Talk:Sāman is also one of the four upāyas

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By Swami Harshananda

Sāman is also one of the four upāyas

or means available to the kings while dealing with others. In general, it means to cement the bonds of friendship with the person who should not be alienated.

This can be done in five ways: by recounting the good turns done by each to the other; by praising the qualities and actions of the other person who is to be won over; declaring the relationship of

each other; representing the good that will result in future; declaring ‘I am yours and I am at your service.’ (Kāmandaklya-nltisāra 17.4 and 5).


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore