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The Philosophical Concepts in Caraka
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==Chapter I==
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===Initiation of Metaphysics and Medicine===
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Physical pain, in general form like disease and particularly death, has awakened the latent potencies in man for survival, growth and conquest over it. In the efforts for survival, one must study the depths of the physical and spiritual being in order to discover the laws of evolution of mankind and it's progress thereafter. The progress of the civilization becomes a vital necessary aspect to understand life in general form and human life in particular.
  
 
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In the pursuit of science and astronomy, the impulse is emphasized on the curiosity, but the sense of pain in the forms of diseases and death brings out the reality in a tremendously vital manner. Confronting this imperative call, the only effective solution to the problem was to focus on unfolding this predicament with the utmost strength, sincerity and determination.
  
Chapter I
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Religion and philosophy, both are primarily therapeutic in their nature and origin. The first dose of medicine administered or taken by man must have been a divine incantation, invocation or the sacred remnant of food offered to the superhuman powers.<ref>The sacred remnant of food offered to superhuman powers is called as prasād.</ref>
  
 
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Aryans are considered to be highly evolved race of the ancient origin. They have tried to find the solutions to the physical problems of human existence. Not only in today's era, but also in ancient times, human populous was under the threat of the disease and premature death. An appeal for help from the superhuman powers also was initiated from the physical sufferings. This unfolds the elaborate vision of thought for the earnest and determined persons. This was the point of initiation of the thought processes by the ancient sages to overcome these diseases. This led them to take a refuge into Indra, the king of the immortals.<ref>Caraka Sutra I, 17</ref>
  
The Beginning of Metaphysics and Medicine
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===The Sources of Knowledge in Caraka - Aptopadeṣa===
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In Caraka Samhitā, a common revelation regarding the sources of science and arts, sources of knowledge is given a significant importance. This weightage is also common in other sources of knowledge prevalent during that time. It was a general belief that when men with the pure heart and chaste mind engaged themselves in sincere and deep meditation for human welfare, truth about the origin is revealed. This was the ultimate knowledge.
  
Pain in every form generally and in the form of disease and death particularly, has awakened the latent potencies in man for sur�vival and growth and for conquest of evil. In that effort for survival he has had to dive deep into the depths of his physical and spiritual being in order to discover the laws that brought into being and that continued to govern his total make-up. He could not rest content until he knew the way into, the way through and the way out of life. It became a vital necessity to understand life and human life in particular.
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===Types of Sources of Knowledge===
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In the Caraka Samhitā, the sage Atreya, propounds the four sources of knowledge:
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# Direct perception
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# Inference
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# Revelation or testimony of good men
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# Common sense
  
 
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===Other Resources===
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According to some schools of philosophy, 'Veda' is an authority because it is eternal and does not owe its versification to human authorship. But as per Caraka philosophy, its validity is based on the trustworthy nature of the renowned sages. Sage Atreya expounds further saying, "Trustworthy tradition of knowledge is called Veda". But the references of other learned sages who have conducted investigation in any field of knowledge consistent with the Veda and approved by other learned men are also conducive to the human welfare. They should also be accounted to be authoritative. This is a healthy extension which predicts the catholicity and reasonableness of the propounders of the science.
  
In the pursuit of pure science and in astronomy the impulse may be one of heightened curiosity or wonder, but the sense of pain presented to man in the forms of diseases and death, brings him face to face with reality in a tremendously vital manner. Faced with such an imperative call, the alternative to answering which was his annihila�tion, he gathered up all his strength, sincerity and determination and worked out a realistic, practical and effective solution of the problem.
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===Qualities of a Reliable Men===
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Revelation or reliable declaration called as authoritative teaching is given the utmost importance to understand the means of knowledge. While describing the nature of the persons whose declarations are entrusted, sage Atreya comments:
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<blockquote>Men who have freed themselves from the passion and ignorance by the means of spiritual endeavor and knowledge, and whose understanding embraces the past, present and future; pure at all times and which are authoritative, learned and enlightened. Their word is unimpeachable and true. Why will such men, devoid of passion and ignorance, will utter a lie or mislead others.</blockquote>
  
 
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===Pratyakṣa===
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Pratyakṣa means direct perception. It is the next source of knowledge. For understanding this phenomena, the actual contact of the external senses of the man with the objects of the world is essential. But that is not enough, because in the absence of the mind, simple contact of the sense-organ with an object produces no knowledge. This Pratyakṣa rises an inevitable question of the subtler mechanism of the mind without the contact of which no perception is possible. The recording agent of the perception is the mind known as sattva in Caraka. Atreya declares that the mind is sattva because it is higher than the senses. Some call it as the conscious agent. Its perceptions which are joy, grief etc., are the incentives to the functioning of the senses.<ref>Caraka Sutra VIII 4</ref> The senses can perceive their objects only when they are led by the mind.<ref>Caraka Sutra VIII 7</ref>
  
In a way, religion and philosophy are primarily therapeutic in their nature and origin. The first dose of medicine ever administ�ered or taken by man must have been an incantation, divine invoca�tion or the sacred remnant of food offered to superhuman powers. It is no wonder, therefore, if a highly evolved race like the Aryans of ancient India started solving the problems of human existence under the threat of disease and premature death. Suffering wrings out an appeal for help from the human heart to the all-powerful gods, and the answering hand, be it from a heaven above, or the heaven within the soul of man, unfolds the elaborate vision of thought before the earnest and hungering gaze. This is exactly how the visitation of disease upon people devoted to virtue and meditation set the ancient sages thinking about the way out of it until they saw with the eye of understanding their refuge in Indra, the king of the immortals. (Sutra I, 17)
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The way that each sense-organs come in contact with its particular proto-elemental sense-object such as the eye with visual object, the ear with sound etc, is explained physiologically. Though physiologically there are five sense-organs, each the products of five natural proto-elements, yet each sense organ has in its construction one proto-element in preponderance. It perceives that proto-elemental sense-object in the external world. Thus the eye which has a preponderance of light perceives light outside in the form of color and shape. The ear which has the preponderance of the ether in its construction perceives sound in the outside world. Rest of the sensory organs also work in the same accordance.
  
The Sources of Knowledge in Caraka - Aptopadesa
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The contact of the proto-element in the sense organ with the world is a physical commingling.<ref>Caraka Sutra VIII 14</ref> The mind acknowledges and receives the impression and passes it to the intellect called as 'Buddhi'. Then begins the interaction between the tetrad of the subtle group of inner mechanism of knowledge resulting into action. The tetrad consists of the mind along with it's objects, understanding and spirit.<ref>It means Ātmā.</ref>
  
 
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This aggregate is the source of good or bad activity.<ref>Sutra VIII 13</ref> Perception is defined as the cognition, definite and immediate, arising from the conjunction of the soul, senses, mind and sense objects.<ref>Sutra, XI-20</ref> Under the abnormal conditions, the sense organs are also liable to perceive non-existent things. This is called as hallucination i.e. perceiving things not real. It is termed as atattvābhiniveṣa.
  
In the Caraka Samhita in common with the sciences and arts of ancient India revelation is given a great place among the sources of knowledge. They believed that when men with pure hearts and chaste minds engaged themselves in sincere and deep meditation, with a view to human welfare and without the slightest trace of self�ish interest, truth reveals itself to them. That is to say that they be�lieved in the ultimate revelatory nature of knowledge, of the super- sensual knowledge in particular. In the Caraka Samhita, the sage Atreya, propounds four sources of knowledge viz.
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===Anumāna===
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It was incurred that the knowledge that results from the chain of contact of the self, mind, senses and the sense-objects is known as direct perception. Sage Atreya then defines the next source Anumāna. It can be termed as Inference.  Medicine is a science which propounds the laws that govern life and physical and chemical properties of the drugs. Though its observations are basically direct, yet conclusions and generalizations regarding the invisible and abstract data has to be made with the help of inferential methods. Thus the need to supplement sense observations by inference was inevitable.  
  
(1) Direct perce�ption (2) Inference (3) Revelation or testimony of good men� (4) Com�mon sense.
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Atreya asserts that there is a limited scope of knowledge which is drawn purely from the observation. He positively opines that one should comprehend that visible is limited. There exists a vast unlimited world which is invisible and we know that world only through the evidence of scriptural inferences and reasoning. As a matter of fact even the senses by whose direct observations are obtained are outside the range of observation. Further even a perceivable object escapes observation under the following conditions:
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* Either too close or too remote from the observer
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* Obstructed by other objects
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* Defect in the perceiving sense-organ
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* When the observers attention is elsewhere
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* Object when immersed in the mass
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* Overshadowed by something else
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* Microscopic
  
 
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Hence it is an unwarranted statement to make that only the visible things exists and nothing else otherwise.<ref>Sutra XI, 7-8</ref> The knowledge pertaining to the three parts of time i. e. the past, present and future can be inferred from the basis of a person's direct knowledge of the things. Inference therefore is primarily based on direct perception. The inferring of the unobserved from the observed is based on antecedent knowledge of their concomitance.
  
This last is peculiar to this treatise and is illustrated by examples which do not make it any different from inference. Revelation or reliable declaration called also authoritative teaching is given the first place in the order of stating the means of knowledge. Describing the nature of the persons whose declarations are above suspicion the sage Atreya says:
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The inferring of the existence of fire in a place by the perception of smoke is an inferential knowledge of an unobserved thing of the present time. Similarly there is the inference of the sexual act of a woman in the past by observing her present state of pregnancy. Thirdly, there is the inference of the prospect of a good crop in the future by judging the nature of the seed sown, based on past experience of their relationship. Inference here is seen understood and defined in its most rudimentary form based on the law of association.
  
 
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The same inference is illustrated again while elaborating the technical terms used in conversation among the physicians. In clinical investigations inference is said to be the reasoning based on correlation of cause and effect. One should infer the condition of the gastric fire by the power of digestion, conditions of the patient's vitality by his capacity for exercise and condition of his sense-organs by his perceptions.
  
�Men who have freed themselves from passion and ignorance by means of spiritual endeavour and knowledge, whose understanding embracing the past present and future is pure and at all times unclouded it is these that are the authoritative, the learned and the enlightened. Their word is unimpeachable and true. Why will such men, devoid as they are of passion and ignorance, give utterance to untruth.
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===Yukti===
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Yukti means the correlation of a set of causes or circumstances with an effect based on the common-sense. It is also accounted to be the another source of knowledge. This may be called as the law of probability. It implies that one can foresee an effect under the given set of circumstances with a great degree of probability. When etiological factors like water, agricultural labor, seeds and the effects of season occur, a good crop results. Here there is a combination of the six elements constituting the living body where the embryo can develop.
  
 
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The combination of the lower and upper churning sticks along with the act of churning brings out fire. Yukti means a combination. So a combination or a set of circumstances or things that are responsible for an effect by itself is a factor of knowledge, though the actual procedure of arriving at the point of knowledge is by the same law of association that governs the inference. One may call it a compound inference against the simple inference of a cause from an effect or vice versa. From variety of the factors this result is inferred.
  
Such are the seers of the Vedic utterances which are above question, the sure guide to knowledge of the highest kind.
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Perhaps the application of this method was found useful in the therapeutic and pharmacological realms in particular. The master sums up the merits of yukti in the verses denoting that yukti is a means of knowing the past, present and future. By the aid of yukti, the mind perceives results brought about by various factors. Through these factors, all the three objectives of life can be pursued. These four objectives are:
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# Dharma
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# Artha
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# Kāma
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# Mokṣa
  
 
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The last objective is evidently not achieved by yukti.<ref>Caraka Sutra XI 25</ref>
  
According to some schools of Hindu philosophy, the Veda is authority because it is eternal and does not owe its being to human authorship. But in Caraka, its validity rests on the trustworthy nature of the sages of whom it is the testimony. Sage Atreya goes even further and says, &quot;Trustworthy tradition of knowledge is Veda. But even other statements made by people who have conducted investigation in any field of knowledge which are not conflicting with the Veda and which are approved by good men and are conducive to human welfare should be considered authoritative.
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===The Inner Sources of Knowledge===
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For knowledge and action both, the inner-self requires the co-ordination of mind, intellect and the organs of perception and conation.<ref>Śarira Trayam 1-56</ref> The organs of perception and action are the external parameters of knowledge. The cognitive triad of internal organs of Buddhi, Ahaṅkāra and mind are the internal participants. All the thirteen organs necessarily function mutually with knowledge as well as action. There is a concept in which the inner organs are proclaimed to be two only i. e. the Buddhi<ref>Here it refers to the mind.</ref> and the ego<ref>Here it means Ahaṅkāra.</ref>.  
  
This is a healthy extension which bespeaks the catholicity and sweet reasonableness of ''the'' propounders of the science.
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Atreya proclaims that the Buddhi is born of the Avyakta, the non-manifest. From Buddhi, the sense of ego is born.<ref>Śarīra I 66</ref> This is in accordance with the Nyāya school of philosophy which holds that mind is the root cause of knowledge and not the self.<ref>Nyāyasutra 1-16</ref> This deduces that there is no self beyond the combination of mind, intellect and senses. But Vatsyāyana denies this presumption asserting that the knower possesses the instruments of knowledge, sees with the eye, smells with nose, touches with organ of touch and recognizes all these experiences with the mind. It also enables the observer to know about these experiences. Hence the mind is called the foundation of knowledge. Thence it is regarded as the inner organ of knowledge as denoted in Brahmasutra.<ref>Brahmasutra 2-3-40</ref>
  
 
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===Nature of Mind===
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The mind is indicated by both the existence and the non-existence of the condition of knowledge. When it is not in contact with the self, senses and sense-objects, there is no knowledge. Isolation and consistency are the two qualities of the mind.<ref>Śarira 1-18-19</ref> The Vaiśeśika sutra and Nyāya Sutra emphasizes on the same phenomena.<ref>Vaiśeśika Sutra 3-2-9</ref><ref>Nyāya Sutra 1.1 16</ref>
  
Pratyaksa
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The experiences of happiness, grief, like, dislike etc. are directly perceived by the mind. Vaiśeśika Sutra signifies that these experiences are harmoniously perceived by the senses and mind. It is so implied because happiness and grief are perceived through the contact with self, senses and other sense-objects. The mind comprehends these senses through the sense organs. The functions of the mind are inquiring, thinking and determining. These functions, as described by Caraka, is the direction for senses, self-control, reasoning and deliberation. Beyond this point, intellect envisions.<ref>Śarira, 1-21</ref>
  
 
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===Types of Mind===
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Atreya regards the mind to be of three varieties. They are<ref>Sarira IV-36</ref>:
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# Śuddha or Sattvic - This type of mind is accounted to be faultless and of good nature.
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# Rajasic - This type of mind is beset with moderate faults like the nature of passion, but overall it is also considered to be good.
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# Tamasic - This type of mind is considered to be the most faulty of rest of the types. It is denoted to be nature of delusion.
  
�Pratyaksa� i.e direct perception, is the next source of knowledge. The actual contact of the external senses of the man with the objects of the world is essential to it. But that is not enough, for, in the absence of the mind, simple contact of the sense-organ with an object has been found to produce no knowledge. This Pratyaksa brings inevitably in its wake the question of the subtler mechanism of the mind without whose contact no perception is possible. The recording agent of perception is the mind known as �sattva� in Caraka. Atreya declares: �the mind is higher than the senses and is known as &quot;sattva�. Some call it &quot;the conscious agent�. Its perceptions which are joy, grief etc., are the incentives to the functioning of the senses.� ( Satra VIII 4) &quot;�The senses are able to perceive their objects only when they are led by the mind.�� ( Sutra VIII 7).
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But the human nature is so diverse that it can be good at one time, passionate at other time and ignorant and deluded also at some time. This arises an inquiry if there are different minds in a single person or not. Atreya answers contradicting this belief stating that, <blockquote>"Owing to the admixture of all three qualities in each mind of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, the same mind behaves as if it were many, but it is only one."</blockquote>
  
The way that the sense-organs come into contact, each with its particular proto-elemental sense-object such as the eye with visual object, the ear with sound etc, is explained on physiological basis. Though the five sense-organs, physiologically, are each of them the products of all the five natural proto-elements, ether, light etc, yet each sense organ has in its construction one proto-element in prepond�erance and it perceives that proto-elemental sense-object in the external world. Thus the eye which has a preponderance of light perceives the light outside in the form of color, shape etc. The ear which has the preponderance of the ether in its construction perceives sound in the outside world and so forth. The contact of the same proto-element in the sense organ with that in the world is a physical commingling. (Sutra VIII 14). The mind acknowledges and receives the impression and passes it on to the intellect or the discriminatory faculty called the �Buddhi&quot;. Then begins the interaction between the tetrad of the subtle group of inner mechanism of knowledge resulting in action. The tetrad consists of the mind, the mind-objects, the understanding and the spirit (Atma ). This aggregate is the source of good or bad activity or for cessation of activity ( Sutra VIII 13 ). �Perception, is defined as the cognition, definite and immediate, arising from the conjunction of the soul, the senses, the mind and the sense objects.&quot; (Sutra, XI-20)
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Mind, being a single identity, cannot work in various ways and through various senses at one and the same moment. Hence one cannot perform various sensory functions at the same time.<ref>Sutra VII1-5</ref> But on a general note, the mind is classed to be of single type by the sages according to the preponderant quality of its tendencies. It is known by its predominant quality.<ref>Sutra VIII-6</ref>
  
 
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===References of This Theory===
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There are various references supporting the above said theory of the complexities of mind in an individual. The Kathopaniṣad says,<blockquote>"The sense perceptions are higher than the sense organs, mind is higher than the perceptions, intellect is higher than the mind and the self is higher than the intellect."</blockquote>
  
The sense organs are also liable to perceive, under abnormal conditions, wholly non-existent things which is called hallucination i.e. perceiving things not real, �atattvabhinivesa�.
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Various Sānkhya schools were built up categorically on the perception of mind, it's original nature, ego and it's correlation. The yoga system borrows and supports this theory to quite an extent. Hence there is no difference due to the subtle mechanism of knowledge in man and various factors in their order or succession. Only the Vedantins regard mind, intellect, ego and Chitta as different subtle organs.<ref>It is called 'aṅtahkarana caṭustaya'.</ref> Then there occurs a question that what is Chitta and what is its relevance with the mind. It is a query that whether it is the mind in itself or not. Hence it can be deduced that they remain the inner organs of knowledge. These together with the sense-organs form the entire mechanism of knowledge by all four means namely:
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# Aptopadeṣa
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# Pratyakṣa
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# Anumāna
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# Yukti
  
 
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These sense organs should be healthy and toned so that it can yield legitimate knowledge and lead a human being to good life. The way of maintaining them in a proper condition is described in the chapter dealing with the discipline of the senses as declared by the sage Atreya in the Caraka Samhitā.
  
Anumana or Inference
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==Chapter II==
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===Reality of Soul and World===
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It is difficult to say whether an unequivocal definition of the reality or exposition of the nature of the things of the world, which one has been consistently held throughout the Caraka Samhitā. Glimpses of definitions and views expounded in extension by the Vaiṣeśikā, Nyāya, Sankhya and Vedānta systems of philosophy are also found here. It gave an insight for pursuing the practical science for medicine which is concerned with whatever was found applicable to suit its theory and practical concepts.
  
 
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Prologue of Samhitā mentions the Vaiśeśikā categories of Sāmānya and Viśeśa. These theories are general and particularly deduced as per the therapeutic highlights. This is prefaced by the topics like synonyms for life, union of the body, senses, mind and spirit.<ref>Caraka Sutra I 42</ref> The explanation of the nature of Sāmānya and Viśeśa served to be the foundation for synthesis and analysis respectively. It is followed up by a restatement of the synthesis that 'Man is like a tripod who is the aggregate of mind, spirit and body'. Man is considered to be the conscious agent and forms the main subject of this science. It has been promulgated for the betterment of the living race.<ref>Caraka Sutra I, 46-47</ref>
  
Having thus declared that the knowledge that results from the chain of contact of the self, mind, senses and the sense-objects, is known as direct perception, Atreya goes on to define the next source inference or Anumana.
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===Base Essentials of Life===
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The totality of the existent things has been described by Atreya. They are based on the five proto-elements like ether, self, mind, time and space. It is the sum total of these things. It is possessed of the senses which are sentient or animate. Things not possessed of the senses are insentient or inanimate. The subject of the Vaiśeśika categories of reality implies that the theory was a very popular concept followed during that period. The knowledge of the six categories is tacitly taken for granted in present day teachings. These six categories comprise of the following factors:
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# Substance
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# Quality
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# Action
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# Generality
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# Particularity
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# Inherence or co-existence
  
Medicine is a science which propounds the laws that govern life and physical and chemical properties of drugs. Though its observa�tions are basically direct, yet conclusions and generalisations regarding invisible and abstract data have to be made with the help of inferen�tial methods. Thus the need to supplement sense observations by inference was inevitable. The limited scope of knowledge drawn purely from observation is expressed by Atreya thus, ��On this question the wise man should give up the negative attitude and even scepticism. Why? Because the visible is limited, while there exists a vast unlimited world which is invisible and of which we know by the evidence of scripture inference and reason. As a matter ''at'' fact even the very senses by whose agency direct observations are obtained are themselves outside the range of observation.
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Vaiśeśikā and Nyāya Sutra substances are the nine preliminary components on which their further exposition is omitted. It comprises of the following:
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# Earth
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# Water
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# Light
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# Air
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# Ether
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# Time
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# Directions
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# Self
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# Mind
  
 
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===Essentials as per Other Resources===
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Atreya expounds the nature of these categories in cryptic phrases. He also refers to the lists of the qualities in the later parts of the treatise. It denotes that one can pursue actual knowledge with the endless efforts of the perceptions for the subject.<ref>Caraka Sutra 1-49</ref> These efforts are accounted as actions.<ref>Caraka Sutra 1-49</ref> The nature of the action is explained in later section as the therapeutic endeavor of the drugs.<ref>Caraka Vimāna VIII</ref> The qualities of sense-perceptions such as sound, smell etc. are the qualities which are the objects of sense-perception.<ref>Śarirasthāna I</ref> According to the Vaiśeśika physics each quality is special to proto-element such as smell to earth, taste to water, form to fire, touch to air and sound to ether. These qualities are combined in things like there is a mixture of the elements in each thing.<ref>Nyāyasutra 3-1</ref>
  
Further even a perceivable object escapes observation under the following conditions viz, when it is either too close or too remote from the observer, when it is obstructed by other objects, when there is some defect in the percieving sense-organ, when the observer�s attention is elsewhere, when the object is merged in the mass when it is overshadowed by something else, or lastly when it is microscopic.
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===Qualities of Base Essentials===
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The qualities of the substances such as heaviness, lightness, cold, heat, unctuousness, dryness, denseness, fixity, fluidity, softness, hardness, clearness, viscosity, smoothness, roughness, grossness, subtleness, thickness and thinness are the common peculiarities. These are explained in their medical context in details.  
  
 
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The psychic qualities of intelligence or Buddhi consists of memory, feelings, concentration and ego. The qualities displaying emotions are like, dislike, happiness, grief, effort, feeling and concentration.<ref>Śarirasthāna I</ref> The priority among these are as per the preference, importance, application of number, synthesis, analysis, particularity, measure, preparation and practice.<ref>Caraka Sutra XXVI, 29-30</ref>
  
Hence it is an unfounded statement to make that only the visible exists and nothing else�. (Sutra XI, 7-8)
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===Significance of Action===
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Action is described in an entirely therapeutic sense. As per the Vaisesikā view, action is the movement of five kinds namely:
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# Upward
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# Downward
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# Expansion 
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# Contraction
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# Indeterminate
  
 
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Therapeutically construed, a drugs action can be analyzed in any of the five-fold manners described above. It even may be used for purpose of nemesis, purgation and such other therapeutic procedures. Therefore analysis of the therapeutic drug behavior is the prime duty of the physician before administering it to the patients. The chapter defining the therapeutic action delineates it to be the endeavor for achieving a definite result. It is also called as action, effort and initiation of work or treatment.<ref>Caraka Vimāna VIII-77</ref>
  
The knowledge pertaining to the three parts of time i. e. the past, the present and the future can be inferred from the basis of a person's direct knowledge of things Inference therefore is firstly based on direct perception. The inferring of the unobserved from the observed based on antecedent knowledge of their concomitance. 'The inferring of the existence of fire in a place by the perception of smoke is an inferential knowledge of an unobserved thing in the present time. Similarly there is the inference of the sexual act of a woman in the past by observing her present state of pregnancy And thirdly, there is the inference of the prospect of a good crop in the future judging by the nature of the seed sown, based on past experience of their relationship. Inference here is seen understood and defined in its most rudimentary form based on the law of association. The same inference is illustrated again while elaborating the technical terms used in learned disputation between physicians as well as in clinical investigations where inference is said to be reasoning based on correlation of cause and effect. One should infer the condition of the gastric fire by the power of digestion, the conditions of the patient's vitality or strength by his capacity for exercise and the condition of his sense-organs by his perceptions of sound etc.
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It is evident that in Caraka, all the Vaiśeśika terms are applied in the therapeutic connotation while the terms of physics are applied to the pharmacological and physiological consequences. This serves as a clue to our general understanding of the scope and purpose of the treatise in its use of logical and metaphysical terms. They are taken from a context of pure thoughts and applied to the medical and practical situation.  
  
 
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This is an attempt for culling the facts and definitions which are already current in a manner suited to the purpose of building a framework of a positive science wherein drugs, man, disease and its cure could be harmonized. Hence, it is necessary to define and understand the terms and the factors that enables such framework. It is also significant to understand the corresponding terms of other scientific branches including the science of logic, physics and metaphysics which are culled and utilized.
  
Yukti
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===Samavaya===
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Samavaya is called as co-existence. The definition of Samavaya provides a striking illustration in this respect in four verses of Sutrasthāna.<ref>Sutrasthāna 1,49-52</ref> The nature of coexistence as well as substance and quality and action is described in details in these verses. Coexistence is the quality which cannot be differentiated from the Earth. It also implies that it is eternal.
  
 
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There are places where the substance exhibits the coexistent quality. Foundation of the base essentials is the the substratum of action, qualities and the coexistent. Quality is the coexistent and inactive cause for the same. Action which is the cause of conjunction and incoherence resides in the substance. It also depends on the performance of what is to be done which depends on nothing else.
  
Lastly ''�''Yukti&quot; i.e. correlation of a set of causes or circumstances with an effect based on common-sense, is held to be another source of knowledge. This may also be called the law of probability for, as the example given shows, one can foresee an effect under a given set of circumstances, with a great degree of probability. By a combination of the factors of water, agricultural labour, seeds and the effects of season, there results the crop; or where there is a combination of the six elements constituting the living body, the embryo will take its rise. The combination of the lower and upper churning sticks and the act of churning brings out fire 'Yukti' means a combination. So a combination or a set of circumstances or things being responsible for an effect is by itself a factor of knowledge, though the actual procedure of arriving at knowledge is by the same law of association that governs �inference�. One may call it a 'compound inference� as against the simple inference of a cause from an effect or vice versa. From many and varied factors one result is inferred. Perhaps the application of this method was found particularly useful in therapeutic and pharmacological realms. The master sums up the merit of yukti in the following verse ''�''that is known as yukti which is a means of knowing the past, present and future, by which the mind perceives results brought about by many and various factors and by means of which all three objectives of life can be achieved. The four objectives are Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa. The last objective is evidently not achieved by yukti&quot; (Sutra XI 25).
+
===Cause and Effect===
 +
The six categories of the substances are denoted as hexad. They are denoted as the 'cause' of everything or effects prevalent in the world. The theory of the nine substances comprising of the things of the world is common to Vaiśeśikā and has been endorsed by the medical teachers. The world is full of effects in the forms of drugs, persons and things of eternal original substances. The five proto-elements are atomic in the structure and the atoms are possessed of the quality and action in the relation of generality, particularity and coexistence. Hence it can be conduced as the plurality of the ultimate things. The world is a mixture of different combinations. The products of such combinations are more than mere an aggregate of the parts of which they are produced.
  
 
+
The Sānkhya which includes these causes among its categories, refers them to be the original cause due to which evolution occurred. There are twenty-five categories in this which are ultimately reduced to two namely the self and original nature or prakṛti. The nature of prakṛti is known variously as 'Avyakta' and 'Pradhāna'. In Caraka Samhitā, there is a sudden transition from the pluralism of the Nyāya-Vaiśeśika to the Sānkhya categories. This made a fundamental deviation from it betraying Vedantic inclinations towards one common origin of all the things.
  
 
+
==Chapter III==
 +
===Constitution of Man===
 +
Body constitution of man and problems related to it are the core subjects of study for the science of medicine. The science of medicine was promulgated for the better lifestyle for mankind.<ref>Sutrasthāna 1-47</ref> If one wants to understand the human biology, one must perceive the world because human constitution is very similar to the world in it's construction. Human structure is the microcosm as well as the macrocosm in miniature. This point has been comprehensively discussed in various ways from different standpoints in Caraka Samhitā. Similarly the world of six categories can also be defined as the world of six elements. Out of them the foundational five proto-elements are:
 +
# Earth
 +
# Water
 +
# Fire
 +
# Air
 +
# Ether
  
The Inner Instruments of Knowledge And The Nature Of The Mind
+
Along with the above mentioned five, the sixth element which acts for sustenance of life is the conscious element. Man is identical with the conscious element also. Śarirasthāna denotes man to be an aggregate of these six elements.<ref>Śarirasthāna I. 16</ref> But on advanced research, it is evident that there is a further elaboration of these principles into an aggregate of twenty-four elements which consists of mind, ten sense and action organs and five elements of the sense objects.<ref>Śarirasthāna 1-17</ref>
  
 
+
==Chapter IV==
 +
===Unity in Diversity===
 +
It is remarkable that despite of the various diversities regarding the nature of reality, religions of the world are unanimous in their sense of ethical values towards life. Elimination of envy, hatred, covetousness, wickedness and practice of good behavior, love and self-sacrifice are universally acclaimed as the right way of life. These actions can only be controlled if one can control the senses and mind. One should also imply the necessary discipline and inner purity. Various religions and six systems of the philosophy of thoughts have a common upholding of righteous conduct and mental and emotional parity. This type of conduct is the foundation for liberation as per all the religions of world.
  
Both for knowledge and action, the self requires the associa�tion of the instruments, viz., the mind, the intellect and the organs of perception and conation (SarTra 1-56 ). The organs of perception and those of action are the external instruments in knowledge as well as in action. And the triad of internal organs of the Buddhi, Ahankara and the mind, both cognitive and conative, are the internal or inner instruments. All the thirteen necessarily function in knowledge as well as in action. There are some who hold that the inner organs are only two, i. e. the Buddhi and mind, and that the ego or Ahankara has been not included. But it is not right to hold so for, while descri�bing the successive evolution of Buddhi etc , Atreya says, �The Buddhi is born of the Avyakta, the unmanifest, from Buddhi, the sense of
+
===Ethical Progress===
 +
A theistic belief is unessential in upholding such high ethical ideals of life. Buddhism, as well as Sānkhyaism and Mimaṅsā doctrines are avowedly ethical in their ideals and uphold a rigorous discipline of the mind and heart in the interests of the supreme fulfillment of life. It is quite evident from the ethical history of man that there is an inner compulsion that extorts his instinctive allegiance to what is right, good and virtuous.
  
ego is born� (Sarira I. 66) This is in accordance with the Nyaya school of philosophy which holds that the self is not the factor of knowledge but the mind. Nyaya Sutra 1-16
+
Despite man's inability to believe in the creator, he accepts the mystical efficiency and fruit-bearing power of good and evil ways of life. Faith in the invisible power of action is known as 'Karma'. It is produced by the same instinct. In Caraka Samhitā, we find many references to faith of man in earlier times along with the efficiency of demarcating in good and evil actions.  
  
 
+
===Additional Doctrines===
 +
The Vaiśeśika believed in the expounding of Caraka Samhitā. It begins virtually and is concerned primarily with the teachings righteous living. The Sutras of Kanada begin with the aphorisms which expounds the nature of virtue. The origin of Ayurveda is for the preservation of human lives so the man can lead a life without hindering austerity, meditation and discipline of mind. Ayurveda evolved with an intention of the sages to cure the sufferings of humanity and all the other living organisms.<ref>Caraka Sutra VI, 7</ref>
  
But then it may be said that there need be no self beyond this combination of mind, intellect and senses 'It is not so,� says Vatsyayana; �it is indeed the knower that possesses the instruments of knowledge and sees with the eye, smells with the nose, touches with the organ of touch and recognises all these experiences with the mind and enables the knower to know these experiences. Hence is the mind called the factor of knowledge'. Thus the mind is regarded as the inner organ of knowledge even as it is said in Brahma Sutra 2-3-40
+
===Concept of Karma===
 +
Not withstanding the absolute nature of the inner compulsion for good conduct and duty, the mentality of mankind is impelled only by the fear of evil effects and hope of happiness resulting from vices and virtues respectively. This is the hypothesis of the concept of Karma. It must therefore be regarded as the foundational beginning though man is accredited to put an end to it. The diversity of the initial circumstances which gives birth to a being is directly related to the overall actions and conduct followed in the previous lives. This total causal force by whose residual energy a person is catapulted into the life is known as destiny.<ref>Destiny is also called as Vidhi or Daiva.</ref>
  
 
+
According to Caraka, the destiny is called as 'Daiva'. Performing actions in the present life is called 'Puruṣakara'. This doctrine of previous incarnations implied by karma is advocated affirmatively by Caraka. It has been affirmed by all the four methods of ascertainment viz:
 +
# Scriptural testimony
 +
# Direct perception
 +
# Inference
 +
# Common sense
  
&quot;The mind is indicated by both the existence and the non�existence of the condition of knowledge; when it is not in contact with the self, the senses and the sense-objects, there is no knowledge and when it is in contact there is knowledge. One-ness or singleness and atomicity are the two qualities of the mind�� (Sarira 1-18-19). The Vaisesika sutra speaks to the same effect. (V. Sutra 3-2-9) and so too the Nyaya (Nyaya Sutra 1.1 16 ).
+
===Theory of Direct Perception===
 +
From direct perception we can deduce the following:
 +
* The children are not completely like their parents.
 +
* Those born on the exact same time have different traits of color, voice, shape, mind and intellect.
 +
* People are born of higher and lower castes. Some are born slaves and some are lords with varying degrees of happiness, grief and life-span.
  
 
+
===Concept of Rebirth===
 +
The great sages on the basis of their meritorious life and infallible vision have declared the existence of rebirth unequivocally.<ref>Caraka Sutra XI 28-29</ref> New born babies without any acquaintance before, seek for the mother's breast, weep and cry. They also exhibit their fear. This is not possible in there is no memory of their past lives. The children are born with various marks on their bodies. These marks denotes a variety in their skills and tendencies. Sometimes these marks forms the emblems of specific memory from their past birth.
  
The experiences of happiness, grief like and dislike etc, are directly perceived by the mind. If these are not perceived by the senses and only by the mind it should not be regarded as conflicting with the Vaisesika sutra which says that happiness and grief are preceived by the contact of self, senses, mind and the sense-objects. For, the mind preceives them through the senses. The functions of the mind are thought, inquiry and determination. These functions of the mind are descibed by Caraka thus:
+
===Theory of Inference===
 +
The fruits availed due to the actions of previous birth should be fully experienced to put an end to them. In each and every life a person also performs new actions. Hence there is a continuous residue of the action whose fruits are yet to be reaped. This is known as 'Daiva', the unseen factor that ushers in life in the present birth. One has to infer the nature of the seed from the fruit as it reflects the same qualities which are present in seed.  
  
 
+
The acts or the behavior which has been conducted by a person whether good or bad is responsible for the results a person may reap. Fruit always comes out of a seed. Similarly consequences of any action is similar in nature to the causal actions. If one has performed good deeds in the past life then it will result in good consequences in this life and vice-versa. <ref>Caraka Sutra XI, 31-32</ref>
  
�The functions of the mind are - direction of the senses, control of itself, reasoning and deliberation. Beyond this is the field of the intellect&quot; Sarira, 1-21 )
+
This leads us to the further problems of the pre-destination of the nature of this life. As the best example of this, Atreya discusses the problem of the span of life of a man. If the present life and all the happiness in it is totally due to the result of actions of the previous birth, his life span must be already determined and neither spiritual nor any kind of physical healing will avail anything. In such cases, the science of being becomes of no use. It has no place in the world where a life can neither be prolonged by medicine nor shortened by any disease. Then there remains no purpose for either saving or killing a life. But Atreya has a way out of this morass of pre-destiny. He describes three kinds of actions called as Puruṣakara.<ref>Caraka Vimāna III 31</ref>
  
 
+
===Puruṣakara===
 +
Life is not just a reflection of the actions done in past life. There is a scope for fresh start of new actions which is termed as Puruṣakara. The types of Puruṣakara can be classified into three categories:
 +
# Powerful
 +
# Moderate
 +
# Weak
  
The Mind is regarded to be of three varieties Sattvic, Rajasic and Tamasic (Sarira IV-36). Atreya described mind as being of three kinds Suddha or Sattvic, Rajasic and Tamasic. The Suddha type is known as faultless, being of the nature of goodness, the Rajasic type is beset with fault being of the nature of passion, and similarly the Tamasic type is faulty too, being of the nature of delusion, and there are innumerable degrees of each type. But it usually happens that a man�s nature is so diverse that at one moment his inclinations are good, at another passionate and at yet another ignorant and deluded. Can it therefore be concluded that there are many minds functioning in a man? Atreya answers in the negative and says, �Owing to the admixture of all three qualities in each mind of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, the same mind behaves as if it were many, but it is only one. Mind, thus, being unitary, cannot work in various ways and through various senses at one and the same moment. Hence one does not find the functioning of all the senses at one and the same moment� (Sutra VII1-5) But, generally speaking, the mind is classed as of one type or the other by the sages according to the preponderant quality of its tende�ncies. It is thus known by its predominant quality�.(Sutra VIII-6) It is interesting to note in this connection the various references to the existence and the nature of the mind in the complex apparatus of the inner mechanism of the individual. The Kathopanisad says, �The sense perceptions are higher than the sense organa, the mind is higher than the perceptions, the intellect higher even than the mind and the self is even higher than the intellect.
+
If the past actions are moderate or weak it can be surpassed by the powerful actions of the current life. If the present action are moderate or weak then the powerful actions of past will assert itself and have its full effect. Only the present powerful actions can void off the ill-results of the past, moderate or mild actions. Hence man must pursue the righteous life intensely. One can be the own architect of life by the actions in present life.  
  
 
+
===Puruṣakara as per Atreya===
 +
This is a hope inspiring positive provision that Atreya holds for mankind without which there would be no motivation for any good or reformist effort in life. It is a very significant contribution to meta-physical thought that Atreya has made while discussing the ways and possibilities of averting the results of past actions. According to him 'Daiva' gets nullified by the stronger Puruṣakara. The stronger the Daiva overpowers; the weaker actions of present life of a person would be more better.<ref>Caraka Vimāna III, 33-34</ref> This mutual counteracting is inevitable but sometimes it does not even occur according to the relative strength of the two kinds of action influenced by the time factor. But these both factors are accounted to have a strong hold over this field exclusively.<ref>Caraka Vimāna III, 34-35</ref>
  
The categories of the Sankhya school are built up on the same line with Mahat or Buddhi derived from original nature; the ego comes out of it and the mind from the ego. The yoga system takes it wholesale from the Sankhya. Thus there is no point of difference with regard to the subtle mechanism of knowledge in man and the various factors in their order or succession. It is only the Vedantins that are inclined to regard the subtle organs (antahkarana catustaya) consist of the mind, intellect, ego and the Citta. But what is Citta but the mind itself? Hence the three only remain as the inner organs of knowledge.
+
===Pursuit of Life===
 +
With this background, let us find the necessity for an intense wish for the pursuit of good life. The Smṛtis say that man must pursue righteousness throughout one's life as death of a person is destined and no one knows when one is going to die. In Caraka Samhitā, all the mental and spiritual evils like the bodily ailments are regarded as the diseased conditions due to volitional transgression. Present day philosophers regard crime and wickedness also as a pathological condition. The punishments for the same is to be accorded from a reformative as well as therapeutic point of view. Atreya's point of view over this point considers humanity and scientific nature of the modern outlook on moral evils.
  
 
+
===Sadvṛtta as per Caraka===
 +
Rajas and Tamas are the bad humors of the mind just as vāta, pitta and kapha are for the body. Self-restraint, moderation, dedication to the study of scriptures and meditation are described to have the psychic or divine therapy. This divine therapy is described in great elaboration in the scriptures known as Sadvṛtta.<ref>Caraka Sutra 1-58</ref>
  
These together with the sense-organs form the entire mechanism of knowledge in all four means namely Aptopadesa, Pratyaksa, Anumana and Yukti. These sense organs should be kept in their proper health and tone; to be able to yield valid knowledge and lead man to a good life. The way of maintaining them in proper condition is described in the chapter dealing with the discipline of the senses as declared by the great teacher Atreya in the Caraka Samhita.
+
===Sadvṛtta as per Atreya===
 +
Atreya declares that all the actions result from either good or bad usage of speech, mind and body. That is of three kinds:
 +
# Usage of Speech - Misuse with the reference to speech is through the indulgence in language that is insinuating, untrue, untimely, quarrelsome, unpleasant, incoherent, unhealthful, harsh etc.
 +
# Usage of Mind - The bad usage with reference to the mind consists of giving way to fear grief, anger, greed, infatuation, self-conceit, envy, deluded thinking etc.
 +
# Usage of Senses or body - This classification is based on the three-fold division of sense-contact with the external objects which are excessive contact, non-contact and wrong contact. All of this constitutes the factor of disease. Complete absence of action of speech, mind and body is non-operational. Excessive exercise of them is over-action. Forced suppression or forced excitation of the natural urges, awkward stumbling, falling and posturing of limbs, abusing the body, injuring the body, violent kneading of the limbs and forced holding of the breath and other kinds of self-mortification are considered under the misuse of a body.  
  
 
+
===Remediation Measures===
 +
The defects of senses can be corrected just as any defect in body can be corrected with treatment of medicines. But the defects created out of mind requires the practice of a regimen of conduct determined by mental as well as emotional discipline. This is otherwise known as the righteous life<ref>It is called as Sadavṛtta.</ref> or Dharma. The inclination for righteousness must be continuously kept up by the efforts because there is a natural decline of that tendency in men from various ages. Atreya says that in every succeeding age, there is a fourth part of righteousness dwindling down and similarly the qualities of things.
  
Chapter II
+
===Views of Cakrapāṇi===
 +
Cakrapāṇi, the commentator on Caraka, in his note on one phrase suggests that sometimes it also happens that some men return to their bodies after death if the messengers of Yama had taken them due to mistaken identity.<ref>Caraka Sutra XI, 30</ref> These are the agreed facts of the direct evidence of life and justify the faith in incarnations. This modus operandi advocates this phenomena completely.
  
 
+
==Inference==
 +
The lifespan of people also go down at the rate of one year for every hundredth part of the age.<ref>Caraka Vimāna III, 24-25</ref> Man must therefore be ever vigilant in countering this tendency and pursue a good life with determination and dedication of mind and soul respectively. Atreya prescribed to lead a righteous life which is the constituting factor for happiness and longevity. The life lead thus becomes the root cause for the liberation of the spirit.<ref>Caraka Sutra VIII 18</ref>
  
Reality - the Soul and the World of Things
+
The good life is not only that which gives spiritual fulfillment and final liberation but also the one avoiding the bad tempers of the mind. This even culminates in psychic diseases such as insanity, epilepsy and other such diseases. It also leads the body from sub-skeptical to somatic diseases. The life therefore from the points of view of happiness in this life as well as in the next and final liberation, must be assiduously practiced. This establishes well-being in both the worlds, as per Ayurveda. It further asserts that it the reason which accelerates the means of final liberation of man. This is the Science of Life wherein are laid down the principles of the good and bad life which results into the happy and unhappy life respectively. This is called as wholesome and unwholesome life. It also acts as a regulatory measure to lead a good life.
  
