Difference between revisions of "Talk:Nyaya"

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# Definition of the term nyAya
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'''Content List'''
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# Brief introduction to nyAya darshanam
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## Definition of the term nyAya
 
## Introduction to nyAya prayOga
 
## Introduction to nyAya prayOga
 
# Constituents of nyAya darshanam
 
# Constituents of nyAya darshanam
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## Different traditions of nyAya - navya and prAchIna
 
## Different traditions of nyAya - navya and prAchIna
 
## Application of nyAya ideas in different traditions
 
## Application of nyAya ideas in different traditions
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----
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'''1. Brief introduction to nyAya darshanam'''
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The word ‘Nyāya’ is generally used to signify ‘right, method, justice’. The etymology for the word ‘Nyāya’ is ‘नीयते प्राप्यते विवक्षितार्थसिद्धिः अनेन इति न्यायः’(nīyatē prāpyatē vivakṣitārthasiḍih anēna iti 'nyāyah') – Which means ‘The logic which is used to express the speakers intention’. So in a broader sense ‘Nyāya Darśnam’ is the philosophy of ‘Right judgment or True reasoning’. 
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The founder of Nyāya system of philosophy is ‘Akṣpāda Gōtama’. His primary work is called ‘Nyāya Sutram’ or ‘Nyāya Darśnam’. ‘Vātsāyana’ wrote an elaborated commentary on ‘Nyāya Sutram’, which is called ‘Nyāya Bhashyam’. Later on ‘Udyōtakāra’ wrote a commentary on ‘Nyāya Bhashyam’, which is called ‘Nyāya Vārtikam’. ‘Vāchaspati Miśrā’ wrote commentary on it, which is called ‘Tātparya Tīkā’. Later on ‘Udayanāchārya’ wrote a commentary on it, which is called ‘Tātarya Tīkā Pariśudhi’. The collection of these five books is called ‘Pancha Granthī’, which is considered to be the authentic source of ‘Prāchīna Nyāya ’.
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[[File:Prachina nyaya.jpg]]
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Gangēśōpādhyāya’s ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi’ is considered to be the first work which began the new era in ‘Nyāya philosophy’. By this time the concepts which were previously dealt separately in ‘Nyāya’ and ‘Vaiṣeṣka’ Philosophies came together. This system is later called as ‘Navya Nyāya ’ or ‘Tarka Śāstram’. ‘Dīdhiti’ of Raghunātha Śrōmaṇi is considered to be the best commentary on ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi’. ‘Dīdhiti’ had the famous three commentaries ‘Māthurī’, ‘Jāgadīśī’ and ‘Gādādharī’ on it.
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‘Prāchīna Nyāya’ dealt with all the original concepts which an ‘Āstika Darśana ’ needs. But whereas ‘Navya Nyāya’ mainly dealt only the topics which are useful in debate.
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[[File:Navya nyaya.jpg]]
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'''1.1 Definition of the term nyAya'''
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‘Vātsāyana’ in his ‘Nyāya Bhashya’, the commentary on ‘Nyāya sutram’ gave a detailed technical explanation for the word ‘Nyāya’ and also briefly explained the usage of ‘Nyāya’ . 
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‘कः पुनरयं न्यायः? प्रमाणैः अर्थपरीक्षणं न्यायः ’ (Kah Punarayam Nyāyah? Pramāṇaih Arthaparīkṣṇam Nyāyah) – What does the term ‘Nyāya’ depicts? Nyāya is an examination of objects by evidences. To understand the evidences that examine the objects stated in the definition, some background knowledge about the usage of ‘Nyāya’ is needed. In a debate generally we have two or more contenders who present two or more contradictory statements. (Generally these two contradictory statements are not directly known by sense organs – ‘प्रत्यक्षप्रमाणम्’ So the Instrument of Inference – ‘अनुमानप्रमाणम्’ plays its significant role to prove the truth.) Here to prove his statement the contenders use evidences. This process of debate has a logical structure In ‘Nyāya philosophical system’.
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Here we take evidences or ‘Pramāṇās’ to signify a syllogism which consists of five members. 1. ‘Pratigyā’ , 2. ‘Hētu’ , 3. ‘Udāharaṇa’ , 4. ‘Upanaya’ and 5. ‘Nigamanam’.
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These five members are called ‘Panchāvayava ’. So using these five members to prove the merit of their cause can be called ‘Nyāya’. As ‘Nyāya’ had a predominant place in ‘Gōtama’s’ work it is called ‘Nyāya Darśanam’ or ‘Nyāya Sūtram’.
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'''1.2  Introduction to nyAya prayOga'''
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Here I would like to briefly describe ‘Panchāvayava’..
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‘Anumāna’ is of two types ‘Svārtha ’ and ‘Parārtha ’, of these two Instruments of Inference ‘Parārtha’ needs a five membered syllogism known as ‘Nyāya’ and each member is called ‘Avayava’. The application of the five membered syllogism is called ‘Nyāya Prayōga’.
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1. प्रतिज्ञा - Pratijyā : The preposition or the statement that is going to be proved(inferred) or statement of the thesis. Ex: ‘पर्वतो वह्निमान्’ (Parvatō vanhimān) Mountain is on fire (Here smoke is only seen not the fire.. but he wants to prove the fire which is not seen)
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2. हेतुः – Hētu : The statement consisting of the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘धूमात्’(Dhūmāt) Because of the smoke. 
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3. उदाहरणम् – Udāharaṇam : The sentence of example which demonstrates the invariable relationship  between the reason and the claim (to be inferred ) or the statement setting forth an illustration. Ex: ‘यो यो धूमवान् सः वह्निमान् , यथा महानसः’ (Yō Yō Dhūmavān Sa Vanhimān, Yathā Mahānasah) Whatever place consists smoke it consists fire also. Because fire is the reason behind smoke (Fire and smoke are having cause effect relationship) , Like Kitchen(In the older times).
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4. उपनयः – Upanaya : The statement showing that the subject of the inference has ground of the inference which is invariably related to the thing that is sought to be established. Ex: ‘तथा चायम्’ (Tathā chāyam) Such is this (Mountain). 
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5. निगमनम् – Nigamana : Conclusion or The sentence which confirms the claim or The statement that the subject of the inference has the thing that is sought to be established as it has the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘तस्मात् तथा’ (Tasmāt tathā) Therefore this mountain possess fire.
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So the systematic usage of the ‘Panchāvayava’ or the ‘Nyāya’ logically builds the argument.

