Difference between revisions of "Vikramaditya"

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Between the birth of Parīkṣita and coronation of Nanda, 1500 years passed.
Between the birth of Parīkṣita and coronation of Nanda, 1500 years passed.
# Śūdraka śaka-756 BC (Jyotiṣa-darpaṇa of Yallaya, Bhaviṣya purāṇa, genealogy of Paramar, Chauhan kings)
# Śūdraka śaka-756 BC<ref>Jyotiṣa-darpaṇa of Yallaya, Bhaviṣya purāṇa, genealogy of Paramar, Chauhan kings)</ref>
# Chāhamāna or Śākambharī śaka- 612 BC-destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve by Chāhamāna of Medes (Madhyadeśa) east of Sindhu. <ref>BibleWiki-Media, Jewish Encyclopedia-Nineve, Bṛhat samhitā 13/3, Chaṇḍī pāṭha 11/38</ref>  
# Chāhamāna or Śākambharī śaka- 612 BC-destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve by Chāhamāna of Medes (Madhyadeśa) east of Sindhu. <ref>BibleWiki-Media, Jewish Encyclopedia-Nineve, Bṛhat samhitā 13/3, Chaṇḍī pāṭha 11/38</ref>  

Revision as of 06:14, 13 September 2013

By Arun Kumar Upadhyay

Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain is central figure in indian history after the death of Bhagavān Śrī Krishna and end of Yudhiṣṭhira rule in 3102 BC when Kali-yuga started. Vikramāditya revised calendar system with his Vikrama-samvat in 57 BC which is still used as the standard for all Indian festivals. The calendar of his grandson Śālivāhana-śaka is still used for calculations, hence he was termed a foreign king Kaniṣka, who was a king of Indian Gonanda clan in Kashmir in 1292 BC. All purāṇas and smṛti texts (moral, legal codes) were revised in his era, so he was totally eliminated to destroy standards of Indian society. To destroy his samvat, Rāṣṭrīya-śaka was started by a calendar committee which had no idea of any calendar. No festival or govt order is able to follow this calendar. Another ploy is to use only solar months in pañchāngas calling it Indian or Oriya culture. From 57 BC till Prithviraj Chauhan and Bhoja of Malava-only his family has ruled till 1200 AD. After Rāma and Krishna, maximum literature is about Vikramāditya only. Whatever literature is read by any Sanskrit student in any branch, it is by one of his 9 jewels. After reading them for whole life, scholars tell that there is no reference about him. Chandragupta-2 of Gupta period had also been declared Vikramāditya, about whom not a single word has been found in any inscription. Most of the famous monuments exist from his time only, like Rāma-mandir of Ayodhyā or Yoginī-mandirs at 4 places including Odisha. Sole aim of British empire was to destroy Indian history, but even students taught in that pattern were having doubts. So a paper on historiography has been added in MA (history) to dupe them. This article describes various aspects and reasons of destroying any history related to Vikramāditya.


There are many wrong assumptions about inferiority of our countrymen and superiority of invaders. It is a point of debate that whether this was reason of long slavery or effect induced due to that. Main concepts are as follows :

  1. All invaders ruled India to educate and improve it. Only Megasthenes has written that India is the only country which did not need to invade others as it was self sufficient in food etc.
  2. There was no tradition of science in India, it started with invasion of Alexander. Actually first Yavana invasion was in 6777 BC. Dates of both Alexander & Dionysus were known from Indian calendar, not from Julian calendar, which started much later.
  3. All Indian texts like Purāṇas were false & fabricated at start of Islamic rule, when major population was running away to save it's life. However, mentioning of gold-digging ants (2 chapters), one eyed tribes in India and Pandyan girls giving birth at age of 6-all stated by Megasthenes, Herodotus are highly scientific.
  4. Indians did not have concept of history. They never gave dates. To prove this fact right, date parts were broken from all copper plate inscriptions before publishing it in Mysore Antiquary. Genealogies of Rajasthan kings were burnt in mass scale by Col. Todd to hide their Indian ancestry which showed them Huna descendants. All inscriptions of Bappa Raval of Mewar were burnt. The copy of one could be recovered from commentary of Rana Kumbhakaran Singh on Gīta-Govinda. Compared to that, British period scholars, like Suniti Chatterji, in luxury of libraries & easy life, only tried to prove that all greats were from own village or state.

The errors due to such propaganda are that, all historians think that dates have come from Greek writers, e.g. historians of Alexander stated that Christ would be born 326 years after his invasion on India.

  1. No historian knows that all dates and genealogy of kings have come solely from Purāṇas. Just to destroy major part of history and assigning arbitrary dates, they are denied and denigrated. Opposition of idol worship & Purāṇas found support from Dayanada Saraswati.
  2. Vehemence against Purāṇas has prevented understanding of their chronology, geography, astronomy etc.
  3. Any king who had started any calendar is declared non-existent as it can give correct date.
  4. Education & learning is not being done by self study and universities, but by attack of Greeks and Shakas. By that Aryabhata could learn Greek & Trigonometry, and calendar could be started by Shakas. No calendar had ever been started by and Shaka or Greek king even in his own country. Under this theory, all universities should be closed, only robbers are needed.
  5. Map of country was by chance specified by visit of invaders, not by surveying it through finding longitude, latitude and direction. Even if this was done, Indians did not knew that earth is spherical.
  6. Astronomical distances were measures and eclipse was calculated by sacrifice of goats in Yajña (Narlikar & Rastogi), or just by meditation. Was any measurement done by this method right?
  7. For trade & revenue purpose, script originated in west Asia. In India, it was not needed for much larger calculations of astronomy & survey of earth. All Greek writers state India as rectangular while all Purāṇas call it inverted triangle broader in north.
  8. Indians were always weak & coward, any king like Vikramāditya who had victories against invaders is denied.
  9. No book in modern libraries gives date of birth of authors. But all astronomy texts give their accurate dates. So they are declared as fraud or dates of Vikramāditya period are calculated in terms of calendar starting more than 100 years after death of authors.
  10. No good king can be Hindu-they can be Buddhist or Jain who are considered non-Hindu. No inscription of Ashok including one at Dhauli indicates that he had become Bauddha to shun violence. Bauddha text Divyāvadān tells only that on victory over Kalinga, he killed 12,000 Jain monks. Kharavel did Rājasūya-yajña in 11th year of his rule, he is made a Jain. He repaired Prachi canal of Nanda period after 803 years. The biggest engineering feet is ignored by changing figure to 103 years and making it revolt against Nanda.

Literature about Vikramāditya

  1. 15 chapters in Bhaviṣya purāṇa.
  2. Kathā-sarit-sāgara, Bṛhat-kathā, Vetāla-pañchavimśati, Simhāsana-battisi.
  3. Sāhasānka charita in 3 vols
  4. All genealogies of Paramāra kings, which survive after being burned by British.
  5. Literatures by Nava-ratnas of Vikramāditya. This system was copied by Akbar.
  6. Description of Vikramāditya by Al-Biruni, Abul Fazal and by all Persian historians of India & historians of Persia like Ferishta, Badauni. They were invaders, but not forgers of history like Oxford scholars whose Boden chair was set up for this purpose only.

Major fragments of records of Vikramāditya-(1) Devī-Chandragupta were destroyed to deny his fight with Seleucus making Alexander attack in Gupta period.. (3) Prabhāvatī Devī (Vakataka queen) inscription names her family from Ghaṭokacha Gupta to Samudragupta only. Ghaṭotkacha has been translated as barber by Megasthenes. (3) Allahabad pillar inscription is by Samudragupta which is about Greek attacks, not Hunas. (4) Iron pillar at Mehrauli mentions ‘Chandra’ only. Even if it is assumed Chandragupta, it could be one of the famous 3 (one in Maurya and 2 in Gupta period). But none had their capital at Delhi. Kutub-minar has been indicated by Megasthene as Pillar of Hercules. Ibn-Batuta indicated it to be 1500 years before him (in 13th century). Sir Saiyad Ahmed indicated in 1911 that it is a Hindu monument of that period[1]. It has nothing to do with Hindu religion or any Chandragupta, it indicated northern-most position of moon on earth surface. Central axis of Kutub Minar was perpendicular to Karka-rekhā (Tropic of Cancer) then. Its semi-vertical angle indicated the difference between true & mean latitude of Delhi. This calculation of spheroidal shape of earth was not done till 1850.

