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By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Upasana, UpAsana, Upaasana

Upāsana literally means ‘sitting near,’ ‘meditation’.

In general, the word upāsana means meditation. However in the Pāñcarātra Agamas, it has been used in a technical sense associated with ritualistic worship. It has five aspects:

  1. Abhigamana - keeping the temple clean
  2. Upādāna - collecting the materials needed for worship
  3. Ijyā - ritualistic worship
  4. Svādhyāya - repetition of God’s name and chanting of hymns
  5. Yoga - meditation on God


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore