The Spread of Hinduism

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Revision as of 05:01, 14 January 2017 by Himanshu Bhatt (Talk | contribs) (Oceania)

By Himanshu Bhatt

Hindu teachings were spread not just by Indian Hindus migrating and preaching outside of the Indian Subcontinent, but also by visitors to India who came for understanding Hindu spirituality. This latter section includes Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras, Orpheus and Plato, who had all returned to Greece and preached the concepts of karma, bhakti, gyāna, re-incarnation and Mokṣa. Iranian philosophers such as Mani also visited India and later preached similar messages as the Greeks who had become Hindu.

Hindu scholars noted for their wisdom had further promoted the religion through becoming advisers to monarchs outside of India. Kingdoms Kucha[1] and Tukhara[2] in Central Asia, Mongolia[3], Naiman[4] in Western Mongolia, Tibet[5] and mainland China[6], all chose Indian Hindu advisers who promoted Hinduism throughout their kingdoms. Soon an era came in which Greek philosophers describe that 'Greater India' came into being with cultural similarities between many regions outside India. Central Asia was known as Serindia, while from Burma to the Strait of Malacca became Indochina and the islands of the Strait of Malacca became Indonesia.

With the spread of British colonialism in the modern era, many Indians started regularly traveling and emigrating to other British colonies outside of India. Many others also traveled to other colonies, such as of France and Netherlands. Resulting from this diffusion and establishment of communities abroad, Indian Hindus have gone on to democratically achieve becoming leaders of countries such as Guyana, Suriname, Fiji and Mauritius. From colonialism, Europeans also received the opportunities to travel to India and share spiritual ideas with Western nations. As such, the establishment of the Theosophical Society by Helena Blavatsky and Agni Yoga by Nicholas Roerich. The modern age has given a boost to Hinduism through organizations such as the Hare Krishnas, Ananda Margis, Brahma Kumaris and others. Yoga has spread now and is practiced by many non-Hindus for improving and maintaining both physical and mental health.

Middle East

The process of Hinduism spreading in the Middle East is whereby Hindus left India and had traveled to regions within the ancient Neat East and had preached the doctrine and customs. Hindus of Mitanni were Hurrians while those of Anatolia were Hittites, those of Levant the Hurus and those of Egypt, the Hyksos.

Iranian Plateau

See also: Zoroastrianism and Hinduism

Statue of Vishnu sitting cross-legged while holding conch and lotus (underneath peacock) at mosque in Mashad, Khorasan, Iran.
Ancient Greek historian Aelianus in De natura animalium (16.16), also mentions that there were "Indian Arianians" and there is some suggestion that control of Ariana fluctuated between Indian and Arian Arianians.
One of Greco-Bactrian Empire's coins from King Agathocles Dikaios issued around 190-180 BCE, featuring Balarama (left) and Krishna (right) holding Dharmachakra.[7]
Four of Kushan Empire's coins from King Vima Katphisa issued around 166-230 CE, featuring Shiva with his bull attendant. They read, "[Coin] of the great King Vima Kathphisa, the king of kings, lord of all the world, the Mahavesvara."[8]
Hunnic Empire's coin of Bactria in Brahmi from 400-500 CE displaying Lakshmi holding a lotus in one hand and a cornucopia in the other.
Vaiśnava temple in Bandar Abbas, southern Iran. The temple was built in 1892 particularly for the recent Indian immigrants, many of whom were merchants and soldiers. In 1965 the temple was vacant as Indians emigrated. Whereas temples are usually made by stone, dew the climate of Bandar Abbas, rubble stones, mortar, coral rock, soil material and plaster was used in this temple’s construction.
Movement of Indians into Iran

Ancient Iranian lands had a diversity of spiritual beliefs and the religions included Zoroastrianism, Manicheism, Yazdanism, Mandeanism and others. As the original Indo-Iranian homeland was eastwards in the Himalayas, the nations of those areas spread westwards and found existing non-Indo-European peoples there such as Kasodians in Gilan, Taporians in Mazandaran, Urartians in the Caucus Mountain Range, Turukkus, Kassites and Lolobites in the Zagros Mountain Range and Elamites on the southern shoreline. The Turkic groups were known collectively to the natives as the 'Turani'[9] and they were associated with Dānu, just as the Turukṣas coming into India were too. Overtime, the Indo-Iranian cultural significance in the society led to the formation of Indo-Iranian nations that were native to the region (i.e., Hurrians, Baluchis, Armenians.) A Turani monarch had however opposed the Indo-Iranian influence on the plateau and invaded Balkh.[10] After its conquest both it's king and the king's close friend Zarathustra were executed by invading Turanis.[11]

Sir William Jones notes:

Thus it has been proved by clear evidence and plain reasoning that a powerful monarch was established in Iran long before the Assyrian or Pishadi government. That it was in fact, a Hindu monarchy, though any may choose to call it Cusian, Casdean or Scythian..."[12]
Closeness between religions of Iran to Hinduism

Zoroastrianism, which is also known as Mazdayasna (Sacrifice to Ahura Mazda) and as Vehdin (Good Religion), resembles Hinduism in many ways, such as in its origin, beliefs (i.e., common deities) and iconography. Dr. Mills says, "The Avesta is nearer the Veda than the Veda to its own epic Sanskrit." Major gods or yazatas[13] included Varuṇa and Mitra. Zarathustra (Greek: Zoroaster) Spitama was an Athravan priest, a descendant of the Vedic Atharvans. The swastika has been a popular symbol throughout the history of Iran and it has been called by Persians, "The four horses of Mitra."

Among the followers of Zoroastrianism, while the scriptures do not mention the idea of re-incarnation, it is not denied either[14] and some Zoroastrians of India[15] believe in reincarnation.[16] Some esoteric Parsi mystics such as Beaman adhered to the belief in reincarnation.[17] The belief in karma and re-incarnation are perpetuated in the Desatir, wherein it declares that those who are happy now have done good deeds in a previous life while those who suffer now have done bad deeds in former life.[18] It is therefore discredited as a Mazdaean work.