Calendars of India

  1. Sṛṣṭi Samvat or Creation cycle, is called as a Kalpa. It is said that 1 day of Brahmā is equal to 432 crore years. Out of that period 198 crore years have passed. Since then, planets are moving in current orbit around sun. There are bigger periods like life of Brahmā is of 72000 such days and nights (his 100 years). Brahma's life is 1 day of Viṣṇu and Viṣṇu’s life is 1 day of Śiva. Largest period is Parā-śakti when elementary particles decay (called Proton decay now). Currently, 50 years of Brahmā have passed, in next year day (kalpa) 1 is running.

Albiruni has quoted Viṣṇu-dharmottara purāṇa to indicate that his 8 years, 5 months, 4 days, 6 manvantaras, 7 samdhi, 27 caturyugas, and 3 yugas of the twenty-eighth caturyuga, and 10 divya-years had passed till Aśvamedha yajña of Vajra.

  1. Svāyambhuva Manu-29102 BC-26000 years before start of Kali (3102 BC). He was first Brahmā or Adam of Bible. This period has been called a Manvantara in Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa- ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण (१/२/९)

स्वां तनुं स तदा ब्रह्मा समपोहत भास्वराम्। द्विधा कृत्वा

स्वकं देहमर्द्धेन पुरुषोऽभवत्॥३२॥
स वै स्वायम्भुवः पूर्वम् पुरुषो मनुरुच्यते॥३‌६॥ तस्यैक सप्तति युगं मन्वन्तरमिहोच्यते॥३७॥

Then Brahmā split his body into 2 and the half male part was Svāyambhva Manu, the first man. His 71 yugas are called 1 manvantara.

षड्विंशति सहस्राणि वर्षाणि मानुषाणि तु
वर्षाणां युगं ज्ञेयं दिव्यो ह्येष विधिः स्मृतः॥१९॥[2]

= By Divya yugas (360 years, 71 of them) 26,000 Mānuṣa (human) years are yuga.

  1. Kaśyapa (17500 BC)-another Brahmā, Fan of China, first Buddha.
  2. Kārttikeya (15800 BC)-Year started from sun in Dhaniṣṭhā after north pole had moved away from Abhijit [3]
  3. Vaivasvata Manu-13902 BC-start of year from spring equinox-Chaitra month. Glacial floods 10000-9500 BC. Yuga cycle started with satya yuga of 4800 years.
  4. Ṛṣabhadeva-9500 BC (appr.). Revision of Sūrya siddhānta in 9233 BC by Maya Asura 900 west from Ujjain (alpa =131 years before end of Satya-yuga).
  5. Ikṣvāku-1-11-8576 BC (Chaitra śukla pratipadā)-Dr. Mahālingam.
  6. King Bāhu killed by Dionysus in 6777 BC. Paraśurāma (Kalamba = Kollam)-6177 BC
  7. Yudhiṣṭhira śaka 17-12-3139 BC, Bhīṣma expired 5 days after that on start of Uttarāyaṇa on 22 December on Māgha śukla aṣṭamī. Kali era started on 17-2-3102 BC, Wednesday, Ujjain midnight on death of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Civil month from Chaitra śukla 1 started on 20 after 2 days 2-27-30 hms. It was Vijaya samvatsara by Sūrya siddhānta and Pramāthī by Pitāmaha siddhānta followed in south India. Jayābhyudaya śaka after 6 month 11 days (188 days on 24-8-3102 BC when Jaya samvatsara started (north system) and Pāṇḍavas went for abhyudaya. On death of Yudhiṣṭhira in kali year 25 (3076 BC), Laukika era started in Kashmir-when Saptarṣis left Maghā star. Refs in mahābhārata, Bhāgavata, all texts on astronomy, all Pañchāngas. Jayābhyudaya-Śaka has been used in inscriptions of Janamejaya about his Dāna-paṭṭas of 27-11-3014 BC on occasion of solar eclipse (Pauṣa amāvāsyā) after large murders in Sarpa-yajña. His words of proclamation were used by all Pāṇḍu vamśī kings of Orissa ruling after end of their rule in Hastinapur/ Kosambi. One of their branch was Mauryas of Murā-śāsana, later ruling as Mauryas.

कलैर्गतैर्सायक नेत्र (२५) वर्षैः युधिष्ठिराद्यास्त्रिदिवं प्रयाताः ।

Yudhiṣṭhira etc ascended to heaven in kali year 25. This verse of Rājatarangiṇī, chapter 1 was removed from the book and claimed as his own by George Buhler.

  1. Jaina Yudhiṣṭira śaka from 2634 BC (sanyāsa or death of Pārśvanātha)-Used in Jina-vijaya-mahākāvya..
  2. Nanda śaka-1634 BC (All puāṇas, Kharavela inscription of Prachi)

यावत् परीक्षितो जन्म यावत् नन्दाभिषेचनम् । तावत् वर्ष सहस्रं च ज्ञेयं पञ्चशतोत्तरम् ॥ [4]

= Between the birth of Parīkṣita and coronation of Nanda, 1500 years passed.

  1. Śūdraka śaka-756 BC[5]
  2. Chāhamāna or Śākambharī śaka- 612 BC-destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve by Chāhamāna of Medes (Madhyadeśa) east of Sindhu. [6]

आसन् मघासु मुनयः शासति पृथ्वीं युधिष्ठिरे नृपतौ। षड्-द्विक-पञ्च-द्वि (२५२६) युतः शककालस्तस्य राज्ञस्य॥[7]

  1. Vīra nirvāṇa-527 BC from death of Kālakāchārya (599-527 BC), guru of Kumārila Bhaṭṭa as per Jinavijaya mahākāvya.
  2. Śrīharṣa śaka-456 BC, end of 300 year democracy starting with Śūdraka of Mālavā as indicated by all Persian/Indian writers-Albiruni, Ferishta, AbulFazl etc. His epic Naiṣadha-Charita is also in syllabus of most of the Universities.
  3. Vikrama samvat by Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain-57 BC. From Chaitra at Paśupatinātha (Nepal) and from Kārttika at Somanātha (Gujarat).
  4. Śālivāhana śaka-78 AD.
  5. Kalachuri or Chedi śaka-248 AD
  6. Valabhī (bhanga) śaka-319 AD, end of later Guptas in Gujarat. All the calendars from Harṣa to Valabhī have been described by Albiruni in his book India (2 vols)
  7. Chālukya Vikrama-1075 AD from Kārttika.


Apollonius was an enthusiastic admirer of the wisdom of India. It is plainly asserted by the ancient Greeks that Pythagoras went to India, but as the statement is made by Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic writers subsequent to the time of Apollonius, it is objected that the travels of the Tyanean suggested not only this item in the biography of the great Samian but several others, or even that Apollonius himself in his Life One of the comments of Berosus can be seen on [8] Berosus derided the "Greek historians" who had so distorted the history of his country. He knew, for example, that it was not Semiramis who founded the city of Babylon, but he was himself the prisoner of his own environment and cannot have known more about the history of his land than was known in Babylonia itself in the 4th century BC[9]

However, enemies are always eager to revile the patronage of people, to detract from their reputation, and to attack their deeds and merits, in same way as friends and partisans are eager to embellish that which is ugly, to cover up the weak parts, to proclaim publicly that which is noble, and to refer everything to great virtues, as the poet describes them in these words-“The eye of benevolence is blind to every fault, But the eyes of hatred discovers every vice”

William Jones as Judge supervised brutal torture and killing of 10 million Indians in 1770 (called Bengal famine) for revenue collection was also the pioneer in distortion and fabrication of Indian History. Tortures and murders have been classified by Bankim Chandra in his book Ananda-matha and can be seen in British reports also [10] [11] Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag.

“As to the general extension of our pure faith in Hindustan there are at present many sad obstacles to it… We may assure ourselves, that… Hindus will never be converted by any mission from the church of Rome, or from any other church; and the only human mode, perhaps, of causing so great a revolution, will be to translate into Sanscrit… such chapters of the Prophets, particularly of ISAIAH, as are indisputably evangelical, together with one of the gospels, and a plain prefatory discourse, containing full evidence of the very distant ages.[12]

British government continued the policy and added the removal of available literature to Europe and destruction by mis-information and false interpratations. This was symbolized by establishment of Boden chair at Oxford University in 1831 where Col. Boden donated his earnings from loot of India for the purpose of uprooting vedic culture from India for spread of Christianity. This has been stated by Prof. Monier Williams in his Sanskrit Dictionary, preface page ix, 1899 which has been reprinted by Rashtriya Sanskrita Sansthana at subsidized rates for spread in Indian Universities-

“I must draw attention to the fact that I am only the second occupant of the Boden Chair, and that its founder, Colonel Boden, stated most explicitly in his will (dated August 15, 1811 AD) that the special object of his munificent bequest was to promote the translation of scriptures into Sanskrita, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian religion.”

