sāman The word sāman refers to the Sāmaveda as also its mantras. (See SĀMAVEDA for details.) Sāman is also one of the four upāyas or means available to the kings while dealing with others. In general, it means to cement the bonds of friendship with the person who should not be alienated. This can be done in five ways: by recounting the good turns done by each to the other; by praising the qualities and actions of the other person who is to be won over; declaring the relationship of each other; representing the good that will result in future; declaring ‘I am yours and I am at your service.’ (Kāmandaklya- nltisāra 17.4 and 5).