Talk:Samayācāryas

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By Swami Harshananda

Samayācāryas literally means ‘teachers of Śiva tradition’.

Śaivism is a very ancient religion or sect of India. The sixty-three Nāyanmārs[1] of Tamil Nadu and also the Śivaśaraṇas of Karnataka are its prominent teachers. The four most important ācāryas or teachers of Tamil Śaivism are generally known as Samayācāryas.[2] They are:

  1. Appar
  2. Jñānasambandhar
  3. Sundara-mūrti
  4. Māṇikkavācagar

Samayamata is another name for Samayācāra.

References

  1. Nāyanmārs means ‘servants of God'.
  2. They are the ‘teachers who knew the samaya or tradition, best’.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore


By Swami Harshananda

Sambandhavārttika literally means ‘brief commentary on the relation’.

Sureśvara[1] was one of the four chief disciples of Śaṅkara.[2] He has written two vārttikas or sub-commentaries on the bhāṣyas of Śaṅkara on the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad and the Taittiriya Upanisad. The first one is one of the longest works spread over 11,151 verses in Indian philosophy. The introductory part of it consisting of 1135 verses is known as Sambandhavārttika. It tries to establish the sambandha or relation between the Karmakāṇḍa portion and the Jñānakāṇḍa portion of the Veda which deal with rituals and knowledge respectively. The work is highly polemical.


References

  1. He lived in A. D. 800.
  2. He lived in A. D. 788-820.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore


By Swami Harshananda

Sāmbapurāṇa is an upapurāṇa[1] belonging to the Saura group.[2] It might have been composed during the period A.D. 500-800. Sāmba was the son of Kṛṣṇa from his wife Jāmbavatī. He is said to have established a temple for Surya or Sun-god at the city Sāmbapura built by him. He brought eighteen families of Magi priests from Śākadvīpa and handed over the regular worship of Surya to them.

This work contains many interesting stories. Other details dealt with are:

  1. Creation
  2. Solar system
  3. Eclipses
  4. Geography of the earth
  5. Description of the deity Surya and his attendants
  6. Images of these deities
  7. Some details about yoga
  8. Mantras and their use
  9. Customs and manners
  10. Certain rites and rituals
  11. Results of actions


References

  1. Upapurāṇa means minor or secondary purāṇa.
  2. Saura group is devoted to Sun-worship.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore


By Swami Harshananda

Sambarāsura was one of the four sons of Dakṣa from his wife Danu.[1] and lived in pātāla.[2]


References

  1. He was a dānava or demon by nature.
  2. Pātāla means nether world.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore


By Swami Harshananda

Śāmbhavimudrā literally means ‘mudrā related to Śambhu or Śiva’.

It is fixing the gaze on the light of the ātman, in the space between the eyebrows,[1] ultimately resulting in ātmajñāna. Such a yogi becomes like Ādinātha[2] or Nārāyaṇa.

According to another definition it is aiming at Brahman inwardly though the gaze of the eyes is fixed outside, but seeing nothing. This technique learnt from a guru, through his grace, will lead to the realization of the Śambhutattva or Śiva.[3] The correct methods have to be learnt from a competent guru.


References

  1. Gheranda Samhitā 3.64-67
  2. Ādinātha means Primeval Lord.
  3. Hathayogapradīpikā 4.34-37
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore