements stated in Nyāya sutram, 'pramāṇa' stands first.
  
<blockquote>duḥkha- janma- pravṛtti- dōṣa- mithyājñānānāṃ uttarōttarāpāyē tadanantarāpāyādapavargaḥ<ref>1.1.2 Nyaya sutram</ref></blockquote>
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Nyāya is also widely known as Vāda Śāstra. When one understands some principals, at one point of time, one may encounter difference of opinion. When the difference is very fundamental, there arises the need for a debate. As one wants to seek the truth one must know the structure of the debate. Thus Nyāya elaborated the structure of debate and also its types.
  
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===Pramāṇa===
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Nyāya is also accounted as 'Pramāṇa Śāstra. 'Prāma' means true knowledge and the means to it is called 'Pramāṇam'. According to Nyāya Darśanam, Mokṣa is nothing but total liberation from the suffering. Suffering has an indirect, but invariable connection with illusion. The direct destroyer of illusion is the true knowledge. So for attaining the prescribed path for mokṣa, one needs to know how correct knowledge can be acquired, what is its structure, in what circumstance one cannot acquire it and how to critically inquire and validate knowledge.
  
tattvajñāna or the true knowledge eradicates mithyājñāna or illusion(misapprehension). As illusion is the root cause of all activity (dōṣa) (pāpaṃ, puṇyaṃ), eradication of illusion will eradicate dōṣa., when there is no dōṣa there is no pravṛtti or causation of birth., when there is no pravṛtti there is no janma or birth., when there is no birth there will be no duḥkha or sorrow. So according to nyāya sūtraṃ tattvajñāna of the sixteen elements(Gowtama divides the world into sixteen) would successively eliminate sorrow.
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The world is filled with a variety of elements, where some are known by the sense organs, some are only inferable and some are only known by the words. For example, a color can only be seen, happiness of others can only be felt and heaven can only be known by the scriptures. So to understand the nature of the word, Goutama accepted four valid means, four types of pramāṇa, to obtain the correct knowledge. They are:
  
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* Perception - Pratyakṣa : It can be divided into six according to the number of the senses. The cognition resulted because of the relation between an object and a sense organ. This phenomena is called as perception/ pratyakṣa. The relation which is very essential for perception is of two kinds.
''Elements of Nyaya''
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# Direct perception - Seeing a table and knowing that 'there is a table' is an example of direct relation.  
 
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# Indirect perception - Seeing a perfume bottle and knowing that 'it has aroma', without opening its lid, is an example of indirect relation.
* Introduction to the elements
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* Inference - Anumāna : It is a means of knowledge, where the sensed object is known by reasoning. On seeing the smoke coming out from a mountain one could infer that the mountain has fire. In the process of inferring, it is essential to know the invariable relation between the object and the reason i.e., the relation between fire and smoke is very essential. Generally, a debate takes place where the subject is not proved or accepted by both the parties. It has to be proved by good reasoning. So the Nyāya scholars like, vācaspati miśrā<ref>pratyakṣa parikalitaṃ apyarthaṃ anumānēna bubhutsantē tarkarasikāḥ, Means that one who enjoy logic, tries to infer everything even it can be known by sense organs</ref> gave a prominent position for inference in their literature according to its importance in a debate.   
 