 
+
==References==
 +
{{reflist}}
  
It is difficult to say that an unequivocal definition of reality or an exposition of the nature of the things of the world has been consistently held throughout the Caraka Samhita which is the main work on Indian medicine. One finds in it snatches of definitions and views expounded in extenso by the Vaisesika, Nyaya, Sankhya and Vedanta systems of philosophy. The reason for this is not far to seek; for medicine, being a practical science, concerned itself with what�ever was found applicable to suit its theory and practical concepts. The practical beginning of the Samhita is made with the mention of the Vaisesika categories of Samanya and Visesa the general and the particular interpreted in the therapeutic light. This is prefaced by the mention of synonyms for life which include the phrase �the union of the body, the senses, the mind and the spirit&quot; (Sutra I 42). The explanation of the nature of Samanya and Visesa as being causative of synthesis and analysis respectively, is followed up immediately by a restatement of the synthesis that Man is the aggregate of mind, spirit and body, and is like a tripod. He is the conscious agent and forms the subject matter of this science. For this benefit has this science been promulgated&quot;. (Sutra I, 46-47)
+
* The Caraka Samhita published by Shree Gulabkunverba Ayurvedic Society, Jamnagar, India
 
+
 
+
 
+
The totality of things existent has been described when Atreya declared that ether etc. (the five proto-elements) self, mind, time and space are the sum total of things. Things possessed of the senses are sentient or animate and things not possessed of the senses are insentient or innanimate.��
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It is evident from the manner fn which the subject of the Vaisesika categories of reality is dealt with that the theory was already a popular one. A knowledge of the six categories is tacitly taken for granted and statement of the six categories of substance, quality, action, generality, particularity and inherence or coexistence, as
+
 
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'''[1]''' Vaisesika and Nyaya Sutras�� Substances are nine only earth, water, light, air, ether, time, directions, self and mind.
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+
preliminary to their further exposition is omitted. On the other hand, Atreya straightway expounds the nature of these categories in cryptic phrases referring to the lists of qualities etc., described in the much later parts of the treatise Referring to qualities, it is said, � Heaviness etc., ending with the perceptions&quot;, �knowledge etc., ending with effort&quot;, superior and other things are regarded as qualities� ( Sutra 1-49 ). � Similarly effort etc., are regarded as action&quot;. ( ibid ). The nature of action or effort is explained in a later section (Vimana VIII) as the therapeutic endeavour and the therapeutic action of drugs. The qualities of sense-perceptions such as sound, smell etc., are the qualities which are the objects of sense-perception ( Sarira I ) According to the Vaisesika physics each quality is special to proto-element such as smell to earth, taste to water, form to fire, touch to air and sound to ether. These qualities may also be found combined in things as there is an intermixture of the elements in all things (Nyaya 3-1 ).
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The qualities in substances such as heaviness, lightness, cold, heat, unctuousness, dryness, denseness, fixity, fluidity, softness, hardness, clearness, viscousness, smoothness, roughness, grossness, subtleness, thickness and thinness are the twenty common ones and these are explained in their medical context fully. The psychic qualities of intelligence or Buddhi consists of memory, feeling, concentration and ego-hood. The qualities ending with effect are like, dislike, happiness, grief, effort, feeling and concentration. (Sarira I). The priority etc, are the following namely, priority, non-priority, application regarding number, synthesis, analysis particularity, measure, preparation and practice (Sutra XXVI, 29-30).
+
 
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Action is described in an entirely therapeutic sense. In the Vaisesika view, action is movement of five kinds, upward and down�ward, expansive and contractive and other indeterminate types of movement. Therapeutically construed a drugs action in any of the five-fold manner described above may be used for purposes of emesis, purgation and such other therapeutic procedures � Action � therefore is the therapeutic action of a drug or of the physician. In the chapter defining the therapeutic action, action is defined as the endeavour tor achieving a definite result, it is also called action, effort and the initia�tion of work or treatment. (Vimana VIII-77)
+
 
+
It is evident that in Caraka, the Vaisesika terms are all applied in therapeutic connotation, the terms of physics applied to pharmacological and physiological consequence. This should serve as a clue to our general understanding of the scope and the purpose of the treatise in its use of logical and metaphysical terms. They are taken from a context of pure thought and applied in a medical and practical situation. This is an attempt at not explaining or elaborating any current system of thought, but culling such facts and definitions as are already current in a manner suited to the purpose of building a framework of a positive science wherein drugs, man, disease and its cure could be harmonised. In so far as it is necessary to define and understand the terms and the factors that enable such a framework, the corresponding terms of various sciences of logic, physics and metaphysics are culled and utilised.
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The definition of Samavaya, coexistence, provides a striking illustration in this respect In four masterly verses (Sutra 1,49-52) the nature of coexistence as well as substance and quality and action is described,�
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Coexistence is the inseparableness of earth etc, from their qualities. That coexistence is eternal. Wherever the substance exists the coexistent quality is never absent.
+
 
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�That which is the substratum of action and qualities, and the coexistent cause is substance. �
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+
 
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Quality is the coexistent and inactive cause.&quot;
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+
 
+
 
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&quot;Action which is the cause of conjunction and disjunction resides in the substance. Action is the performance of what is to be done. It depends on nothing else�.
+
 
+
Thus the six categories of substance etc, are explained and this hexad is known as the �cause&quot; of all things or effects in the world. This theory of the nine substances comprising the things of the world is common to Vaisesika and has been appropriated by the medical teachers thus far. The world is full of effects, in the forms of drugs, persons and things of these eternal original substances. The five proto-elements are atomic in structure and the atoms are possessed of the quality and action in the relation of generality, particularity and coexistence. Thus far it is a plurality of ultimate things. The world stands by combination. The products of such combination are more than the mere aggregate of parts of which they are produced.
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The Sankhya which includes these among its categories, refers them to an original cause of which they are evolutes. The categories that are twenty-five are thus ultimately reduced to two - the self and original nature or Prakrti known variously as Avyakta and Pradhana. In Caraka there is a sudden transition from the pluralism of the Nyaya-Vaisesika to the Sankhya categories, again making a fundamental deviation from it betraying Vedantic inclination towards one common origin of all things. We shall note this tendency and transition presently.
+
 
+
 
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Chapter III
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
WHAT IS MAN?
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
We come to the problem of man, the most significant among these 'effects� known as the world We must understand what man is for he is the subject matter of the science of medicine for whose sake it is promulgated (Sutra 1-47). To understand him is to understand the world, for he is similar to the world in his construction. He is the microcosm, the macrocosm in miniature.
+
 
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In Caraka, one and the same thing, or a set of things, it defined and enumerated in various ways and from different standpoints. Similarly this world of six categories can also he defined as a world of six elements - the five proto-elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether and the sixth one the conscious element. Man being a conscious individual is identical with the conscious element itself. Man, again, being an effect of these six is also the aggregate of these six elements (Sarlra I. 16) Looked at once again from the stand-point of a further elaboration of these principles, man is the aggregate of twenty-four elements (Sarlra 1-17) consisting of the mind, the ten organs of sense and action, the sense objects (five elements)
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Chapter IV
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
The Ethical Note in Ayurveda
+
 
+
 
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+
It is remarkable that despite the wide divergencies in their conclusions regarding the nature of reality, the religions of the world are unanimous in their sense of the ethical values of life. Elimination of envy, hatred, covetousness and wickedness and the practice of goodness, love and self-sacrifice are universally acclaimed as the right way of life. These lead to the control of the senses and mind and imply the necessary discipline and inner purity. The various and principally the six systems of Indian philosophy as also the Buddhistic and Jain systems of thought are united in their upholding of righteous conduct and mental and emotional parity as the means to liberation whatever be the nature of that liberation. A theistic belief is not essential to the upholding of such a high ethical ideal of life. Buddhism, as well as Sankhyaism and the Mimansa doctrines are avowedly ethical in their ideal and uphold rigorous discipline of the mind and the heart in the interests of the supreme fulfilment of life. It is quite evident from the ethical history of man that there is an inner compulsion that extorts his instinctive allegiance to what is right, good, and virtuous. Despite man�s inability to believe in a creator God, he accepts the mystical efficiency and fruit-bearing power of the good and evil ways of life. The faith in the invisible power of action, known as 'Karma', is the product of the same instinct and here in Caraka, we find ample witness to that early faith of man in the efficiency of good and evil actions.
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The Vaisesika doctrine with the expounding of which the Caraka Samhita virtually begins, is concerned primarily with teaching righteous living The Sutras of Kanada begin with the aphorism &quot;we shall now expound the nature of virtue. The origin of Ayurveda curiously is also for the preservation of human lives that they may be dedicated without hindrance to austerity, meditation and discip�line of mind It is the feeling of love and compassion for suffering humanity that first gave rise to the sages� efforts to discover the science of medicine.( Caraka Sutra VI, 7 ).
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Notwithstanding the absolute nature of the inner compulsion for goodness and duty, the generality of mankind is impelled only by the fear of evil effects and the hope of happiness resulting from vice and virtue respectively. This is the hypothesis or the concept of Karma, the inquiry of whose teleology is futile. It must therefore be regarded as beginningless though it is given to man to put an end to it. The diversity of the initial circumstances and equipment with which men are brought into this life is accountable only in terms of the diversity of the causal actions and tendencies of their previous lives. This total causal force by whose residual energy a person is catapulted into this life is known as destiny (Vidhi or Daiva). In Caraka it is called Daiva and the fresh initiation of action in the present life �Purusakara'. This doctrine of previous incarnations implied by Karma is made out effectively according to Caraka by all the four methods of ascertain�ment viz., scriptural testimony, direct perception, inference and common sense. The great sages possessed of infallible vision, by virtue of their meritorious life, have declared the existence of rebirth unequivocally. (Sutra XI 28-29 '')'' From direct perception we find the following: �the children are unlike their parents. Those born of the same condi�tions are possessed of different traits of color, voice, shape, mind and intellect. People are born of higher and lower castes. Some are born slaves and some overlords, they are endowed with varying degrees of happiness, grief and life-span. New born babies without any acquaintance before, seek for the mother�s breast, weep and cry and show fear. This would not �be possible in the absence of memory coming from previous births. The children are born with various marks on their bodies. They show a variety in their skill and tendencies, and sometimes possess a memory of previous birth. Cakrapani, the com�mentator on Caraka, in his note on the phrase, suggests that it may also mean that some men return to their bodies after death being sent back by the messengers of Yama who had taken them as a result of mistaken identity�. (Sutra XI, 30) The above are agreed facts of direct evidence in life and justify the faith in a previous incarnation which explains these varied phenomena.
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Taking now to the method of inference, it must be known that the actions of a previous birth muse be fully experienced to put an end to them. And in every life fresh action is also undertaken. Hence there is a continual residue of action whose fruits are yet to be reaped. This is known as �Daiva' the unseen factor that ushers in life in the present birth. One has to infer the nature of the seed from the fruit as the fruit is always true to the nature of the seed. Common sense speaks to the same effect. It is only the action that has already been accomplished that bears fruit. Fruit cannot come out of nothing. The fruit of action is similar in nature to the causal action, for we see that a particular fruit and not a different fruit comes out of a particular seed. (Sotra XI, 31-32)
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This leads us on to the further problems of the predestination of the nature of this life. As a supreme example of this, Atreya discusses the problem of the span of life of a man. If this life and all its happiness he totally the result of action in the previous birth his life span must be already determined and neither spiritual or physical healing will avail anything. In such a case the science of being is utterly useless and has no place in a world where a life can be neither prolonged by medicine nor shortened by disease. It is useless to talk of either saving or killing a man but Atreya has a way out of this morass of predestination. He describes three kinds of action - the powerful, the moderate and the weak actions. (Vimana III 31)
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This life is not wholly in the grip of the past for there is scope for fresh initiation of new action which is known as Purusakara. This latter too is of three kinds - powerful, moderate and weak. If past action be moderate or weak. It can be overcome by powerful fresh action in this life. If the present action be moderate or weak, only the powerful action of the past will assert itself and have its full effect. It is therefore possible by powerful action m the present to neutralise and overcome the result of moderate or mild past action. Hence man must pursue the righteous life intensely. He can be his own architect by action in the present life. This is a great and hope in spiring positive provision that Atreya holds up for mankind without which there would be no justification for any good and refor�mist effort in life and particularly for a reformative and curative science like medicine. This is a very significant contribution to meta�physical thought that Atreya has made while discussing the ways and possibility of averting the results of past action. He says that �Daiva' gets nullified by stronger �Purusakara� and similarly the stronger �Daiva� overpowers the �Purusakara. (Vimana III, 33-34) This mutual counteracting is inevitable but sometimes does not occur according to the relative strength of the two kinds of action and also due to the time factor. But it is wrong to take either of them to hold the field exclusively. (Vimana III, 34-35).
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With this background in view we shall find the necessity for an intense, almost frantic pursuit of the good life. The Smrtis say that man must pursue righteousness as if death had caught him already by his forelock.
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In Caraka, all mental and spiritual evils like the bodily ailments are regarded as diseased conditions due to volitional trans�gression. That is as it should be. Modern philosophers regard crime and wickedness as pathological conditions and that punishment is to be accorded from a reformative and therapeutic point of view. Atreya�s view has all the freshness, humanity and scientific nature of the modern outlook on moral evil.
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Rajas and Tamas are the ill-humors of the mind even as Vata, Pitta and Kapha are of the body. Self-restraint, moderation, dedication to the study of scriptures and meditation are described as constituting the psychic or divine therapy. This divine therapy is described in great elaboration and is called �Sadvrtta'. (Sutra 1-58)
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Atreya declares that all action results from the operation of speech, mind and body. That is of three kinds: excessive operation, non-operation and wrong operation. This is based on the threefold divisions of sense-contact with the external objects which are excessive contact, non-contact and wrong contact, all of which constitute the factors of disease. Complete suspense of action of speech, mind and body is non-operation. Excessive exercise of them is over-action. Forced suppression or forced excitation of the natural urges, awkward stumbling, falling and posturing of limbs, abusing the body, injuring the body, violent kneading of the limbs and forced holding of the breath and other kinds of self-mortification are misuse of the body. Misuse with reference to speech is indulgence in language that is insinuating, untrue, untimely, quarrelsome, unpleasant, incoherent, unhealthful, harsh etc. The misuse with reference to the mind consists of giving way to fear grief, anger, greed, infatuation, self-conceit, envy deluded thinking etc.
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These should be corrected and the way of correcting the defects of the body and mind constitute medicine in general. But those of the mind require the practice of a regimen of conduct, made up of mental and emotional discipline. This is otherwise known as the good life (Sadvrtta) or �Dharma�, or righteous behavior. The inclination for righteousness must be continually kept up by effort for there is a natural decline of that tendency in men from age to age. Atreya says elsewhere, &quot;In every succeeding age there is a fourth part of righteousness dwindling down, and similarly the qualities of things. In the world, the lifespan of people too go down at the rate of one year for every hundredth part of the age&quot;. (Vimana III, 24-25) Man must therefore be ever vigilant in countering this tendency and pursue the good life with all his strength, with his mind and with all his soul. Atreya described the good life as constituting the factors for happiness and long-life in this world and also for liberation of the spirit (Sutra VIII 18).
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Thus the good life is not only that which gives spiritual fulfilment and final liberation but also one which is fraught with good in this life avoiding the ill-tempers of the mind which may even culminate in psychic diseases such as insanity, epilepsy and other diseases and make the body subsceptible to somatic disease also. The good life therefore from the points of view of happiness in this life as well as in the next and final liberation, must be assiduously practiced, for Ayurveda is the science in which the well being in both the worlds is established, as well as the means of final liberation of man, the aggregate being.
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�That is named the Science of Life wherein are laid down the good and the bad life, the happy and the unhappy life, and what is wholesome and what unwholesome in relation to life, as also the measure of life.�
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[[Category:Ayurveda]][[Category:Charak Samhita]]
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 