Of Mandeans, Chevalier Emerys writes, "Modern Johannite Mandean Christians of Iraq, also known as Nazoreans, still believe in the doctrine of reincarnation and also teach that Jesus was the reincarnation of the prophet Melchizedek."[19] The Mandeans also believe in reincarnation of the human, if a human does not marry within his or her lifetime.[20] Islamic Druzism believes in reincarnation, and is named after Persian Batinite missionary named Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazi. Muslim Shah Ismail the Persian Sultan was one of the founders of Alevism or the "People of Fire" and this Islamic sect believes in reincarnation. The Islamic sects of Shabak, Bajalan, Sarli, and Kakais are also very closely affiliated with Iranians and has a belief in re-incarnation.

After the Islamization of the Iranian Plateau, some intellectuals resisted and established their own new religions, which contained some hindu ideas and some other themes that they were familiar with. This includes, Yarsanism (Ahl-e Haqq) established in the 14th century by Sultan Sahak as a Yazdan sect and Baha'ism by Bahá'u'lláh in the 19th century. Whereas both traditional Hinduism and Buddhism were popular in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, Mithraism became popular within Zoroastrianism particularly in the western part. From here the popularity of the god Mitra spread to Assyria, Anatola and Europe. The Avesta declares, "This Mitra, the lord of the wide pastures, I have created as worthy of sacrifice, as I, Ahura Mazda, am myself."[21] Philosopher Mani of Persia had spent time in India, and after having accepted the ideas of re-incarnation and the three paths to Mokṣa, he began preaching of them in Iran. His set of beliefs are called Manicheism.

Association of regions within Iranian Plateau to India

Ancient Persians called the regions stretching from Hormuz to Baluchistan as 'Hind'[22] because those areas had more in common with India than with the other Iranian cultures located west to them. King Dhrishataketu of Kaikeya Kingdom married Śrutakirtti and had by her Santarddana, and four other sons, known together as the five Kaikeyas. The Kaikeyas were a major dynasty in India and it was on both sides of the Indus River. The Anava Kingdom of Uśinara Sibi, extended from Baluchistan to the Punjab. Even modern times Sibi is a district within Baluchistan.

Further, the Helmand region of Afghanistan was called by Persians as 'White India'. Siestan was also referred by Greek philosophers to as White India. Referring to the peoples of this region, Alexander called them, "the Indians on this side of the river Indus."[23]

Overtime, the natives of this region stayed and many became Buddhist in modern-day Afghanistan and the Afghans turned Kandahar into a Buddhist pilgrimage center which was visited by devout Buddhists from China and Indonesia. While Takśaśila was a city in east of the Indian river on the Iranian side, there were other important centres. The two great Indian grammarians Panini and Patanjali have mentioned a number of north-western cities like Balkh or Vahika, Kapisa, Pushkalavati, Masakavati, Takśaśila and Sakala. Takśaśila was the greatest and most flourishing city.[24]

Modern Relations between the Plateau and Hinduism

Hare Krishna's founder A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada traveled to Tehran in 1976. Since 1977, ISKCON runs a vegetarian restaurant in Tehran.


Assyria was known as Asuristan.[25] The name of Assyria comes from Rigvedic 'Asurya', the original name of the sun-god Surya. Syrians still to this day, pronounce the name of Syria as 'Surya'. Hence, Assyria's name would have been pronounced as 'Asurya'.

In the 6th century CE, the Lower Euphrates was known as 'India within land' or just 'Hind' (India) in general.[26] Oderic in 1320 CE also speaks of the Lower Euphrates as 'India within land'. Much like how the Indus River Civilization had priest-kings as ruler of certain towns and cities, Assyria too had a priest-prince ruler. Hence, from the Indian Hindu influence, Parshurama is also believed to have been worshiped in the region. In the ancient Sumerian social structure as well, there was a leader of the Baramas (i.e., Brahmanas) named Bur-Sin and the belief by some scholars is that he is Parshurama.

The patriarchal god of the Assyrians was Assur, who is always portrayed on a winged chakkra-sun or sundisk, just as the frahavars[27] of Iranian spirituality are shown. The Assyrians, referred to a chakkra as a wheel. The cultural and political capital of the Assyrians was Assur, named after the god. Assur was also known as Asara Mazas[28][29] God Assur had later been identified within Judeo-Christian Biblical mythology as Ashur, the son of Shem.

It is believed that Europe had borrowed the planetary names for the week's days that the Babylonians used. Babylon was a part of the Assyrian Empire. When Hindus had spread to Assyria, they had brought this system of the week with them.

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Planet Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
Hindu deity Ravi Soma Mangala Buddha Guru Shukra Shani
Mazdaen deity[30][31] Mitra Vrarayna Tiriya Ahura Mazda Ardvi Anahita Sura Kayvanu
Assyrian deity[32] Nergal Nabu Marduk Ishtar Kajamanu
Greco-Roman deity Helios-Sol Selene-Luna Ares-Mars Hermes-Mercury Zeus-Jupiter Aphrodite-Venus Cronus-Saturn

The Assyrians had come to India as Melluhha. This comes from the name Mallhu and Malla, which many kings in India, particularly western India and Baluchistan have been called. There was even Mount Malleus mountain that Sindh[33] was known for having. Even the coast of Kerala is known as Malankara.


Mural of Nefertiti found at Amarna in 1912. She was an Indo-Aryan princess from Mitanni, who married an Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton), and reigned ca. 1353-1336 BCE.

Today this region is known as Kurdistan. In the ancient times, the inhabitants of Mitanni were known as Hurrians. In the Judeo-Christian Bible, they are known as the Horites.[34]

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni names render the following:

  • Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta"[35]
  • Biridashva (biridaša, biriiaša) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear"[36]
  • Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear"[37]
  • Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining"[38]
  • Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra"[39]
  • Shativaza (šattiaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price"[40]
  • Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives"[41][42]
  • Tushratta (tišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as taišaratha, Vedic Tveṣaratha "whose chariot is vehement"[43]

Apart from Queen Nefertiti, Ramesid pharaohs were also of Mitanni descent.[44]


The Hittites or Nesili, whose Empire was known as 'Hatti' and 'Kadesh', had believed in reincarnation as attested by their writings. Their worship of the Devas of the time include Indra, Nasatyas (Ashvins), Mitra and Varuṇa. This is confirmed by the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza Treaty between the Hittites and Hurrians. The beleaguered Tusratta was then murdered by his son in a palace coup. Tusratta's other son, Prince Shattiwaza, fled Mitanni and was eventually given sanctuary by the Hittite King Suppiluliuma with whom he concluded a treaty c. 1380 BCE, which we know as the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza Treaty discovered in 1907 CE in Hattusa near present-day Bogazkale (Boğazkale, formerly Bogazköy) in north-central Turkey. In the treaty, the Hittite King Suppiluliuma agreed to assist Shattiwaza gain the Mitanni throne and invaded Mitanni. The Hittites captured the Mitanni capital Wassukanni after a second attempt and installed Shattiwaza as a vassal king.

The Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza Treaty is a source of considerable information about the Mitanni. In addition, it gives us some astonishing information about the religious practices of the Mitanni for it invokes the Indo-Iranian pantheon of Asuras and Devas Mitras(il) (Mitra), Uruvanass(il) (Varuṇa), Indara (Indra) and the Nasatianna (Nasatyas.) In the Judeo-Christian Bible, the Hitties are assimilated to have been descended from Heth, the son of Ham.


The Levant region includes countries of the Mediterranean coast which are located at the southwest Asian area. The Hindus here were an Indo-Aryan speaking population called the Huru.


See also: Danava

"One of the oldest colonies founded by the Hindus was in Egypt" - G. R. Josyer[45]

The Hyksos were an Indo-Aryan dynasty, according to scholars such as Sam Kerr[46] and M. Chahin[47]. They had come to Egypt and settled within its Delta region in about 1674-1547 BCE[48], and within a few centuries dominated the country. Much cultural exchange happened during the period of their rule.

Excavations in El-Amarna in Egypt have yielded the fact that around the 14th-15th centuries BCE, kings and princes with Vedic-like names were ruling in the region of modern day Syria. Some of the names are Artamanya, Aryavirya, Yashodatta, Suttarna and Dushratta. Thutmose IV had married a daughter of Artatma, the King of the Mitanni Kingdom. A letter addressed by Dushratta, Artatama's grandson, written to Akhnaton, says that it was not until Thutmose asked seven times that King Artatma agreed to his marriage proposal. Amenhotep III married Tiy, daughter of Yuaa[49] and of Tuau. During this time in Egyptian history, the ruling aristocracy of Egypt, were of mixed Egyptian and Mitanni ancestry. According to Akhnaton, Aton was both the male and female. He says to Aton, "Father and Mother of all that You have made." This parallels with the Hindu terms for the sun-god, Savita[50] and Savitri[51] or the sun and the sun's energy (Puruṣa and Prakṛti.)

The Hyksos were descendants of the Indian Danavas. They're written of in Egyptian accounts under the names Danuna, Danunites, Danaoi, Danaus, Danaids, Dene, Danai, and Danaian. In mythology it was Ramses III who exiles them from Egypt, whereby they take refuge in Greece, and spread further into Europe from there.

Arabian Peninsula

This region was historically known to Indians as Arabaka or Arvasthan.[52] Before the Islamization of the region beginning with Islam's prophet Mohammed, peoples here more freely practices their spirituality. Mohammed's own uncle, Umar-Bin-E-Hassham had died for his devotion to Śiva. From his writings, at least one poem of him depicting his faith in Śiva has been found. It has come to be known as the "Śiva Sthuthi." The poem reads as follows:

English Arabic
The man who may spend his life in sin
and irreligion or waste it in lechery and wrath
If at least he relent and return to
righteousness can he be saved?
If but once he worship Mahadeva with a pure
heart, he will attain the ultimate in spirituality.
Oh Lord Shiva exchange my entire life for but
a day’s sojourn in India where one attains salvation.
But one pilgrimage there secures for one all
merit and company of the truly great.
Kafavomal fikra min ulumin Tab asayru
Kaluwan amataul Hawa was Tajakhru
We Tajakhayroba udan Kalalwade-E Liboawa
Walukayanay jatally, hay Yauma Tab asayru
Wa Abalolha ajabu armeeman Mahadeva
Manojail ilamuddin minhum wa sayattaru
Wa Sahabi Kay-yam feema-Kamil MINDAY Yauman
Wa Yakulum no latabahan foeennak Tawjjaru
Massayaray akhalakan hasanan Kullahum
Najumum aja-at Summa gabul Hindu

Umar-Bin-E-Hassham had the title of 'Abul Kaham', which in Arabic means doctor.[53] It is a fact that the Kaba was worshiped in by non-Muslims. It is believed by some that before the Kaba was Islamicized and made a pilgrimage for only Muslims, that it was a Shiva temple. Umar-Bin-E-Hassham is known to have been a priest at Kaba. Besides the Arabian Umar-Bin-E-Hassham having been a priest at the temple, another point that some people make is that the black stone at the Kaba is actually a Śivalinga.

Krishna was also worshiped in Arabia, and of him is written in a Hadith. The text titled, The History of Hamadan Dailmi (Chapter "Al-Kaaf") declares, “There was a prophet of God in India who is dark in color and his name was Kahān [Kṛṣṇa].”[54]

East Asia


Bon Dharma founder Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche, also known as Shenrab Miwo, and Buddha Shenrab.
Hinduism in Tibet began with the Bon religion of Tonpa Shenrab, who is noted in Bon scriptures to have come from a western land called Olmo Lungring and wandered into to Zhang Zhung (western Tibet.) In Tibetan, Shenrab's country is also called sTag-gzig, Shangri-La, and Shambhalla. Like several other rishis, such as Rishabha, Ravan, and Śukracharya, Tonpa too meditated at Mount Kailash. According to most Bon sources on Guru Shenrab's dating, he arrived in Tibet either around 18,000[55] or 16,000 years ago. According to another Bon tradition he was a contemporary of the pre-8th century Zhang Zhung king Triwer Sergyi Jyaruchan.[56] However, the present day Tibetan history scholar and Dzogchen master Chogyal Namkhai Norbu calculates the probable actual date of his birth as 1917 BCE.

What brought the prince to the region was his quest to retrieve his 7 blue horses that were stolen by his aggressor Khyab-Pa Lag-Ring and taken to Zhang Zhung. Master Shenrab went forth with his four attendants to find them. During his time in Zhang Zhung, he taught the locals the basic tenants of Bon Dharma. He found the horses, and Khyab-Pa became his pupil. They left Tibet to return home, and at age 32 Prince Shenrab decided to give up the royal life and take solitude (sanyas) to become a monk. Khyab-Pa had become his leading disciple.

At age 82 he departed the world and attained Mokṣa. Both in his country and among the locals in Zhang Zhung, Buddha Shenrab was successful in stopping ritual animal sacrifices. Bon preachers continued visiting Tibet for further propagating the religion, and many Tibetan Bonpas visited Olmo Lungring for learning the religion and meeting with Bonpa scholars. There are two types of Bonpas classed by Buddhists, White Bon (ones who also follow Buddhism) and Black Bon (strictly Bonpas.)

Location of Olmo Lungring

Olmo Lungring is said to have had a mountain called Mount Yungdrung (or ri-rab Ihun-po, identified with Mount Meru) from which four rivers from the four cardinal directions meet. They are: 1) Gangka/Gaiga, 2) Sidhu, 3) Pakshu/Vakshu, and 4) Siti. Today in Kashmir one can find the Kishan Ganga, Sindhu, Cakshu, and Sita rivers. Further, it is written that Olmo Lungring had a set of 9 black mountain ranges. Today Kashmir has a range of mountains called Karakoram (which means, Black Mountains, as does its Sanskrit name Krishnagiri.) Olmo Lungring is written to be "beyond the Himalayas" and "behind the Sharp Teeth (dBal-so) Glacier." This matches the description of Kashmir, which has the Karakoram range that is both beyond the Himalayas and west of the Siachen Glacier. Dan Martin is of the viewpoint that Olmo Lungring consisted of Baltistan, Gilgitstan, northern Jammu & Kashmir state, present-day Pakistan (i.e., Swat, Chitral, etc.) and perhaps Badakshan, along with the mountainous parts of Uttar Pradesh.[57] As Lord Shenrab was of the Mushen Dynasty, it is probable that he was of Shina ethnicity, which resides mainly in the Karakoram, because 'Mu' refers to sky-gods while 'Shen' is a demonym. 'Shen' is just a variant of 'Shin'. The theory of Guru Shenrab having been a Shina is further supported by the fact that Bon teachings were delivered to Bon masters in Shina's adjacent territories of Gilgit (to Shenpo Ge Tene Logya), the rest of Kashmir (to Shenpo Braba Meruchan), and another part of India (to Shenpo Lisha.) Furthermore, in order to convert people within different nations, Guru Shenbab incarnated into different forms; "Arya Jambala" for sTag-gzig, gShen-lha Od-dkar for Zhang Zhung, Confucius for China, Sage Atreya for sub-Karakoram Kashmir, and Hayagriva for Uddiyana (Swat Valley or Urgyan.)[58] He would not have been written to have incarnated as a Hindu figure with a Sanskrit title if sTag-gzig's natives were Iranians (whose pantheon did not include Kuber.) He did after all incarnate as locally familiar forms of Tibetan gShen-lha and Chinese Confucius. Speaking of the Indus (Sindhu) River, Tibetans write that it flows through Mar-yul (east of Lakakh[59]), 'Bru-sa on the north of Kashmir (Kachi, which borders on Zans-dkar and Purig), through sTag-gzig reaches Uddiyana (Urgyan.)[60]

Authors such as Toni Huber write of how Tibetans have maintained a ritual relationship to India, and consider India as their holy land.

East Turkistan

Known anciently as Turkharistan, Buddhism was originally spread here by many missionaries from India. Later, missionaries within the country spread the dharma. It is noteworthy that the sun-god was known to the Saka Khotan Kingdom of the Tarim Basin as Urmaysde which scholars link to the term Ahura Mazda[61]. These Indo-Iranian words started coming over with migrants, who were missionaries and merchants from India and Iran.


From left to right, Benzaiten (Saraswati), Kangiten (Ganesh) and Bishamonten (Vaishravana) in the 1,200 year-old Daishō-in Temple Complex, Hatsukaichi, Japan.
Shivlinga in the Toganji Temple at Nayoga, Japan.

Due to the cultural exchange between India and Japan, mainstream Hindu gods were adopted by Japanese. Ganesh is known as Kangi-ten and as Bināyaka-ten, which originates from the Sanskrit name Vināyaka.

South East Asia

This whole region has been known in Hindu scriptures as Suvarṇabhumi.[62] Hinduism has been the dominant religion among several nations for a long time here. Indonesia[63] was dominantly Hindu until Islamization by missionaries and Islamists within the islands.


The Chola Empire and its tributary lands. Indonesia was once a part of the Greater Chola Empire or 'Choladesh'.

Indonesians believe that Sage Agastya and Sage Markandeya brought Hinduism to Indonesia. Hence, this shows that sages particularly of the pravara gotra lineages from Agastya and Markandeya had been the first preachers of Hinduism in the islands.

Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia, some of them being Gujaratis. It is said that King Aji Saka who came to Java in Indonesia in year 1 of the Saka calender and he is believed by some to be a king of Gujarat.[64] It is also believed that the first Indian settlements in Java Island of Indonesia was established with the coming of Prince Dhruvavijaya of Gujarat with 5,000 traders.[64] Some stories propose that a sage named Tritresta was the first to bring Gujarati migrants with him to Java and so some scholars equate him with Aji Saka.[65]


Angkot Wat Temple, Cambodia.

The name Cambodia comes from the founder of the first Khmer Dynasty, from India, who was Kambhoja. From him Cambodia is usually called by its natives as either 'Kambuja' or 'Kampuchea'. Its national flag displays the world-famous Angkor Wat Temple within the country.


In most Hindu scriptures, Burma is known as Brahmadesh. Buddhist scriptures sometimes called it Majjhimadesh. Greek philosopher Pliny had said that on the river called Ava or Pumas or Puman, many nations along it are in general called Bracmanae or Brahmane.[66] Hence, there is also the Brahmaputra River near Burma which crosses North-East India.

Several Hindu temples here date back to pre-Buddhistic times. In Burma there is a Dagoba dedicated to Dagon (Matsya avatar of Vishnu) which Burmese claim is over 3000 years old.[67]


In Hindu scriptures, Burma is known as Shyamdesh. Hence, the other name of the country, 'Siam'.