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* Comparison - Upamāna : An analogical cognition is a cognition of the relationship between a word and its meaning. When a word is known and not the meaning, the knowledge of similarity helps to establish a relationship. To explain in detail, when a person does not know the meaning of the word 'gavaya'<ref>It means wild cow.</ref>
As Nyaya is a traditional philosophy there are some unique concepts introduced to understand the world in a logical way. Even though Gowtama divided everything into sixteen, but had a special focus on the means of knowledge, structure of knowledge and debate i.e pramāṇaṃ and vādaḥ.  According to this philosophy, the world should be understood in its true form to liberate an individual from suffering. To know the true sense of anything, first of all, we need to understand the process of knowing and types of knowledge. Thus epistemology/ study of pramana got a prominent place in the Nyaya sutras. In fact, In the list of the sixteen elements stated in Nyaya sutram 'pramana' stands first.
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Step 1: He knows from a forester that "Gavaya is similar to cow".
Nyaya is also widely known as Vada shastra. When we are understanding some principals, at some time we may encounter different opinion. When the difference is very fundamental, there arises the need for a debate. As we want to seek the truth we must know the structure of the debate. Thus Nyaya elaborated the structure of debate and also its types.
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* Pramana
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''Nyaya as a Pramana sastra''
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'Prama' means true knowledge and the means to it is called 'Pramanam'. As discussed earlier according to Nyaya Darshanam Moksha, is nothing but total liberation from suffering. Suffering has an indirect, but invariable connection with illusion. The direct destroyer of illusion is true knowledge. So for attaining the prescribed path for moksha, one needs to know how correct knowledge can be acquired, what is its structure, in what circumstance one cannot acquire it and how to critically inquire and validate knowledge.
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The world is filled with a variety of elements, where some are known by sense organs, some are only inferable and some are only known by words. For example, a colour can only be seen, Happiness of others can only be inferred and Heaven can only be known by the scriptures. So to understand the nature of the word Gowtama accepted four valid means (pramaṇa) of obtaining correct knowledge, 1.perception (pratyakṣa), 2.inference (anumāna), 3.comparison (upamāna) and source for verbal cognition(śabda).
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*perception / pratyakṣa can be divided into six according to the number of the senses. The cognition resulted because of the relation between an object and a sense organ is perception/ pratyakṣa. The relation which is very essential for perception is of two kinds. a) direct and b) Indirect. Seeing a table and knowing that 'there is a table' is an example of direct relation. Seeing a perfume bottle and knowing that 'it has aroma' (without opening its lid) is an example of indirect relation.
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*Inference / anumāna is a means of knowledge, where the sensed object is known by reasoning. Like by seeing smoke coming out from a mountain we could infer that the mountain has fire.   In the process of inferring knowing the invariable relation between the object and the reason i.e., the relation between fire and smoke is very essential. Generally, a debate takes place where the subject is not proved or accepted by both the parties. It has to be proved by good reasoning. So the Nyaya scholars like, vācaspati miśrā<ref>pratyakṣa parikalitaṃ apyarthaṃ anumānēna bubhutsantē tarkarasikāḥ, Means that one who enjoy logic, tries to infer everything even it can be known by sense organs</ref> gave a prominent position for inference in their literature according to its importance in a debate.   
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*Comparison/ upamāna: An analogical cognition is a cognition of the relationship between a word and its meaning. When a word is known not the meaning, the knowledge of similarity helps to establish a relation.
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To explain in detail, when a person does not know the meaning of the word 'gavaya' (wild cow)...
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Step 1: He knows from a forester that "gavaya is similar to cow".
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Step 2: He goes to the forest and sees an animal similar to cow and remembers the sentence of the forester.
 
Step 2: He goes to the forest and sees an animal similar to cow and remembers the sentence of the forester.
  
Step 3: Then an analogical cognition or upamitiḥ arises such as "This(the animal) is the referent of the word gavaya
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Step 3: Then an analogical cognition or upamitiḥ arises such as "This<ref>Here this refers to the animal.</ref> is the referent of the word gavaya.
 