Latest revision as of 06:28, 28 February 2019

Chapter I

Initiation of Metaphysics and Medicine

Physical pain, in general form like disease and particularly death, has awakened the latent potencies in man for survival, growth and conquest over it. In the efforts for survival, one must study the depths of the physical and spiritual being in order to discover the laws of evolution of mankind and it's progress thereafter. The progress of the civilization becomes a vital necessary aspect to understand life in general form and human life in particular.

In the pursuit of science and astronomy, the impulse is emphasized on the curiosity, but the sense of pain in the forms of diseases and death brings out the reality in a tremendously vital manner. Confronting this imperative call, the only effective solution to the problem was to focus on unfolding this predicament with the utmost strength, sincerity and determination.

Religion and philosophy, both are primarily therapeutic in their nature and origin. The first dose of medicine administered or taken by man must have been a divine incantation, invocation or the sacred remnant of food offered to the superhuman powers.[1]

Aryans are considered to be highly evolved race of the ancient origin. They have tried to find the solutions to the physical problems of human existence. Not only in today's era, but also in ancient times, human populous was under the threat of the disease and premature death. An appeal for help from the superhuman powers also was initiated from the physical sufferings. This unfolds the elaborate vision of thought for the earnest and determined persons. This was the point of initiation of the thought processes by the ancient sages to overcome these diseases. This led them to take a refuge into Indra, the king of the immortals.[2]

The Sources of Knowledge in Caraka - Aptopadeṣa

In Caraka Samhitā, a common revelation regarding the sources of science and arts, sources of knowledge is given a significant importance. This weightage is also common in other sources of knowledge prevalent during that time. It was a general belief that when men with the pure heart and chaste mind engaged themselves in sincere and deep meditation for human welfare, truth about the origin is revealed. This was the ultimate knowledge.

Types of Sources of Knowledge

In the Caraka Samhitā, the sage Atreya, propounds the four sources of knowledge:

  1. Direct perception
  2. Inference
  3. Revelation or testimony of good men
  4. Common sense

Other Resources

According to some schools of philosophy, 'Veda' is an authority because it is eternal and does not owe its versification to human authorship. But as per Caraka philosophy, its validity is based on the trustworthy nature of the renowned sages. Sage Atreya expounds further saying, "Trustworthy tradition of knowledge is called Veda". But the references of other learned sages who have conducted investigation in any field of knowledge consistent with the Veda and approved by other learned men are also conducive to the human welfare. They should also be accounted to be authoritative. This is a healthy extension which predicts the catholicity and reasonableness of the propounders of the science.

Qualities of a Reliable Men

Revelation or reliable declaration called as authoritative teaching is given the utmost importance to understand the means of knowledge. While describing the nature of the persons whose declarations are entrusted, sage Atreya comments:

Men who have freed themselves from the passion and ignorance by the means of spiritual endeavor and knowledge, and whose understanding embraces the past, present and future; pure at all times and which are authoritative, learned and enlightened. Their word is unimpeachable and true. Why will such men, devoid of passion and ignorance, will utter a lie or mislead others.

Pratyakṣa

Pratyakṣa means direct perception. It is the next source of knowledge. For understanding this phenomena, the actual contact of the external senses of the man with the objects of the world is essential. But that is not enough, because in the absence of the mind, simple contact of the sense-organ with an object produces no knowledge. This Pratyakṣa rises an inevitable question of the subtler mechanism of the mind without the contact of which no perception is possible. The recording agent of the perception is the mind known as sattva in Caraka. Atreya declares that the mind is sattva because it is higher than the senses. Some call it as the conscious agent. Its perceptions which are joy, grief etc., are the incentives to the functioning of the senses.[3] The senses can perceive their objects only when they are led by the mind.[4]

The way that each sense-organs come in contact with its particular proto-elemental sense-object such as the eye with visual object, the ear with sound etc, is explained physiologically. Though physiologically there are five sense-organs, each the products of five natural proto-elements, yet each sense organ has in its construction one proto-element in preponderance. It perceives that proto-elemental sense-object in the external world. Thus the eye which has a preponderance of light perceives light outside in the form of color and shape. The ear which has the preponderance of the ether in its construction perceives sound in the outside world. Rest of the sensory organs also work in the same accordance.

The contact of the proto-element in the sense organ with the world is a physical commingling.[5] The mind acknowledges and receives the impression and passes it to the intellect called as 'Buddhi'. Then begins the interaction between the tetrad of the subtle group of inner mechanism of knowledge resulting into action. The tetrad consists of the mind along with it's objects, understanding and spirit.[6]

This aggregate is the source of good or bad activity.[7] Perception is defined as the cognition, definite and immediate, arising from the conjunction of the soul, senses, mind and sense objects.[8] Under the abnormal conditions, the sense organs are also liable to perceive non-existent things. This is called as hallucination i.e. perceiving things not real. It is termed as atattvābhiniveṣa.

Anumāna

It was incurred that the knowledge that results from the chain of contact of the self, mind, senses and the sense-objects is known as direct perception. Sage Atreya then defines the next source Anumāna. It can be termed as Inference. Medicine is a science which propounds the laws that govern life and physical and chemical properties of the drugs. Though its observations are basically direct, yet conclusions and generalizations regarding the invisible and abstract data has to be made with the help of inferential methods. Thus the need to supplement sense observations by inference was inevitable.

Atreya asserts that there is a limited scope of knowledge which is drawn purely from the observation. He positively opines that one should comprehend that visible is limited. There exists a vast unlimited world which is invisible and we know that world only through the evidence of scriptural inferences and reasoning. As a matter of fact even the senses by whose direct observations are obtained are outside the range of observation. Further even a perceivable object escapes observation under the following conditions:

  • Either too close or too remote from the observer
  • Obstructed by other objects
  • Defect in the perceiving sense-organ
  • When the observers attention is elsewhere
  • Object when immersed in the mass
  • Overshadowed by something else
  • Microscopic

Hence it is an unwarranted statement to make that only the visible things exists and nothing else otherwise.[9] The knowledge pertaining to the three parts of time i. e. the past, present and future can be inferred from the basis of a person's direct knowledge of the things. Inference therefore is primarily based on direct perception. The inferring of the unobserved from the observed is based on antecedent knowledge of their concomitance.

The inferring of the existence of fire in a place by the perception of smoke is an inferential knowledge of an unobserved thing of the present time. Similarly there is the inference of the sexual act of a woman in the past by observing her present state of pregnancy. Thirdly, there is the inference of the prospect of a good crop in the future by judging the nature of the seed sown, based on past experience of their relationship. Inference here is seen understood and defined in its most rudimentary form based on the law of association.

The same inference is illustrated again while elaborating the technical terms used in conversation among the physicians. In clinical investigations inference is said to be the reasoning based on correlation of cause and effect. One should infer the condition of the gastric fire by the power of digestion, conditions of the patient's vitality by his capacity for exercise and condition of his sense-organs by his perceptions.

Yukti

Yukti means the correlation of a set of causes or circumstances with an effect based on the common-sense. It is also accounted to be the another source of knowledge. This may be called as the law of probability. It implies that one can foresee an effect under the given set of circumstances with a great degree of probability. When etiological factors like water, agricultural labor, seeds and the effects of season occur, a good crop results. Here there is a combination of the six elements constituting the living body where the embryo can develop.

The combination of the lower and upper churning sticks along with the act of churning brings out fire. Yukti means a combination. So a combination or a set of circumstances or things that are responsible for an effect by itself is a factor of knowledge, though the actual procedure of arriving at the point of knowledge is by the same law of association that governs the inference. One may call it a compound inference against the simple inference of a cause from an effect or vice versa. From variety of the factors this result is inferred.