Their closest blood links are with groups in New Guinea, South India, and Sri Lanka, representing their path of migration into Australia.[68]

New Zealand
Tamil bell found near Whangarei, Northland Region.
Sanskrit writing (digitally highlighted) found near Hokianga Harbour, Northland Region.

The oldest Indian settlement in New Zealand comes from the Danavas that sailed originally from Patala in Sindh. These Indians became known locally in New Zealand as the Tuhoe.

About 150 years ago, a bell was discovered in New Zealand near Whangarei in the Northland Region with Tamil writings on it.[69] It is believed to have come from a Pallava Dynasty ship which was sailing in the area, and had possibly landed on New Zealand. The bell had led Indologist, V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar to investigate, and claims in his book The Origin and Spread of the Tamils that ancient Tamil sea-farers might have had a knowledge of Australia and Polynesia.

There has also been Sanskrit writing discovered on a boulder in Hokianga Harbour. This finding has led to the belief that Hindu monks had arrived in New Zealand before Europeans did.

It is even believed by some historians that among the ancestry of indigenous New Zealanders there is some Indian descent. Joan Leaf through oral tradition of genealogy (whakapapa) among the Maori and having consulted with the Maori Wharewananga, traced the lineage of her husband, who is Maori on both sides of his ancestry, back to India.[70]

That the Tuhoe of New Zealand were Danavas is further evidenced by their oral traditions which recants Danavas having fought other Indians in the typical wars that Indian epics mention about them.

"Maori tradition tells us that their ancestors in times long past away, 165 generations ago, they migrated from a hot country named India." - Eldson Best[71]

The trajectory from Mohenjo Daro (Indus Valley Civilization) to Giza (Egypt), then Machu Pichu (Peru), and to Easter Island is a perfect 30° incline.
Trajectory from Mohenjo Dark to Giza, then Machu Pichu, and to Easter Island.
The scripts of Indus Valley Civilization and Eastern Island. An image from The Indians And The Amerindians By Dr. S. Chakravarti.

Balaram Chakravarti writes, "The Lapita potteries which seem to be of Danava origin seems to lend evidence to the stepping stone of Danava migration from New-Britain to Fiji with an off-shoot in New-Caledonia."[72]

"It has been suggested Easter Island rongorongo script arrived from Peru, South America, and is related to the Indus River Valley dating back to 2000 BC, which is likely since there were Indus River Valley migrations to Peru, South America, by 1500 BC or perhaps as early as 2000 BC. Many Harappan glyphs appear in both Peruvian and Easter Island scripts." - Jeffrey L. Gross [73]


See also: Hindu Temples in Europe

At the time that the Indo-Iranians came into Europe, the natives of Europe were Palesgians in the Balkan Peninsula, Basques in Iberian Peninsula, Fins and Sami in Northern Europe, and the Magyars to later become Hungarians, Estonians, and Kami in Eastern Europe and several other non-Indo-European linguistic families within the Caucasus. With the influence on the Indo-Iranian comers, the Indo-European nations of Europe were born. Some identified groups that had come into Europe were Druyus (becoming the British Druids and German Druvis), Parthians (Thracians from Parthenope, and some Irish from Partholonians), and Medians.

The reason why it was easy for the Indo-European languages to gain popularity among Europe's natives is because whereas the native Europeans were nomads that relied on hunting and gathering, the Indo-Iranians were agarians that brought an agricultural revolution. DNA samples of the Yamnayas (mixed of Indo-Iranians and Europeans) show that they were not lactose intolerant whereas the European natives were. Thus, Indo-Iranians showed Europeans to be able to live sedentary lives, as opposed to foraging and constantly relocating.

The Sanskrit word Deva took on vernacular forms amongst European nations wherein it became Theo in Greek, Dio in Latin and Italian, Deos in Portuguese, Dios in Spanish, Déu in Catalan, Dieu in French, Dievs in Latvian, and Dievas in Lithuanian, and the words Deity and Divinity in English. Also, the word 'devil' means slanderer ('il') of god ('dev'), and its Latin version is 'deofel' wherein 'deo' means god and 'fel' means slanderer. Further, the Sanskrit word 'Asura' became Æsir for Scandinavia's worshipers of the Norse gods.


Greek mosaic of Krishna in his iconic cross-legged pose playing the flute by cows, from 2nd century CE, now found at Corinth, Greece.
Coin with Swastika issued at Corinth, Greece.

The natives of Greece were Palesgians. From the academic influence of the Indo-Iranians in the region, the ancient Greek and Latin languages were established, from which all the other Indo-European languages of Europe were created. This can be seen in the wars between the Olympian gods and the Titans. Scholar Ignatius Donnelly believes the conflict between the Olympians and Titans represented a war between the Olympians and Titans.[74] Lewis Spence too mentions that the conflict between the Olympians and the Titans was of Aryans with non-Aryans, with the Titans being projected as the latter.[75]

"We find that it (India) was visited for the purpose of acquiring knowledge by Pythagoras, Anaxarches, Pyrrho, and others who afterwards became eminent philosophers in Greece." - Dr. William Enfield[76]

Overtime, a link was established between Greece and India, wherein Greek scholars would visit India and learn from Hindu clergy. Count Bjornstjerna says that Greek philosophy was indebted almost wholly to Hindu philosophy for its cardinal doctrines.[77] From this cultural phenomena, Pythogarus founded Pythagorism, Orpheus founded Orphism, and Plato founded Platoism. Orphism from 6th century BCE believed in reincarnation[78], a Supreme God.[79] Pythagoreanism from 5th century BCE believed in reincarnation[80], a Supreme God[81], promoted asceticism[82] and vegetarianism.[83] Platonism from 5th century BCE believed in reincarnation[84] and a Supreme God.[85] Although Orphism, Pythagoreanism, and Platoism spirituality are all Hindu, Western scholars note that non-Hindu spiritualities of Greek thought also demonstrate Hindu influence, such as Stoicism[86] which advocated asceticism.