Revision as of 16:24, 15 June 2018

Content List

  1. Brief introduction to nyAya darshanam
    1. Definition of the term nyAya
    2. Introduction to nyAya prayOga
  2. Constituents of nyAya darshanam
    1. Brief introduction to the sixteen elements of nyAya darshanam
    2. Epistemology or the pramANa vimarsha
      1. Perceptual cognition or pratyaksha pramAna
      2. Inferential cognition or anumAna pramAna
      3. Analogical cognition or upamAna pramAna
      4. Verbal cognition or shabda pramAna
    3. Introduction to fallacious grounds or hEtvAbhAsa
      1. Usage of hEtvAbhAsa in argumentation
    4. Logic in nyAya
      1. Usage of logic shown in nyAya sUtram
    5. vyApti and its types
  3. nyAya in traditional knowledge system
    1. nyAya - an Astika darshana
      1. mOksha or nishrEyasa in nyAya darshana (world view)
  4. nyAya - an independent sastra (attributes to make it an independent one)
    1. Different traditions of nyAya - navya and prAchIna
    2. Application of nyAya ideas in different traditions

1. Brief introduction to nyAya darshanam

The word ‘Nyāya’ is generally used to signify ‘right, method, justice’. The etymology for the word ‘Nyāya’ is ‘नीयते प्राप्यते विवक्षितार्थसिद्धिः अनेन इति न्यायः’(nīyatē prāpyatē vivakṣitārthasiḍih anēna iti 'nyāyah') – Which means ‘The logic which is used to express the speakers intention’. So in a broader sense ‘Nyāya Darśnam’ is the philosophy of ‘Right judgment or True reasoning’.

The founder of Nyāya system of philosophy is ‘Akṣpāda Gōtama’. His primary work is called ‘Nyāya Sutram’ or ‘Nyāya Darśnam’. ‘Vātsāyana’ wrote an elaborated commentary on ‘Nyāya Sutram’, which is called ‘Nyāya Bhashyam’. Later on ‘Udyōtakāra’ wrote a commentary on ‘Nyāya Bhashyam’, which is called ‘Nyāya Vārtikam’. ‘Vāchaspati Miśrā’ wrote commentary on it, which is called ‘Tātparya Tīkā’. Later on ‘Udayanāchārya’ wrote a commentary on it, which is called ‘Tātarya Tīkā Pariśudhi’. The collection of these five books is called ‘Pancha Granthī’, which is considered to be the authentic source of ‘Prāchīna Nyāya ’.

