From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

Vivāhaḥ/ Marriage

By Jammalamadaka Suryanarayana

Sometimes transliterated as: vivāhaḥ, vivaha, udvāhaḥ, udvaha, paṇigrahaṇaṃ, panigrahanam, pariṇayaḥ, parinaya, upayamaḥ, upayama.

According to the saying 'śatāyur vai puruṣaḥ' the maximum span of human life is considered to be one hundred years. This is further divided into four parts. So each part consists of 25 years more or less. The first part is called brahmacaryāśramaḥ, where the boy is expected to

gṛhasthāśramaḥ, vānaprasthāśramaḥ, sanyāsāśramaḥ 

yathā mātaraṃ āśritya sarvē jīvanti jantavaḥ

tathā gṛhasthaṃ āśritya sarvē jīvanti mānavaḥ[1]

Vivāhaḥ/ Indian marriage is considered to be the most important of all saṃskāraḥ. In the entire literary tradition, Indian marriage is the most widely discussed topic. According to its importance in everybody's life, it is not only extensively discussed in Dharma śāstraṃ but also in different literature like mahābhārataṃ, kāmasutraṃ etc. There are several words to denote the idea of Indian marriage, like vivāhaḥ, pāṇigrahaṇaṃ, pariṇayaḥ, upayamaḥ etc. Each term indicates a different element of marriage. (Such words are udvūlai ( taking the girl out of her parental home ), vivāha ( taking the girl away in a special way or for a special purpose i, e. for making her one's wife ), pariņaya or puriņayana ( going round i, o, making & pradaksiņā to fire), upayama (to bring near and make one's own), and panigrahaņa (taking the hand of the girl). )

Concept of marriage/ Purpose of marriage

Types of marriage

Choosing a bride

Choosing a bridegroom

Restrictions in marriage


Rights and duties of Husband and wife

  1. manusmṛtiḥ