"The Hindus were, in this respect, the teachers and not the learners." - Henry Colebrooke [87]

When Greek scholars had spoken of philosophies of wisdom, they regarded amongst the highest as Orphism, Pythagoreanism, and Platonism. Early Christian sects not only regarded Pythagorus as a prophet of God, but drew on Orphic, Pythagorean, and Platonic, as well as Neo-Platonic Mystery schools.[88] Plaethon not only stated that he preferred Indian Brahmans and Magi amongst the non-Greeks, but that "inspired men" like Pythagorus, Plato and other philosophers belonging to their school, notably Parmenides, Timaeus, Plutarch, Plotinus, Porphyry, and Iamblichus were great people.[89]

Astrology was also a science that Hindus spread with them in Greece. Philostratus tells how Iarbas the Brachman (Brahman) gave Apolloneus of Tyans a set of rings for days of the week to maintain good health.[90]

The Grecianized version of 'Brahman' is Brachman and Bragmanni. The ancient Greeks mention them in many instances when discussing spirituality, philosophy, astrology, geopolitics and other steams of study. In about 270-303 CE, makes distinguishing statements among the gymnosophists wherein he describes differences amongst them.[91] Purchas had written that all things observed by Nsturall Philosophers in Greece had been handled before, partly by the Brachmancs amongst the Indians.[92] A type of non combustible cloth made from stone was also said to have been used by the Brachmancs.[93] It later became used by some in Europe.

There were also Hindu monks that had visited Greece for the purpose of discussing philosophy. Zarmanochegas is the most known of these. In Greece, he had self-immolated himself to protest Alexander's invasion of India. His tomb in Greece reads, "Here lies Zarmanochegas an Indian, a native of Bargose, having immortalized himself according to the custom of his country."[1] Other Hindu sages that were in the company of Emperor Elagabalus also were written about.[94]

Apart from the Greeks having visited India for learning Hinduism and its ideals and customs, Indians had colonized Greece as the first Indo-Iranians in the country. They were the Danauna, who descend from King Danaus.


Goddess Hekate's depictions look similar to those of a Hindu goddess.

The Thracians called their country 'Aria'[95] (Noble), a word which has much significance in Hinduism, including within Buddhism and Jainism. In Hellenist mythology, Thrace was the offspring of Parthenope, the daughter of Olympian god Ares. The 'Parth' in the name Parthenope indicates Parthian and hence an Indo-Iranian origin. Goddess Hecate was portrayed as a multi-headed and multi-handed deity.

There were several tribes among Thracians. Originally there was one, but as they expanded control of other territories in the Balkans, other nations became Thracianized. Hesychius notes that the Sindi tribe of Thracians was from India.[96] Sir W. Drummond was also of this viewpoint. George Faber wrote that Thracians came from a frontier of India.[97]

British Isles

Many Irish have written of an Indian influence on ancient Ireland, including Mrs. Dorothy Chaplin and Madam Wilde.[98]

The Druids were the chief priests of the isles and their religion is known as Druidism. Godfrey Higgins wrote a book supporting that the Druids had come from India. They were a priestly hereditary group and are said to have been descended of the Brahman Druyus. The Druids had propiatiated Danu because Druyu, their patriarch, was her great-great grandson as the son of King Yayati and Queen Sarmishtha. Being of Indian descent, Druids would have been Indo-European speakers and they likely would have been the first speakers of the language family in the British Isles. They had also worshiped the Thracian Hecate. One group of Indo-Iranians, according to Irish legends, that emigrated were the Partholonians (from Parthia.)[99] Druids were Partholonians because according to legend, as a person named Parthalon landed in Ireland three-hundred years after a mythic deluge, he had brought with him three Druids named Fios, Folus, and Fochmare.[100] They had come to Ireland from Midgonia.[101]

The very name Druid is composed of two Celtic word roots which have parallels in Sanskrit. Indeed, the root vid for knowledge, which also emerges in the Sanskrit word Veda, demonstrates the similarity. The Celtic root dru which means 'immersion' also appears in the Sanskrit. So a Druid was one 'immersed in knowledge.' - Peter Beresford-Ellis[102]

In history, the Druids were later pushed into Ireland and Scotland. "In Britain, the Kelts pushed the Albans into northern Ireland and northern Scotland.”[103] Druidism still survived today in the isles and revivalist efforts have been put forth by its followers.

"The island [Britain] has long been predisposed of it [Christianity] through the doctrines of the Druids and Buddhists who already inculcated the doctrine of the Godhead." - Christian cleric Origen, 3rd century CE

It is notable that there is a Druid named Arias, which even further strengthens the relationship between the Druids and Brahmans as Aria/Arya meant noble and was used in the ethical and spiritual sense, even by the Buddha who referred to his creed as the Arya Astanga Dharma (Noble Eight-fold Religion.) Peter Berresford Ellis writes, "Moreover, we learn that in these four cities were 'four Druids who taught the Children of Danu skill and knowledge and perfect wisdom'. Morias dwelt in Falias; Urias 'of the noble nature' lived in Gorias; Arias the poet resided in Finias and Senias had his abode in Murias."[104]

The Druids were especially the priests of the Tuatha De Danann. D'Arbois translates Tuatha De Danann as "people of the god whose mother is called Danu." Goddess Danu written of in Celtic spirituality is the same Danu from the Rig Veda. The Danavas, upon leaving India, moved westwards to Iran (i.e., Parthia), then more westwards, which led them to arrive in Egypt. In Egypt, these Danavas are recorded in legend to have been banished from the country where in legend, King Ramses exiles his brother Danaus. From the exile, Danavas move to Middle Greece, and eventually to Ireland. George A. Christopoulos had too connected the Danaans (and Danawois) to the Danawos mentioned in the Avesta.


Statue of Buddha dated from 5th Century CE[105] found on a Viking tombstone in Helgö, Sweden.

The Norse gods referred to a god as 'Æsir'.

The name of thunder-god Thor comes from 'Thortian' of the Zoroastrian Vendiad, and that name derives from of Vedic Trita, who was known as Trita in the Avesta, and then later as Traitana, then 'Thraetaona' and finally as 'Thortian' to the Zoroastrians. In Sweden's Helgö, a small Buddha statuette from North India dating from 6th century AD; found in Viking's grave.[106]

Eastern Europe

The names of deities of Eastern Europe indicate a strong Hindu influence.


Currently the Fire Temple of Baku is a site revered for its historic uniqueness and it was established by Hindu priests from India in the 19th century. It was nominated by the Azerbaijani government for being recognized as a UNESCO Hindu Site.

Currently there is an ISKCON temple in Baku[2], the country's capital city.

Shivā is the name of a female deity in Poland, just as Shivā is the name of Kali Mata of Hinduism, the wife of Shiva. Further on Poland,
"Vogt in his lectures of Man assumes the Polish to be descended from Hindu sources..."[107]
Table of gods worshiped in pre-Christian Lithuania:
Deity Vedic equivalent About god
Praamžius Dievas Prajapati The supreme or leader of the gods.
Dievas Senelis ("Good Old Man") Yama He is a teacher of people and judge of their morality. He looks like an old traveling beggar. Dievas Senelis is proficient at magic and medicine. Epithet of Dievas.
Perkūnas Prajanya Thunder, a son of Dievas ("dievaitis.")
Saulė Surya The Sun Goddess.
Ašvieniai Ashvins The divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun.

There is a Lithuanian folk song reminiscent of a Vedic tale.[108][3]


In Russia's Volga region during excavation, a 7th century AD Varaha statue was found in Staraya Maina village within the Ulyanovsk region[109] (this ancient area was highly populated city 1,700 years ago.) Ulyanovsk State University's archaeology department Dr. Alexander Kozhevin's team had made the discovery after having excavated the area. A famous Russian historian had written that thousands of years before the 'Kiev-Rus' culture (from which Russian nation originated) there was a 'Vedic-Rus' which was characterized by an international Vedic culture.[110] During the 14th century CE Indian gold coins were found in the Volga region near the village of Tenishevo, indicating a flourishing trade between India and Russia.



The USA has been the base for establishing several Hindu-oriented organizations, such as ISKCON.


Guyana, former British Guyana, and Suriname, former Dutch Guyana, were countries of many Hindu immigrants. Both have had Hindu leaders as heads of government.


Technically Egypt was the first part of Africa in which the Hinduism spread.

South Africa
The first Hindu Temple in South Africa was a very simple design. It was built in 1869 and is now a Protected Site by South African government.
The first Hindu temple in South Africa was constructed in 1869.
Hindus celebrating Ganesha Chaturthi in Ghana.[111]
Hare Krishnas chanting in Ghana.[112]

See also

External Resources


  1. It means Kumarayāna.
  2. It means Dhitika.
  3. It means Śakya Pandita.
  4. It means Tatatungya.
  5. It means Padmasambhava.
  6. It means Bodhidharma.
  7. P. 330 The Serpent The Eagle The Lion & The Disk By Brannon Parke
  8. P. 370 Studies in Indian Coins By D.C. Sircar
  9. They were called 'Turiya' in the Avesta.
  10. It is in northern Afghanistan.
  11. P. 62 Mute Dreams, Blind Owls, and Dispersed Knowledges: Persian Poesis in the Transnational Circuitry By Michael M. J. Fischer
  12. P. 133 The works of Sir William Jones: with the life of the author by Lord Teignmouth in Thirteen Volumes Volume 3 By Sir William Jones
  13. Yazatas means venerable ones.
  14. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism edited by Mary Boyce
  15. It is particularly members of the Parsi Theosophy.
  16. P. 264 The Parsis of India: Preservation of Identity in Bombay City By Jesse S. Palsetia
  17. P. 178 Parsis in India and the Diaspora edited by John Hinnells, Alan Williams
  18. P. 522 The British Critic: A New Review, Volume 20
  19. P. 49 Revelation of the Holy Grail By Chevalier Emerys
  20. P. 41 Gnostic Ethics and Mandaean Origins By Edwin M. Yamauchi
  21. P. 1xi The Zend-Avesta: The Sîrôzahs, Yasts, and Nyâyis edited by James Darmesteter, Lawrence Heyworth Mills
  22. It is the original name of India.
  23. P. 128 Handbuch der Orientalistik. Abt. 1, Der Nahe und der Mittlere Osten, Bd 8, Religion, Abschnitt 1, Religionsgeschichte des Alten Orients, Lief. 2. H. 2, A history of Zoroastrianism, Vol. 3, Zoroastrianism under Macedonian and Roman rule By Mary Boyce; Frantz Grenet
  24. P. viii A History of Indian Civilization: Ancient and classical traditions By Radhakamal Mukerjee, Gurmukh Ram Madan, Viśvaprakāśa Gupta
  25. P. 10 The Sound System of Modern Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic) By Edward Y. Odisho
  26. P. 421 Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Tha'na (2 pts.) Volume XIII, Part II By Government Central Press
  27. Frahavars means angels.
  28. For them some scholars believe that they origin from the proto-Indo-Iranian form Asura Mazdas.
  29. History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250 By Ahmad Hasan Dani
  30. P. 253 The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism By Michael Stausberg, Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina, Anna Tessmann
  31. P. 37 Persian Architectural Heritage: Architecture, Structure and Conservation By Mehrdad Hejazi, Fatemeh Mehdizadeh Saradj
  32. P. 253 The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism By Michael Stausberg, Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina, Anna Tessmann
  33. Studia Orientalia, Volume 64
  34. P. 64 The Hebrew Pharaohs of Egypt: The Secret Lineage of the Patriarch Joseph By Ahmed Osman
  35. Mayrhofer II 780
  36. Mayrhofer II 182
  37. Mayrhofer II 189, II378
  38. Mayrhofer I 553
  39. Mayrhofer I 134
  40. Mayrhofer II 540, 696
  41. It is a name in Palestine.
  42. Mayrhofer II 209, 735
  43. Mayrhofer I 686, I 736
  44. P. 85 Arshile Gorky Adoian By Karlen Mooradian
  45. P. 104 Astrological Magazine, Volume 73, Issues 1-6 1984
  46. P. 15 Cyrus the Great - Celestial Sovereign By Sam Kerr
  47. P. 28 The Kingdom of Armenia: A History By M. Chahin
  48. P. 28 The Kingdom of Armenia: A History By M. Chahin
  49. He is a foreigner "from North Syria".
  50. He is the male form.
  51. She is the female form.
  52. It means the Land of Horses.
  53. P. 705 World Vedic heritage: a history of histories : presenting a unique unified field theory of history that from the beginning of time the world practiced Vedic culture and spoke Sanskrit, Volume 1 By Purushottam Nagesh Oak
  54. P. 181 Green Leaves: Harish S. Booch Memorial Volume By Harish S. Booch
  55. The bsTan rTsis
  56. P. 339 The Golden Letters: The Three Statements of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master By John Myrdhin Reynolds
  57. P. 166 Tantric Revisionings: New Understandings of Tibetan Buddhism and Indian Religion By Geoffrey Samuel
  58. P. 47 Civilization at the foot of Mount Sham-po: the royal house of lHa Bug-pa-can and the history of g.Ya'-bzang : historical texts from the monastery of g.Ya'-bzang in Yar-stod, central Tibet Tsering Gyalbo, Guntram Hazod, Per K. Sørensen
  59. P. 417 Historical Dictionary of Tibet By John Powers, David Templeman
  60. P. 396 Opera Minora, Part 2 Giuseppe Tucci
  61. P. 132 The Nativist Prophets of Early Islamic Iran: Rural Revolt and Local Zoroastrianism By Patricia Crone
  62. It means The Golden Land.
  63. It was former Javadwipa.
  64. 64.0 64.1 P. 67 An era of peace By Krishna Chandra Sagar
  65. P. 158 Foreign Influence on Ancient India By Krishna Chandra Sagar
  66. P. 443 Asiatick Researches, Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted ..., Volume 14
  67. P. 37 Shambhala By Nicholas Roerich
  68. P. 186 Native Peoples of the World: An Encylopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues By Steven L. Danver
  69. "Newly discovered Tamil inscriptions from the Tambaram area", Madras Christian College Magazine, v. 42, 1973 Gift Siromoney
  70. Hawaiiki to the Hokianga, 2000 BC
  71. "The cause of this exodus was a disastrous war with a dark skinned folk in which great numbers were slain."; Tuhoe: The Children of the Mist By Eldson Best
  72. P. ii The Children of Abo Tani in India, Fiji, and Polynesia: An Account of the Migration of the Indian Dānavas and the Nāgas, and Their Contribution to the Efflorescence of Culture in Fiji and Polynesia, Volume 1 By Balaram Chakravarti
  73. Waipio Valley: A Polynesian Journey from Eden to Eden By Jeffrey L. Gross
  74. P. 320 Atlantis: The Antediluvian World By Ignatius Donnelly
  75. P. 59 The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain By Lewis Spence
  76. P. 41 Bharātīya Vidyā, Volume 51 By Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
  77. P. 974 Indian Law Quarterly Review, Volume 5 By Arora Law House
  78. P. xviii The Orphic Hymns By Apostolos N Athanassakis and Benjamin M Wolkow
  79. P. xiv: 'The Orphic Hymns' By Apostolos N Athanassakis and Benjamin M Wolkow.
  80. P. 2 Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History By Charles H. Kahn
  81. P. 97 Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History By Charles H. Kahn
  82. P. 9 Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History By Charles H. Kahn
  83. P. 9 Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History By Charles H. Kahn
  84. P. 377 The Middle Platonists, 80 B.C. to A.D. 220 By John M. Dillon
  85. P. 199 The Middle Platonists, 80 B.C. to A.D. 220 By John M. Dillon
  86. ,'Experiencing World History By Paul Vauthier Adams, Erick Detlef Langer, Lily Hwa, Peter N. Stearns, Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks
  87. P. 974 Indian Law Quarterly Review, Volume 5 By Arora Law House
  88. P. 77 Jesus: The Explosive Story of the 30 Lost Years and the Ancient Mystery By Tricia McCannon
  89. P. 39 Hermes in the Academy: Ten Years' Study of Western Esotericism at the ... edited by Wouter J. Hanegraaff, Joyce Pijnenburg
  90. Page 147 The Archaeological Journal - Volume 33 By The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
  91. P. 133 The Bhilsa Topes; Or, Buddhist Monuments of Central India, Etc By Sir Alexander Cunningham
  92. P. 2705 The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, Volume 4 edited by William Dwight Whitney, Benjamin Eli Smith
  93. P. 686 The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review, Volume 202 By Sylvania Urban
  94. P. 6 Neoplatonic Saints: The Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by Their Students By Mark Edwards
  95. P. 277 Encyclopedia britannica; or, A dictionary of arts, sciences, and miscellaneous literature by Colin Macfarquhar; George Gleig
  96. P. 107 Asiatic Researches; Or, Transactions Of The Society, Instituted ..., Volume 10
  97. P. 293 The Origin of Pagan Idolatry: Ascertained from Historical ..., Volume 2 By George Stanley Faber
  98. P. 33 Text Book of Indian Culture By Chaman Lal
  99. P. 7 The Book of Finglas By Seán Ó Broin; Other groups were Nemedians from Black Sea, Milesians are descendants of Milead (from his 3 sons Ir, Heremon, Heber, sent westward in search of Island of Destiny) from Iberia, Gailiuns, Liogarne and later arrivals to Moynalta were described as big, blond, fair-haired men of Teutonic origin, who came to Moynalta about the time of Alexander the Great.
  100. P. 229 Paradise Rediscovered: The Roots of Civilisation, Volume 1 By Michael A. Cahill
  101. It is in Middle Greece.
  102. Druidism and the ancient Religions of India
  103. P. 28 Footprints of the Welsh Indians and Sailors of the Past By William L. Traxel
  104. P. 124 The Druids By Peter Berresford Ellis
  105. How did a Buddha statue land in Viking hands? BY SAM LITTLEFAIR| MARCH 24, 2016
  106. "The Helgo Treasure: A Viking Age Buddha" by Colm
  107. P. 386 The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study (Lowell Institute Lectures) By William Zebina Ripley
  108. P. 323 The Religion of the Ṛigveda By Hervey De Witt Griswold
  109. "Ancient Vishnu idol found in Russian town"
  110. India’s Emerging Partnerships in Eurasia: Strategies of New Regionalism By Dr. Nivedita Das Kundu
  111. Hinduism growing in Africa without Proselytizing by Desh Kapoor
  112. Hinduism growing in Africa without Proselytizing by Desh Kapoor