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* Source for verbal cognition - Śabda : It is nothing but a meaningful word. It delivers a meaning according to its relation. This relation is direct/śaktiḥ and indirect/lakṣaṇā. A word possessing a valid relation could be a means of knowledge.
*śabda/ source for verbal cognition: śabda is nothing but a meaningful word. Its delivers a meaning according to its relation. This relation is direct/ śaktiḥ and indirect/lakshaṇā. A word possessing a valid relation could be a means of knowledge.
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(*Types of knowledge
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They also discussed the structure of error, to methodically establish means to identify errors and the process by which errors are made in human pursuit of knowledge. These include doubt(Saṁśaya), contrariness(Viparyaya) and a reasoning technique(Tarka).
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a) what is validation, b) Validation in perception and inference.)
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* Vada/ Debate
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Vada means debate and shastra means a traditional treatise. A treatise which deals with debate in detail is Vada shastra. The methodology of debate followed by all Indian traditions is originated in Nyaya. Gowtama has given the most prominent place to introduce and elaborate the art of debate in his work. In the sixteen elements, which he described in Nyaya sutram<ref>1.1.1</ref>around seven elements are directly related to the debate. A debate is an exchange of verbal statements between at least two opponents. It is done to achieve different results like establishing the truth, winning an opponent, misleading an opponent etc. In the Nyaya tradition components useful in a debate like hypothetical reasoning/ tarkaḥ <ref> tarkaḥ is a method of attaining correct knowledge about an uncertain thing by showing faults in all contrary ideas.</ref>, discussion/ vādaḥ <ref> vādaḥ is a sincere dialogue in which one adopts the truth in the end.</ref>, polemic/ jalpaḥ<ref> jalpaḥ is a verbal interaction done only to be victorious, it is not for the truth.</ref>, cavil/ vitaṇḍā<ref> vitaṇḍā is a type of debate where the arguer has no desire to establish his position, but his only interest is to distract the opposition.</ref>, casuistry/ chalaṃ, futile rejoinder/ jAti and clinchers/ nigraha sthānaṃ were discussed categorically.
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nyāyaprayōgaḥ:
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In a debate, presenting your argument in a systematic way is very important. It should precisely establish an argument without any flaw and redundancy. For this Nyaya sutra introduces a syllogism which consists of five members. 1. ‘Pratigyā’ <ref> Pratijyā: The proposition or the statement that is going to be proved(inferred) or statement of the thesis. Ex: ‘पर्वतो वह्निमान्’ (Parvatō vanhimān) Mountain is on fire (Here smoke is only seen not the fire.. but he wants to prove the fire which is not seen)</ref>, 2. ‘Hētu’<ref> Hētu: The statement consisting the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘धूमात्’(Dhūmāt) Because of the smoke.</ref>, 3. ‘Udāharaṇa’<ref> Udāharaṇam: The sentence of example which demonstrates the invariable relationship between the reason and the claim (to be inferred ) or the statement setting forth an illustration. Ex: ‘यो यो धूमवान् सः वह्निमान ्, यथा महानसः’ (Yō Yō Dhūmavān Sa Vanhimān, Yathā Mahānasah) Whatever place consists of smoke it consists fire also. Because fire is the reason behind smoke (Fire and smoke are having cause-effect relationship), Like Kitchen(In the older times). </ref>, 4. ‘Upanaya’<ref> Upanaya: The statement showing that the subject of the inference has the ground of the inference which is invariably related to the thing that is sought to be established. Ex: ‘तथा चायम्’ (Tathā chāyam) Such is this (Mountain). </ref> and 5. ‘Nigamanam’<ref> Nigamana: Conclusion or The sentence which confirms the claim or The statement that the subject of the inference has the thing that is sought to be established as it has the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘तस्मात् तथा’ (Tasmāt tathā) Therefore this mountain possess fire. </ref>.
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These five members are called ‘Panchāvayava ’. In a formal debate, an argument with all these five members is considered to be complete. So using these five members to prove the merit of their cause can be called ‘Nyāya’. As ‘Nyāya’ had a predominant place in ‘Gōtama’s’ work it is called ‘Nyāya Darśanam’ or ‘Nyāya Sūtram’.
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In general, an exchange of dialogue is called kathā<ref>pūrvōttara vākya samdarbhaḥ: exchange of dialouge</ref>. 
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when it is used in a systematic way to know the truth its called vādaḥ. When the arguer has no desire to establish his position, but his only interest is to distract the opposition its called vitaṇḍā. When the only intention is to win its called jalpaḥ. Generally, we tend to commit flaws while presenting an argument. But to establish the correct principles/ sidhāntaḥ one must be aware of them. To train us
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Hence to equip us with the potentiality in argumentation and to find flaws in others argumentation Gotama took a very prominent portion of his book Nyaya sutram.
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==Vāda==
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Vāda means debate and Śāstra means a traditional treatise. A treatise which deals with debate in detail is Vāda Śāstra. The methodology of debate followed by all the Indian traditions is originated in Nyāya. Goutama has given utmost importance to introduce and elaborate the 'art of debate' in his work. Out of sixteen elements which are described in his Nyāya sutram<ref>1.1.1</ref>, around seven elements are directly related to debate.
  
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A debate is an exchange of verbal statements between at least two opponents. It is done to achieve different results like establishing the truth, winning an opponent, misleading an opponent etc. As per the Nyāya tradition, components which are useful in a debate are hypothetical reasoning/tarkaḥ <ref>Tarkaḥ is a method of attaining correct knowledge about an uncertain thing by showing faults in all the contrary ideas.</ref>, discussion/vādaḥ <ref>Vādaḥ is a sincere dialogue in which one adopts the truth in the end.</ref>, polemic/jalpaḥ<ref>Jalpaḥ is a verbal interaction done only to be victorious, it is not for the truth.</ref>, cavil/vitaṇḍā<ref>Vitaṇḍā is a type of debate where the arguer has no desire to establish his position, but his only interest is to distract the opposition.</ref>, casuistry/chalaṃ, futile rejoinder/jāti and clinchers/nigraha sthānaṃ. All these topics are discussed categorically.
  
(Understanding of world,
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==Nyāyaprayōgaḥ==
Structure of an argument.. complete / incomplete,
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In a debate, presenting your argument in a systematic way is very important. It should precisely establish an argument without any flaw and redundancy. For this Nyāyasutra introduces a syllogism which consists of five components:
Katha: Debate.. Set of structured argument.. flawed argument.. inheritant , vada ... to do.. not to do , common points argument.. when there is no common point there is no structured debate. establishing the context of debate.. Nyaya tells you how to do it.. vaadana challunu.. challadu, debating parameters., there is a logical view of world. How to know? establish the means.. then validating it.)
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# ‘Pratigyā’ / Pratijyā : It is the proposition or the statement that is going to be inferred or statement of the thesis. Ex: ‘पर्वतो वह्निमान्’<ref>Parvatō vanhimān</ref> Mountain is on fire. Here smoke is only seen not the fire, but writer wants to prove the fire which is not seen.
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# ‘Hētu’/ Hētu : It is the statement consisting the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘धूमात्’<ref>Dhūmāt</ref> It denotes the action because of smoke.
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# ‘Udāharaṇa’/ Udāharaṇam : The sentence of example which demonstrates the invariable relationship between the reason and the claim to be inferred or the statement setting forth an illustration is called as an Udāharaṇa. Ex: ‘यो यो धूमवान् सः वह्निमान ्, यथा महानसः’<ref>Yō Yō Dhūmavān Sa Vanhimān, Yathā Mahānasah</ref> Whichever place consists of smoke also consists of fire. Because fire is the reason behind the smoke<ref>Fire and smoke are having a cause-effect relationship.</ref>, it also signifies the kitchen in the older times.  
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# ‘Upanaya’ / Upanaya: It is the statement showing that the subject of the inference has the ground of the inference which is invariably related to the thing that is sought to be established. Ex: ‘तथा चायम्’<ref>Tathā chāyam</ref> Such is this mountain.
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# ‘Nigamanam’/ Nigamana: It is the conclusion or the sentence which confirms the claim or the statement that the subject of the inference has the thing that is sought to be established as it has the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘तस्मात् तथा’<ref>Tasmāt tathā</ref> Therefore this mountain possesses fire.
  
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These five members are called ‘Panchāvayava ’. In a formal debate, an argument with all these five members is considered to be complete. So using these five techniques to prove the merit of their cause can be called as ‘Nyāya’. Since ‘Nyāya’ have a predominant place in ‘Gōtama’s’ work it is called ‘Nyāya Darśanam’ or ‘Nyāya Sūtram’.
  
'' Nyaya in Life''
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In general, an exchange of dialogue is called kathā<ref>Pūrvōttara vākya samdarbhaḥ: exchange of dialogues</ref>. When it is used in a systematic way to know the truth its called vādaḥ. When the arguer has no desire to establish his position, but his only interest is to distract the opposition its called vitaṇḍā. When the only intention is to win its called jalpaḥ. Generally, one tends to commit flaws while presenting an argument. But to establish the correct principles/ sidhāntaḥ one must be aware of them. To identify the flaws of others and not to commit any is also important. Nyāya explains types of flaws in the hētvābhāsāḥ section. Hence to equip us with the potentiality in argumentation and to find flaws in others argumentation, Gotama took a very prominent portion of his book Nyāya sutram.
  
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==Nyāya in Life==
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Today we may not find many people getting trained in the traditional Nyāya system. We may find seekers following vēdāntaḥ, but not find people seeking the eternal truth as prescribed in the nyāya sūtraṃ. But we always find the traditional Nyāya concepts in the Indian/ Bharath culture. These concepts got absorbed by the culture and regional languages according to their merits. Some of the concepts got adapted by the different traditional systems like sāmkhyā, vēdāntaḥ, mīmāmsā etc. Knowingly or unknowingly who ever claimed to be logical they followed some principles of Nyāya.
  
(Logical comparative techniques we have. live demonstation of logic in life... 'pradhana malla nibarhana', 'pangvandha nyaya'.. by showing upamana they are establishing a logic. Regardless when the sutras came Nyaya was always in our life. conseptual ga who ever claimed to be logical he followed some pricipals of nyaya.. like panchavayava. System got used to Nyaya a long time ago.. 'Vitanda vada' is been used by people who know the definition.. and also people who do not know.. This shows the impact of the Nyaya system. Impact on Structured thinking ... common life lo indication of nyaya. )
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For logical comparative techniques we have live demonstration of logic in life. 'Pradhāna malla nibarhana', 'pangvandha nyāya'.. by showing upamāna they are establishing a logic. Regardless of sutras being framed, Nyāya was always in our life. Conceptually whoever claimed to be logical followed some principals of nyāya. Panchavayava system got used to Nyāya a long time ago. 'Vitānda vāda' is used by the everyone, one who knows it's definition and one who do not. This shows the impact of the Nyāya system. a structured thinking concept, in the life of common people.
  
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
  
 
[[File:Navya nyaya.jpg]]
 
[[File:Navya nyaya.jpg]]

Revision as of 23:50, 26 April 2019

Nyāya is one of the prominent branches of learning in the Indian knowledge system. It primarily deals with logic and it is one of the most widely applied subjects across the Vedic, Tantric, Bauddha and Jaina traditions. It is considered to be one of the five ‘Vidyā sthānas’ or abodes of learning, one of the six canonical schools of philosophy[1] and also a sub limb[2] in the body of Vedic learning.

Nyāya deals with the structure of knowing, learning and debating. Thus as a subject, it is component to all the schools of formal knowledge in some form. To different degrees, many principles of Nyāya are agreed upon by all schools, such as ascertaining the knowable, validating sources of learning, ascertaining validity of an argument, setting terms of debate and determining the outcome of a debate. Nyāya is not prevalent as an independent school of philosophy at present, but its influence can be seen in the most extant traditions. Nyāya plays a prominent role in many areas like jurisprudence.

Introduction

Indian theory of knowledge can be described into two metaphors. The first one is of a tree whose root is the Veda and various areas of learning are denoted as the trunk, branches and leaves. The other metaphor is of a human body, whose limbs[3] and sub-limbs[4] are various areas of learning. Darśanas enunciate the worldviews and outlines the philosophy of life that results in fulfillment and happiness.

Nyāya is the discipline of logic, which provides methods for inquiry into the nature of world and knowledge, means of learning and validation. It systematizes knowledge into the knowable means and methods for knowing and procedures for ascertaining and validating knowledge. The founder of the Nyāya system was Gautama[5] who is frequently referred to in the literature as Akṣapāda which means eye-footed and Dīrghatapas which means long-penance. Before Gautama, the principles of the nyāya existed as an unsorted body of philosophical thoughts in different types of literature. Gautama formulated these generally accepted principles of time and gave some elaborations wherever needed. His primary work is called ‘Nyāya Sutram’ or ‘Nyāya Darśnam’ where he introduced the philosophy of Nyāya.

Prāchīna Nyāya and Navya Nyāya

Nyāya Darśnam as a philosophy can be divided into two sections according to time and content. They are:

  • Prāchīna Nyāya - A collection of five books which are called ‘Pancha Granthī’ are considered to be the authentic source of ‘Prāchīna Nyāya’. These were a series of commentary on the previous work, which complemented and elaborated the priors work. They are:
  1. Nyāya Sutram of Gotama
  2. Nyāya Bhashyam of Vātsāyana
  3. Nyāya Vārtikam of Udyōtakāra
  4. Tātparya Tīkā of Vāchaspati Miśrā
  5. Tātparya Tīkā Pariśudhi of Udayanāchārya.
  • Navya Nyāya - Gangēśōpādhyāya’s ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi is considered to be the first work which began the new era in ‘Nyāya philosophy’. By this time the concepts which were previously dealt with separately in ‘Nyāya’ and ‘Vaiṣeṣka’ philosophies came together. This system was later termed as ‘Navya Nyāya’ or ‘Tarka Śāstram’. ‘Dīdhiti’ of Raghunātha Śrōmaṇi is considered to be the best commentary on ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi’. ‘Dīdhiti’ had the famous three commentaries ‘Māthurī’, ‘Jāgadīśī’ and ‘Gādādharī’ on it.

Hence we can conclude that ‘Prāchīna Nyāya’ dealt with all the original concepts which an ‘Āstika Darśana’ needs whereas ‘Navya Nyāya’ mainly dealt with only the topics which are useful in debate.

Nyāya as a Darśana

Nyāya is considered to be the one amongst the six canonical Indian philosophies along with Vaiśeśika, Sānkhya, Yoga, Mimāmsā and Vedānta. On inquiring about the difference between a normal book and a Darśana, one knows the characteristics of a Darśana. Every Darśana is expected to present its view on the world[6] and suggest a permanent solution for the problem faced by all.

According to Nyāya, the biggest problem is suffering[7] and it prescribes a theory for liberation from it. To establish its theory, it has to define certain terms and change the perception of the seeker. In this process, a detailed discussion on the means of knowledge,[8] which distinguishes the truth from false becomes a critical inquiry, argumentation etc.

According to Indian literature, there are four puruśārthas or motives for men:

  1. Dharma
  2. Artha
  3. Kāma
  4. Mokṣa

The fourth puruśārtha is considered to be eternal, hence superior. Generally, every Darśana deals with the eternal truth and the way to attain it. Goutama describes that the liberation from suffering is the highest goal of life. According to him, the world is a chain of consequences starting with illusion, which eventually ends with suffering. It has to be broken in order to attain liberation from suffering.

According to the text, misapprehension/illusion[9] leads to distorted views[10] that leads to activity[11], which in turn leads to rebirth[12]. This whole cycle ultimately leads to suffering duhkha. To break this chain Goutama prescribes an antidote to each member.

Duḥkha- janma-pravṛtti-dōṣa-mithyājñānānāṃ uttarōttarāpāyē tadanantarāpāyādapavargaḥ[13]

Tattvajñāna or the true knowledge eradicates mithyājñāna or misapprehension. As illusion is the root cause of all activity like dōṣa, pāpaṃ, puṇyaṃ, eradication of illusion will eradicate all of them. When there is no dōṣa there is no pravṛtti or cause of birth. When there is no pravṛtti there is no janma or birth. When there is no birth there will be no duḥkha or sorrow. So according to nyāya sūtraṃ, tattvajñāna of the sixteen elements[14] would successively eliminate sorrow.

Elements of Nyāya

The elements of Nyāya include identification of the right knowledge,[15] validation, verifying explanations, methods to establish an argument and means to identify a valid argument from invalid. The term nyāya in Sanskrit signifies detailing the subject with an analytical investigation of it through the process of logical reasoning. It can be explained in the following verse:

‘नीयते प्राप्यते विवक्षितार्थसिद्धिः अनेन इति न्यायः’
Nīyatē prāpyatē vivakṣitārthasiḍih anēna iti 'nyāyah'

Vatsyāyana, the classic commentator on the Nyāya-Sūtra, defines it as a critical examination of the objects of knowledge by the means of logical proof. Nyāya is also called as 'Tarka-vidyā'[16] or 'Vāda-vidya'[17].

Introduction

As Nyāya is a traditional philosophy there are some unique concepts introduced to understand the world in a very logical way. Even though Goutama divided everything into sixteen, but a special focus was there on the means, structure and debate of the knowledge i.e pramāṇaṃ and vādaḥ. According to this philosophy, the world should be understood in its true form to liberate an individual from suffering. To know the true sense of anything, one needs to understand the process of knowing the accurate knowledge and its types. Thus epistemology or the study of pramāṇa got a prominent place in the Nyāya sutras. In fact, in the list of the sixteen elements stated in Nyāya sutram, 'pramāṇa' stands first.

Nyāya is also widely known as Vāda Śāstra. When one understands some principals, at one point of time, one may encounter difference of opinion. When the difference is very fundamental, there arises the need for a debate. As one wants to seek the truth one must know the structure of the debate. Thus Nyāya elaborated the structure of debate and also its types.