Perhaps the application of this method was found useful in the therapeutic and pharmacological realms in particular. The master sums up the merits of yukti in the verses denoting that yukti is a means of knowing the past, present and future. By the aid of yukti, the mind perceives results brought about by various factors. Through these factors, all the three objectives of life can be pursued. These four objectives are:

  1. Dharma
  2. Artha
  3. Kāma
  4. Mokṣa

The last objective is evidently not achieved by yukti.[10]

The Inner Sources of Knowledge

For knowledge and action both, the inner-self requires the co-ordination of mind, intellect and the organs of perception and conation.[11] The organs of perception and action are the external parameters of knowledge. The cognitive triad of internal organs of Buddhi, Ahaṅkāra and mind are the internal participants. All the thirteen organs necessarily function mutually with knowledge as well as action. There is a concept in which the inner organs are proclaimed to be two only i. e. the Buddhi[12] and the ego[13].

Atreya proclaims that the Buddhi is born of the Avyakta, the non-manifest. From Buddhi, the sense of ego is born.[14] This is in accordance with the Nyāya school of philosophy which holds that mind is the root cause of knowledge and not the self.[15] This deduces that there is no self beyond the combination of mind, intellect and senses. But Vatsyāyana denies this presumption asserting that the knower possesses the instruments of knowledge, sees with the eye, smells with nose, touches with organ of touch and recognizes all these experiences with the mind. It also enables the observer to know about these experiences. Hence the mind is called the foundation of knowledge. Thence it is regarded as the inner organ of knowledge as denoted in Brahmasutra.[16]

Nature of Mind

The mind is indicated by both the existence and the non-existence of the condition of knowledge. When it is not in contact with the self, senses and sense-objects, there is no knowledge. Isolation and consistency are the two qualities of the mind.[17] The Vaiśeśika sutra and Nyāya Sutra emphasizes on the same phenomena.[18][19]

The experiences of happiness, grief, like, dislike etc. are directly perceived by the mind. Vaiśeśika Sutra signifies that these experiences are harmoniously perceived by the senses and mind. It is so implied because happiness and grief are perceived through the contact with self, senses and other sense-objects. The mind comprehends these senses through the sense organs. The functions of the mind are inquiring, thinking and determining. These functions, as described by Caraka, is the direction for senses, self-control, reasoning and deliberation. Beyond this point, intellect envisions.[20]

Types of Mind

Atreya regards the mind to be of three varieties. They are[21]:

  1. Śuddha or Sattvic - This type of mind is accounted to be faultless and of good nature.
  2. Rajasic - This type of mind is beset with moderate faults like the nature of passion, but overall it is also considered to be good.
  3. Tamasic - This type of mind is considered to be the most faulty of rest of the types. It is denoted to be nature of delusion.
But the human nature is so diverse that it can be good at one time, passionate at other time and ignorant and deluded also at some time. This arises an inquiry if there are different minds in a single person or not. Atreya answers contradicting this belief stating that,
"Owing to the admixture of all three qualities in each mind of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, the same mind behaves as if it were many, but it is only one."

Mind, being a single identity, cannot work in various ways and through various senses at one and the same moment. Hence one cannot perform various sensory functions at the same time.[22] But on a general note, the mind is classed to be of single type by the sages according to the preponderant quality of its tendencies. It is known by its predominant quality.[23]

References of This Theory

There are various references supporting the above said theory of the complexities of mind in an individual. The Kathopaniṣad says,
"The sense perceptions are higher than the sense organs, mind is higher than the perceptions, intellect is higher than the mind and the self is higher than the intellect."

Various Sānkhya schools were built up categorically on the perception of mind, it's original nature, ego and it's correlation. The yoga system borrows and supports this theory to quite an extent. Hence there is no difference due to the subtle mechanism of knowledge in man and various factors in their order or succession. Only the Vedantins regard mind, intellect, ego and Chitta as different subtle organs.[24] Then there occurs a question that what is Chitta and what is its relevance with the mind. It is a query that whether it is the mind in itself or not. Hence it can be deduced that they remain the inner organs of knowledge. These together with the sense-organs form the entire mechanism of knowledge by all four means namely:

  1. Aptopadeṣa
  2. Pratyakṣa
  3. Anumāna
  4. Yukti

These sense organs should be healthy and toned so that it can yield legitimate knowledge and lead a human being to good life. The way of maintaining them in a proper condition is described in the chapter dealing with the discipline of the senses as declared by the sage Atreya in the Caraka Samhitā.

Chapter II

Reality of Soul and World

It is difficult to say whether an unequivocal definition of the reality or exposition of the nature of the things of the world, which one has been consistently held throughout the Caraka Samhitā. Glimpses of definitions and views expounded in extension by the Vaiṣeśikā, Nyāya, Sankhya and Vedānta systems of philosophy are also found here. It gave an insight for pursuing the practical science for medicine which is concerned with whatever was found applicable to suit its theory and practical concepts.

Prologue of Samhitā mentions the Vaiśeśikā categories of Sāmānya and Viśeśa. These theories are general and particularly deduced as per the therapeutic highlights. This is prefaced by the topics like synonyms for life, union of the body, senses, mind and spirit.[25] The explanation of the nature of Sāmānya and Viśeśa served to be the foundation for synthesis and analysis respectively. It is followed up by a restatement of the synthesis that 'Man is like a tripod who is the aggregate of mind, spirit and body'. Man is considered to be the conscious agent and forms the main subject of this science. It has been promulgated for the betterment of the living race.[26]

Base Essentials of Life

The totality of the existent things has been described by Atreya. They are based on the five proto-elements like ether, self, mind, time and space. It is the sum total of these things. It is possessed of the senses which are sentient or animate. Things not possessed of the senses are insentient or inanimate. The subject of the Vaiśeśika categories of reality implies that the theory was a very popular concept followed during that period. The knowledge of the six categories is tacitly taken for granted in present day teachings. These six categories comprise of the following factors:

  1. Substance
  2. Quality
  3. Action
  4. Generality
  5. Particularity
  6. Inherence or co-existence

Vaiśeśikā and Nyāya Sutra substances are the nine preliminary components on which their further exposition is omitted. It comprises of the following:

  1. Earth
  2. Water
  3. Light
  4. Air
  5. Ether
  6. Time
  7. Directions
  8. Self
  9. Mind

Essentials as per Other Resources

Atreya expounds the nature of these categories in cryptic phrases. He also refers to the lists of the qualities in the later parts of the treatise. It denotes that one can pursue actual knowledge with the endless efforts of the perceptions for the subject.[27] These efforts are accounted as actions.[28] The nature of the action is explained in later section as the therapeutic endeavor of the drugs.[29] The qualities of sense-perceptions such as sound, smell etc. are the qualities which are the objects of sense-perception.[30] According to the Vaiśeśika physics each quality is special to proto-element such as smell to earth, taste to water, form to fire, touch to air and sound to ether. These qualities are combined in things like there is a mixture of the elements in each thing.[31]

Qualities of Base Essentials

The qualities of the substances such as heaviness, lightness, cold, heat, unctuousness, dryness, denseness, fixity, fluidity, softness, hardness, clearness, viscosity, smoothness, roughness, grossness, subtleness, thickness and thinness are the common peculiarities. These are explained in their medical context in details.

The psychic qualities of intelligence or Buddhi consists of memory, feelings, concentration and ego. The qualities displaying emotions are like, dislike, happiness, grief, effort, feeling and concentration.[32] The priority among these are as per the preference, importance, application of number, synthesis, analysis, particularity, measure, preparation and practice.[33]

Significance of Action

Action is described in an entirely therapeutic sense. As per the Vaisesikā view, action is the movement of five kinds namely:

  1. Upward
  2. Downward
  3. Expansion
  4. Contraction
  5. Indeterminate

Therapeutically construed, a drugs action can be analyzed in any of the five-fold manners described above. It even may be used for purpose of nemesis, purgation and such other therapeutic procedures. Therefore analysis of the therapeutic drug behavior is the prime duty of the physician before administering it to the patients. The chapter defining the therapeutic action delineates it to be the endeavor for achieving a definite result. It is also called as action, effort and initiation of work or treatment.[34]

It is evident that in Caraka, all the Vaiśeśika terms are applied in the therapeutic connotation while the terms of physics are applied to the pharmacological and physiological consequences. This serves as a clue to our general understanding of the scope and purpose of the treatise in its use of logical and metaphysical terms. They are taken from a context of pure thoughts and applied to the medical and practical situation.

This is an attempt for culling the facts and definitions which are already current in a manner suited to the purpose of building a framework of a positive science wherein drugs, man, disease and its cure could be harmonized. Hence, it is necessary to define and understand the terms and the factors that enables such framework. It is also significant to understand the corresponding terms of other scientific branches including the science of logic, physics and metaphysics which are culled and utilized.

Samavaya

Samavaya is called as co-existence. The definition of Samavaya provides a striking illustration in this respect in four verses of Sutrasthāna.[35] The nature of coexistence as well as substance and quality and action is described in details in these verses. Coexistence is the quality which cannot be differentiated from the Earth. It also implies that it is eternal.

There are places where the substance exhibits the coexistent quality. Foundation of the base essentials is the the substratum of action, qualities and the coexistent. Quality is the coexistent and inactive cause for the same. Action which is the cause of conjunction and incoherence resides in the substance. It also depends on the performance of what is to be done which depends on nothing else.

Cause and Effect

The six categories of the substances are denoted as hexad. They are denoted as the 'cause' of everything or effects prevalent in the world. The theory of the nine substances comprising of the things of the world is common to Vaiśeśikā and has been endorsed by the medical teachers. The world is full of effects in the forms of drugs, persons and things of eternal original substances. The five proto-elements are atomic in the structure and the atoms are possessed of the quality and action in the relation of generality, particularity and coexistence. Hence it can be conduced as the plurality of the ultimate things. The world is a mixture of different combinations. The products of such combinations are more than mere an aggregate of the parts of which they are produced.

The Sānkhya which includes these causes among its categories, refers them to be the original cause due to which evolution occurred. There are twenty-five categories in this which are ultimately reduced to two namely the self and original nature or prakṛti. The nature of prakṛti is known variously as 'Avyakta' and 'Pradhāna'. In Caraka Samhitā, there is a sudden transition from the pluralism of the Nyāya-Vaiśeśika to the Sānkhya categories. This made a fundamental deviation from it betraying Vedantic inclinations towards one common origin of all the things.

Chapter III

Constitution of Man

Body constitution of man and problems related to it are the core subjects of study for the science of medicine. The science of medicine was promulgated for the better lifestyle for mankind.[36] If one wants to understand the human biology, one must perceive the world because human constitution is very similar to the world in it's construction. Human structure is the microcosm as well as the macrocosm in miniature. This point has been comprehensively discussed in various ways from different standpoints in Caraka Samhitā. Similarly the world of six categories can also be defined as the world of six elements. Out of them the foundational five proto-elements are:

  1. Earth
  2. Water
  3. Fire
  4. Air
  5. Ether

Along with the above mentioned five, the sixth element which acts for sustenance of life is the conscious element. Man is identical with the conscious element also. Śarirasthāna denotes man to be an aggregate of these six elements.[37] But on advanced research, it is evident that there is a further elaboration of these principles into an aggregate of twenty-four elements which consists of mind, ten sense and action organs and five elements of the sense objects.[38]

Chapter IV

Unity in Diversity

It is remarkable that despite of the various diversities regarding the nature of reality, religions of the world are unanimous in their sense of ethical values towards life. Elimination of envy, hatred, covetousness, wickedness and practice of good behavior, love and self-sacrifice are universally acclaimed as the right way of life. These actions can only be controlled if one can control the senses and mind. One should also imply the necessary discipline and inner purity. Various religions and six systems of the philosophy of thoughts have a common upholding of righteous conduct and mental and emotional parity. This type of conduct is the foundation for liberation as per all the religions of world.

Ethical Progress

A theistic belief is unessential in upholding such high ethical ideals of life. Buddhism, as well as Sānkhyaism and Mimaṅsā doctrines are avowedly ethical in their ideals and uphold a rigorous discipline of the mind and heart in the interests of the supreme fulfillment of life. It is quite evident from the ethical history of man that there is an inner compulsion that extorts his instinctive allegiance to what is right, good and virtuous.

Despite man's inability to believe in the creator, he accepts the mystical efficiency and fruit-bearing power of good and evil ways of life. Faith in the invisible power of action is known as 'Karma'. It is produced by the same instinct. In Caraka Samhitā, we find many references to faith of man in earlier times along with the efficiency of demarcating in good and evil actions.

Additional Doctrines

The Vaiśeśika believed in the expounding of Caraka Samhitā. It begins virtually and is concerned primarily with the teachings righteous living. The Sutras of Kanada begin with the aphorisms which expounds the nature of virtue. The origin of Ayurveda is for the preservation of human lives so the man can lead a life without hindering austerity, meditation and discipline of mind. Ayurveda evolved with an intention of the sages to cure the sufferings of humanity and all the other living organisms.[39]

Concept of Karma

Not withstanding the absolute nature of the inner compulsion for good conduct and duty, the mentality of mankind is impelled only by the fear of evil effects and hope of happiness resulting from vices and virtues respectively. This is the hypothesis of the concept of Karma. It must therefore be regarded as the foundational beginning though man is accredited to put an end to it. The diversity of the initial circumstances which gives birth to a being is directly related to the overall actions and conduct followed in the previous lives. This total causal force by whose residual energy a person is catapulted into the life is known as destiny.[40]

According to Caraka, the destiny is called as 'Daiva'. Performing actions in the present life is called 'Puruṣakara'. This doctrine of previous incarnations implied by karma is advocated affirmatively by Caraka. It has been affirmed by all the four methods of ascertainment viz:

  1. Scriptural testimony
  2. Direct perception
  3. Inference
  4. Common sense

Theory of Direct Perception

From direct perception we can deduce the following:

  • The children are not completely like their parents.
  • Those born on the exact same time have different traits of color, voice, shape, mind and intellect.
  • People are born of higher and lower castes. Some are born slaves and some are lords with varying degrees of happiness, grief and life-span.

Concept of Rebirth

The great sages on the basis of their meritorious life and infallible vision have declared the existence of rebirth unequivocally.[41] New born babies without any acquaintance before, seek for the mother's breast, weep and cry. They also exhibit their fear. This is not possible in there is no memory of their past lives. The children are born with various marks on their bodies. These marks denotes a variety in their skills and tendencies. Sometimes these marks forms the emblems of specific memory from their past birth.

Theory of Inference

The fruits availed due to the actions of previous birth should be fully experienced to put an end to them. In each and every life a person also performs new actions. Hence there is a continuous residue of the action whose fruits are yet to be reaped. This is known as 'Daiva', the unseen factor that ushers in life in the present birth. One has to infer the nature of the seed from the fruit as it reflects the same qualities which are present in seed.

The acts or the behavior which has been conducted by a person whether good or bad is responsible for the results a person may reap. Fruit always comes out of a seed. Similarly consequences of any action is similar in nature to the causal actions. If one has performed good deeds in the past life then it will result in good consequences in this life and vice-versa. [42]

This leads us to the further problems of the pre-destination of the nature of this life. As the best example of this, Atreya discusses the problem of the span of life of a man. If the present life and all the happiness in it is totally due to the result of actions of the previous birth, his life span must be already determined and neither spiritual nor any kind of physical healing will avail anything. In such cases, the science of being becomes of no use. It has no place in the world where a life can neither be prolonged by medicine nor shortened by any disease. Then there remains no purpose for either saving or killing a life. But Atreya has a way out of this morass of pre-destiny. He describes three kinds of actions called as Puruṣakara.[43]

Puruṣakara

Life is not just a reflection of the actions done in past life. There is a scope for fresh start of new actions which is termed as Puruṣakara. The types of Puruṣakara can be classified into three categories:

  1. Powerful
  2. Moderate
  3. Weak

If the past actions are moderate or weak it can be surpassed by the powerful actions of the current life. If the present action are moderate or weak then the powerful actions of past will assert itself and have its full effect. Only the present powerful actions can void off the ill-results of the past, moderate or mild actions. Hence man must pursue the righteous life intensely. One can be the own architect of life by the actions in present life.

Puruṣakara as per Atreya

This is a hope inspiring positive provision that Atreya holds for mankind without which there would be no motivation for any good or reformist effort in life. It is a very significant contribution to meta-physical thought that Atreya has made while discussing the ways and possibilities of averting the results of past actions. According to him 'Daiva' gets nullified by the stronger Puruṣakara. The stronger the Daiva overpowers; the weaker actions of present life of a person would be more better.[44] This mutual counteracting is inevitable but sometimes it does not even occur according to the relative strength of the two kinds of action influenced by the time factor. But these both factors are accounted to have a strong hold over this field exclusively.[45]

Pursuit of Life

With this background, let us find the necessity for an intense wish for the pursuit of good life. The Smṛtis say that man must pursue righteousness throughout one's life as death of a person is destined and no one knows when one is going to die. In Caraka Samhitā, all the mental and spiritual evils like the bodily ailments are regarded as the diseased conditions due to volitional transgression. Present day philosophers regard crime and wickedness also as a pathological condition. The punishments for the same is to be accorded from a reformative as well as therapeutic point of view. Atreya's point of view over this point considers humanity and scientific nature of the modern outlook on moral evils.

Sadvṛtta as per Caraka

Rajas and Tamas are the bad humors of the mind just as vāta, pitta and kapha are for the body. Self-restraint, moderation, dedication to the study of scriptures and meditation are described to have the psychic or divine therapy. This divine therapy is described in great elaboration in the scriptures known as Sadvṛtta.[46]

Sadvṛtta as per Atreya

Atreya declares that all the actions result from either good or bad usage of speech, mind and body. That is of three kinds:

  1. Usage of Speech - Misuse with the reference to speech is through the indulgence in language that is insinuating, untrue, untimely, quarrelsome, unpleasant, incoherent, unhealthful, harsh etc.
  2. Usage of Mind - The bad usage with reference to the mind consists of giving way to fear grief, anger, greed, infatuation, self-conceit, envy, deluded thinking etc.
  3. Usage of Senses or body - This classification is based on the three-fold division of sense-contact with the external objects which are excessive contact, non-contact and wrong contact. All of this constitutes the factor of disease. Complete absence of action of speech, mind and body is non-operational. Excessive exercise of them is over-action. Forced suppression or forced excitation of the natural urges, awkward stumbling, falling and posturing of limbs, abusing the body, injuring the body, violent kneading of the limbs and forced holding of the breath and other kinds of self-mortification are considered under the misuse of a body.

Remediation Measures

The defects of senses can be corrected just as any defect in body can be corrected with treatment of medicines. But the defects created out of mind requires the practice of a regimen of conduct determined by mental as well as emotional discipline. This is otherwise known as the righteous life[47] or Dharma. The inclination for righteousness must be continuously kept up by the efforts because there is a natural decline of that tendency in men from various ages. Atreya says that in every succeeding age, there is a fourth part of righteousness dwindling down and similarly the qualities of things.

Views of Cakrapāṇi

Cakrapāṇi, the commentator on Caraka, in his note on one phrase suggests that sometimes it also happens that some men return to their bodies after death if the messengers of Yama had taken them due to mistaken identity.[48] These are the agreed facts of the direct evidence of life and justify the faith in incarnations. This modus operandi advocates this phenomena completely.

Inference

The lifespan of people also go down at the rate of one year for every hundredth part of the age.[49] Man must therefore be ever vigilant in countering this tendency and pursue a good life with determination and dedication of mind and soul respectively. Atreya prescribed to lead a righteous life which is the constituting factor for happiness and longevity. The life lead thus becomes the root cause for the liberation of the spirit.[50]

The good life is not only that which gives spiritual fulfillment and final liberation but also the one avoiding the bad tempers of the mind. This even culminates in psychic diseases such as insanity, epilepsy and other such diseases. It also leads the body from sub-skeptical to somatic diseases. The life therefore from the points of view of happiness in this life as well as in the next and final liberation, must be assiduously practiced. This establishes well-being in both the worlds, as per Ayurveda. It further asserts that it the reason which accelerates the means of final liberation of man. This is the Science of Life wherein are laid down the principles of the good and bad life which results into the happy and unhappy life respectively. This is called as wholesome and unwholesome life. It also acts as a regulatory measure to lead a good life.

References

  1. The sacred remnant of food offered to superhuman powers is called as prasād.
  2. Caraka Sutra I, 17
  3. Caraka Sutra VIII 4
  4. Caraka Sutra VIII 7
  5. Caraka Sutra VIII 14
  6. It means Ātmā.
  7. Sutra VIII 13
  8. Sutra, XI-20
  9. Sutra XI, 7-8
  10. Caraka Sutra XI 25
  11. Śarira Trayam 1-56
  12. Here it refers to the mind.
  13. Here it means Ahaṅkāra.
  14. Śarīra I 66
  15. Nyāyasutra 1-16
  16. Brahmasutra 2-3-40
  17. Śarira 1-18-19
  18. Vaiśeśika Sutra 3-2-9
  19. Nyāya Sutra 1.1 16
  20. Śarira, 1-21
  21. Sarira IV-36
  22. Sutra VII1-5
  23. Sutra VIII-6
  24. It is called 'aṅtahkarana caṭustaya'.
  25. Caraka Sutra I 42
  26. Caraka Sutra I, 46-47
  27. Caraka Sutra 1-49
  28. Caraka Sutra 1-49
  29. Caraka Vimāna VIII
  30. Śarirasthāna I
  31. Nyāyasutra 3-1
  32. Śarirasthāna I
  33. Caraka Sutra XXVI, 29-30
  34. Caraka Vimāna VIII-77
  35. Sutrasthāna 1,49-52
  36. Sutrasthāna 1-47
  37. Śarirasthāna I. 16
  38. Śarirasthāna 1-17
  39. Caraka Sutra VI, 7
  40. Destiny is also called as Vidhi or Daiva.
  41. Caraka Sutra XI 28-29
  42. Caraka Sutra XI, 31-32
  43. Caraka Vimāna III 31
  44. Caraka Vimāna III, 33-34
  45. Caraka Vimāna III, 34-35
  46. Caraka Sutra 1-58
  47. It is called as Sadavṛtta.
  48. Caraka Sutra XI, 30
  49. Caraka Vimāna III, 24-25
  50. Caraka Sutra VIII 18
  • The Caraka Samhita published by Shree Gulabkunverba Ayurvedic Society, Jamnagar, India