File:Prachina nyaya.jpg

Gangēśōpādhyāya’s ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi’ is considered to be the first work which began the new era in ‘Nyāya philosophy’. By this time the concepts which were previously dealt separately in ‘Nyāya’ and ‘Vaiṣeṣka’ Philosophies came together. This system is later called as ‘Navya Nyāya ’ or ‘Tarka Śāstram’. ‘Dīdhiti’ of Raghunātha Śrōmaṇi is considered to be the best commentary on ‘Tatvachintāmaṇi’. ‘Dīdhiti’ had the famous three commentaries ‘Māthurī’, ‘Jāgadīśī’ and ‘Gādādharī’ on it. ‘Prāchīna Nyāya’ dealt with all the original concepts which an ‘Āstika Darśana ’ needs. But whereas ‘Navya Nyāya’ mainly dealt only the topics which are useful in debate.

File:Navya nyaya.jpg

1.1 Definition of the term nyAya

‘Vātsāyana’ in his ‘Nyāya Bhashya’, the commentary on ‘Nyāya sutram’ gave a detailed technical explanation for the word ‘Nyāya’ and also briefly explained the usage of ‘Nyāya’ . ‘कः पुनरयं न्यायः? प्रमाणैः अर्थपरीक्षणं न्यायः ’ (Kah Punarayam Nyāyah? Pramāṇaih Arthaparīkṣṇam Nyāyah) – What does the term ‘Nyāya’ depicts? Nyāya is an examination of objects by evidences. To understand the evidences that examine the objects stated in the definition, some background knowledge about the usage of ‘Nyāya’ is needed. In a debate generally we have two or more contenders who present two or more contradictory statements. (Generally these two contradictory statements are not directly known by sense organs – ‘प्रत्यक्षप्रमाणम्’ So the Instrument of Inference – ‘अनुमानप्रमाणम्’ plays its significant role to prove the truth.) Here to prove his statement the contenders use evidences. This process of debate has a logical structure In ‘Nyāya philosophical system’.

Here we take evidences or ‘Pramāṇās’ to signify a syllogism which consists of five members. 1. ‘Pratigyā’ , 2. ‘Hētu’ , 3. ‘Udāharaṇa’ , 4. ‘Upanaya’ and 5. ‘Nigamanam’.

These five members are called ‘Panchāvayava ’. So using these five members to prove the merit of their cause can be called ‘Nyāya’. As ‘Nyāya’ had a predominant place in ‘Gōtama’s’ work it is called ‘Nyāya Darśanam’ or ‘Nyāya Sūtram’.

1.2 Introduction to nyAya prayOga

Here I would like to briefly describe ‘Panchāvayava’.. ‘Anumāna’ is of two types ‘Svārtha ’ and ‘Parārtha ’, of these two Instruments of Inference ‘Parārtha’ needs a five membered syllogism known as ‘Nyāya’ and each member is called ‘Avayava’. The application of the five membered syllogism is called ‘Nyāya Prayōga’. 1. प्रतिज्ञा - Pratijyā : The preposition or the statement that is going to be proved(inferred) or statement of the thesis. Ex: ‘पर्वतो वह्निमान्’ (Parvatō vanhimān) Mountain is on fire (Here smoke is only seen not the fire.. but he wants to prove the fire which is not seen) 2. हेतुः – Hētu : The statement consisting of the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘धूमात्’(Dhūmāt) Because of the smoke. 3. उदाहरणम् – Udāharaṇam : The sentence of example which demonstrates the invariable relationship between the reason and the claim (to be inferred ) or the statement setting forth an illustration. Ex: ‘यो यो धूमवान् सः वह्निमान् , यथा महानसः’ (Yō Yō Dhūmavān Sa Vanhimān, Yathā Mahānasah) Whatever place consists smoke it consists fire also. Because fire is the reason behind smoke (Fire and smoke are having cause effect relationship) , Like Kitchen(In the older times). 4. उपनयः – Upanaya : The statement showing that the subject of the inference has ground of the inference which is invariably related to the thing that is sought to be established. Ex: ‘तथा चायम्’ (Tathā chāyam) Such is this (Mountain). 5. निगमनम् – Nigamana : Conclusion or The sentence which confirms the claim or The statement that the subject of the inference has the thing that is sought to be established as it has the ground of the inference. Ex: ‘तस्मात् तथा’ (Tasmāt tathā) Therefore this mountain possess fire. So the systematic usage of the ‘Panchāvayava’ or the ‘Nyāya’ logically builds the argument.