Talk:The Dharmasutras

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It seems tliai originally many, though not all, of the Llhaynm- Sutras formed part of the Kalpasiitras and were studied in distinct siitracaranas. Some of the exiaiu dharmasutras here and there show in unmistakable terms that they presuppose the Grhyasutra of the carana to which they belong. Compare Ap. Dh. S. I. i. 4. 16 with Ap. Gr. S. I. 12 and II, 5 ; and Baud. Dh. S. II. 8. 20 xvith Baud. Gr. S. II. II. 42 (and other siitras)'*. The Dharmasutras belonging to all siitracaranas have not come down to us. There is no dharmasutra completing the Asvalayana Srauta and Grhya sutras ; no Manavadharmasutra has yet come to light, though the 53 VideS. B. E vol. li, p. iX, but see GoldstUcker’s Panini ( pp. 59, 60, 78 ) against Max Muller and Prof. D. R. Bhandarkar's Carmichael lectures for 1918. pp. 105-107. I, 1 . 4 . 16; I 1. 12 and I 3iiT. 7 . II- sr. II. 8 . 20 ) refers to II. 11. 42; refers to ij, II. 5. 66 and other placet where it one of the trett.

M^nava §rauta and Grhya surras are extant ; in the same ws the Sahkhayana Srauta and Grhya sutms, but no ^arikhayan*^^j^*j^" sutra. It is only in the case of the Apastamba, Hiranyalt.. , ^ Baudhayana Sutracaranas that wc have a complete kalpa with its three components of §rauta, Grihya and Dharmasutras ^ Tantravartika of Kumarila contains very interesting obser\’ations this point. It tells us that Gautama ( dharmasutra ) and Gobhily ( grhyasutra ) were studied by the Chaudogas ( Samavedins Vasistha ( dharmasiitra ) by the Rgvedins, the dharmasutra of .^artkha-Likhita by the followers of Vajasaneya-saihhita and the suiras of Apastamba and Baudhayana by the followers of the Taittiriya §akha 55 . The Tantravfirtika ( p. 179 ) establishes it asa.std-’ on Jaimini I. 3. ii) that all the ff/wrma and grhya sutras are authoritative for all Aryan people. From this it appears that although originally all sutracaranas might not have possessed dharmasutras composed by the founder of the caraija or ascribed to him, 5’et gradually certain dharmasutras were specially taken over or appropriated by certain raraijas. As the dharwasntras were mostly concerned with rules about the conduct of men as members of the Aryan community and did not deal with ritual of any kind, all dharmasntras gradually became authoritative in all schools.

The dharmasntras were closely connected with the grhyasntras in subjects and topics. Most of the Grhyasutras treat of the sacred domestic fire, the divisions of Grhya sacrifices, the regular morning and evening oblations, s;icrificcs on new and full moon, sacrifices of cooked food, annual sacrifices, marriage, piuhsavana, jatakarma, upanayana and other sasthktiras, rules for students and snAtakas and holidays, sraddha offerings, madhuparka. In most cases the Grihyasutras confine themselves principally to the various events of dome.stic life ; they rarely give rules about the conduct of men, their rights, duties and responsibilities. The dharmasutras also contain rules on some of the above topics such as marriage and the sarnskaras.

Brahmacarya anJ snatakas and holidays, on srfiddha and in therefore not to be wondered at tliat in the the topics of the duties of the Brahmacarin the house-holder, of dtitbis and of iraddha are meagrely as compared with the Apastamba-dharmasutra. The dharma- very rarely describe the ritual of domestic life ; they merely ^^)uch upon it ; their scope is wider and more ambitious ; their Principal purpose is to dilate upon the rules of conduct, law and custom. Some sutras are common to both the Apastamba-grhya and the dhanna siitra*^’. Sometimes the grhyasuira appears to refer to the dharmasLitra*". There are certain points which distinguish the dharmasutras ( the more ancient of them at least ) from smrtis. ( a ) Many dharmasutras are cither parts of the Kalpa belonging to each sutracarana or are intimately connected with the grhyasiilras.

( b ) The dharmasutras sometimes betray some partiality in their \"edic quotations for the texts of that Veda to which they belong or in the caranas of which they are studied, (c) The authors of the (older ) dharmasutras do not claim to be inspired seers ov superhuman beings\ while the other smritis such as those of Manu and Yajnavalkya are ascribed to Gods like Brahma. ( d ) The illuiriihisulnis arc in prose or in mixed prose and verse ; the other smnis are in \erse. (e ) 'fhe language of the dhdnmtsnfnts is generally more archaic than that of the other smrtis. ( f ) The diktniiasntras do noi proceed upon any orderly arrangement of topics, while the other smritis ( even the oldest of them, viz. Maiuismriti ) arrange their contents and treat of the subjects under three principal heads viz. (luinf, vyavahdva and prayakitta. { g) Most of the dbrirmtsutras are older than most of the other smrtis.

Synopsis Many of them formed part of the Kalpa and were studied in distinct sutra-caranas * dharraasiitras of Apastamha and Baudhayana presuppose grhysutras of their carava ~ no dharraasutras extant corresponding to the srauta and grhya sutras of Asvalayana, Saiikhayana and Manava-Tantravirtika on what dharmasutra was studied in what particular Vedic 5 akha - all dharmasutras gradually became authoritative in all schools - close connection between grhyasutras and dharmasutras on certain topics - scope of dharmasutras - grhyasutras sometimes refer to dharmasutras - points of distinction between dharmasutras and the other smrtis.