Pramāṇa

Nyāya is also accounted as 'Pramāṇa Śāstra. 'Prāma' means true knowledge and the means to it is called 'Pramāṇam'. According to Nyāya Darśanam, Mokṣa is nothing but total liberation from the suffering. Suffering has an indirect, but invariable connection with illusion. The direct destroyer of illusion is the true knowledge. So for attaining the prescribed path for mokṣa, one needs to know how correct knowledge can be acquired, what is its structure, in what circumstance one cannot acquire it and how to critically inquire and validate knowledge.

The world is filled with a variety of elements, where some are known by the sense organs, some are only inferable and some are only known by the words. For example, a color can only be seen, happiness of others can only be felt and heaven can only be known by the scriptures. So to understand the nature of the word, Goutama accepted four valid means, four types of pramāṇa, to obtain the correct knowledge. They are:

  • Perception - Pratyakṣa : It can be divided into six according to the number of the senses. The cognition resulted because of the relation between an object and a sense organ. This phenomena is called as perception/ pratyakṣa. The relation which is very essential for perception is of two kinds.
  1. Direct perception - Seeing a table and knowing that 'there is a table' is an example of direct relation.
  2. Indirect perception - Seeing a perfume bottle and knowing that 'it has aroma', without opening its lid, is an example of indirect relation.
  • Inference - Anumāna : It is a means of knowledge, where the sensed object is known by reasoning. On seeing the smoke coming out from a mountain one could infer that the mountain has fire. In the process of inferring, it is essential to know the invariable relation between the object and the reason i.e., the relation between fire and smoke is very essential. Generally, a debate takes place where the subject is not proved or accepted by both the parties. It has to be proved by good reasoning. So the Nyāya scholars like, vācaspati miśrā[18] gave a prominent position for inference in their literature according to its importance in a debate.
  • Comparison - Upamāna : An analogical cognition is a cognition of the relationship between a word and its meaning. When a word is known and not the meaning, the knowledge of similarity helps to establish a relationship. To explain in detail, when a person does not know the meaning of the word 'gavaya'[19]

Step 1: He knows from a forester that "Gavaya is similar to cow".

Step 2: He goes to the forest and sees an animal similar to cow and remembers the sentence of the forester.

Step 3: Then an analogical cognition or upamitiḥ arises such as "This[20] is the referent of the word gavaya.

  • Source for verbal cognition - Śabda : It is nothing but a meaningful word. It delivers a meaning according to its relation. This relation is direct/śaktiḥ and indirect/lakṣaṇā. A word possessing a valid relation could be a means of knowledge.

Vāda

Vāda means debate and Śāstra means a traditional treatise. A treatise which deals with debate in detail is Vāda Śāstra. The methodology of debate followed by all the Indian traditions is originated in Nyāya. Goutama has given utmost importance to introduce and elaborate the 'art of debate' in his work. Out of sixteen elements which are described in his Nyāya sutram[21], around seven elements are directly related to debate.

A debate is an exchange of verbal statements between at least two opponents. It is done to achieve different results like establishing the truth, winning an opponent, misleading an opponent etc. As per the Nyāya tradition, components which are useful in a debate are hypothetical reasoning/tarkaḥ [22], discussion/vādaḥ [23], polemic/jalpaḥ[24], cavil/vitaṇḍā[25], casuistry/chalaṃ, futile rejoinder/jāti and clinchers/nigraha sthānaṃ. All these topics are discussed categorically.

Nyāyaprayōgaḥ

In a debate, presenting your argument in a systematic way is very important. It should precisely establish an argument without any flaw and redundancy. For this Nyāyasutra introduces a syllogism which consists of five components:

  1. ‘Pratigyā’ / Pratijyā : It is the proposition or the statement that is going to be inferred or statement of the thesis. Ex: ‘पर्वतो वह्निमान्’[26] Mountain is on fire. Here smoke is only seen not the fire, but writer wants to prove the fire which is not seen.
  2. ‘Hētu’/ Hētu : It is the statement consisting the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘धूमात्’[27] It denotes the action because of smoke.
  3. ‘Udāharaṇa’/ Udāharaṇam : The sentence of example which demonstrates the invariable relationship between the reason and the claim to be inferred or the statement setting forth an illustration is called as an Udāharaṇa. Ex: ‘यो यो धूमवान् सः वह्निमान ्, यथा महानसः’[28] Whichever place consists of smoke also consists of fire. Because fire is the reason behind the smoke[29], it also signifies the kitchen in the older times.
  4. ‘Upanaya’ / Upanaya: It is the statement showing that the subject of the inference has the ground of the inference which is invariably related to the thing that is sought to be established. Ex: ‘तथा चायम्’[30] Such is this mountain.
  5. ‘Nigamanam’/ Nigamana: It is the conclusion or the sentence which confirms the claim or the statement that the subject of the inference has the thing that is sought to be established as it has the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘तस्मात् तथा’[31] Therefore this mountain possesses fire.

These five members are called ‘Panchāvayava ’. In a formal debate, an argument with all these five members is considered to be complete. So using these five techniques to prove the merit of their cause can be called as ‘Nyāya’. Since ‘Nyāya’ have a predominant place in ‘Gōtama’s’ work it is called ‘Nyāya Darśanam’ or ‘Nyāya Sūtram’.

In general, an exchange of dialogue is called kathā[32]. When it is used in a systematic way to know the truth its called vādaḥ. When the arguer has no desire to establish his position, but his only interest is to distract the opposition its called vitaṇḍā. When the only intention is to win its called jalpaḥ. Generally, one tends to commit flaws while presenting an argument. But to establish the correct principles/ sidhāntaḥ one must be aware of them. To identify the flaws of others and not to commit any is also important. Nyāya explains types of flaws in the hētvābhāsāḥ section. Hence to equip us with the potentiality in argumentation and to find flaws in others argumentation, Gotama took a very prominent portion of his book Nyāya sutram.

Nyāya in Life

Today we may not find many people getting trained in the traditional Nyāya system. We may find seekers following vēdāntaḥ, but not find people seeking the eternal truth as prescribed in the nyāya sūtraṃ. But we always find the traditional Nyāya concepts in the Indian/ Bharath culture. These concepts got absorbed by the culture and regional languages according to their merits. Some of the concepts got adapted by the different traditional systems like sāmkhyā, vēdāntaḥ, mīmāmsā etc. Knowingly or unknowingly who ever claimed to be logical they followed some principles of Nyāya.

For logical comparative techniques we have live demonstration of logic in life. 'Pradhāna malla nibarhana', 'pangvandha nyāya'.. by showing upamāna they are establishing a logic. Regardless of sutras being framed, Nyāya was always in our life. Conceptually whoever claimed to be logical followed some principals of nyāya. Panchavayava system got used to Nyāya a long time ago. 'Vitānda vāda' is used by the everyone, one who knows it's definition and one who do not. This shows the impact of the Nyāya system. a structured thinking concept, in the life of common people.

References

  1. It means Darśana.
  2. It means Upaṅga in hindi.
  3. It means aṅga.
  4. It means upānga.
  5. He is also called as Gotama.
  6. It is called as saṅsāra.
  7. It means duhkha.
  8. It is called as epistemology.
  9. It is called as ajnāna.
  10. It is called as doṣa.
  11. It is called as karma.
  12. It is called as janma.
  13. 1.1.2 Nyāya sutram
  14. Goutama divides the world into sixteen elements.
  15. It is known as pramā.
  16. It means science of reasoning.
  17. It means science of argument.
  18. pratyakṣa parikalitaṃ apyarthaṃ anumānēna bubhutsantē tarkarasikāḥ, Means that one who enjoy logic, tries to infer everything even it can be known by sense organs
  19. It means wild cow.
  20. Here this refers to the animal.
  21. 1.1.1
  22. Tarkaḥ is a method of attaining correct knowledge about an uncertain thing by showing faults in all the contrary ideas.
  23. Vādaḥ is a sincere dialogue in which one adopts the truth in the end.
  24. Jalpaḥ is a verbal interaction done only to be victorious, it is not for the truth.
  25. Vitaṇḍā is a type of debate where the arguer has no desire to establish his position, but his only interest is to distract the opposition.
  26. Parvatō vanhimān
  27. Dhūmāt
  28. Yō Yō Dhūmavān Sa Vanhimān, Yathā Mahānasah
  29. Fire and smoke are having a cause-effect relationship.
  30. Tathā chāyam
  31. Tasmāt tathā
  32. Pūrvōttara vākya samdarbhaḥ: exchange of dialogues

File:Navya nyaya.jpg