Max Muller chaired the edition of oriental texts and omitted all Indian sources from which materials were stolen or looted or the Indian Pandits whose help was taken to understand the meaning. As per Oxford criteria of research, this itself makes the work untenable. To further the aim of Boden Chair for uprooting Vedas, he devoted his life, but Indian devotees of Oxford call him Mokṣamūlara-i.e. savoir of Vedas. His own statements oppose the view-

  1. History seems to teach that the whole human race required a gradual education before, in the fullness of time, it could be admitted to the truths of Christianity (History of Ancient Indian Literature).
  2. Large number of Vedic Hymns are childish in the extreme; tedious, low, commonplace [13]
  3. Nay, they (the vedas) contain, by the side of simple, natural, childish thoughts, many ideas which to us sound modern, or secondary and tertiary (India, what can it teach us).[14] Some examples of his letters explain his purpose
  4. Letter to his wife in 1866 AD-This edition of mine and the translation of the Veda will hereafter tell to a great extent on the fate of India.... it is the root of their religion and to show what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last three thousand years.
  5. Letter to his son-Would you say that any one book is superior to all others in the world ?... I say the new Testament. After that, I should place the Koran, which in its moral teachings, is hardly more than a later edition of the New Testament. Then would follow ... the Old Testament, the Southern Buddhist Tripiṭaka, ... The Veda and the Avesta.
  6. His letter to Duke of Argyl, Minister of India, on 16-12-1868 in context of grant for Vedic publication-The ancient religion of India is doomed and if Christianity does not step in, whose fault will it be ?
  7. Letter to Sri Bairamji Malabari on 29-1-1882-I wanted to tell ... what the true historical values of this ancient religion is, as looked upon, not from an exclusively European or Christian, but from a historic point of view. But discover it in steam engines and electricity and European philosophy and morality, and you deprive it of its true character.

S. Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) was the biggest destroyer of Vedic culture for which he was rewarded with the highest post. As soon as he became President, he stopped publication of original texts in BHU and Tirupati and removed the scholars. In particular, he sold away Kauthumi Samhita whose 2 of 4 vols have been published by Harvard University now. Prof B.R Sharma was removed from his post as he had refused to sell the manuscript in Rs 1 crore offered to him. In BHU also, he removed key scholars. But fortunately, Justice M Hidayatulla was Chief Justice who struck down 3 ordnances for removing scholars commenting them as uncivilized and illiterate-They (traditional scholars) should be removed as soon as they fall sick or die for good (of Radhakrishnan)[15]

Some quotes for destroying vedic culture are quoted from his books- Indian Philosophy Vol. I, first print 1923, reprint 1996. Indian Philosophy Vol. II, first print 1927, reprint 1996. The Bhagavadgita first print 1948, reprint 1994. The Principal Upanisads first print 1953, reprint 1995. About Bhagavat Gita, he was not aware that it is part of Mahabharata, and declared that Veda-vyasa as non existent. Instead of birthday of Vyasa as Guru-Purnima, birthday of Radhakrishnan is now observed as teacher’s day.

(About the early Hindus of Vedic religion)-“Man’s never-ceasing effort to raise himself above the level of the beast to a moral and spiritual height finds a striking illustration in India.” (Indian Philosophy Vol. II, p. 766) (About the Rigved)-“The process of god-making in the factory of man’s mind cannot be seen so clearly anywhere else as in the Rg-Veda.” (Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, p. 73)

(About the Atharvaved) “The religion of the Atharva-Veda is that of the primitive man, to whom the world is full of shapeless ghosts and spirits of death.”

“The world becomes crowded with goblins and gods, and the catastrophes of the world are traced to dissatisfied spirits… The terrific powers could only be appeased by bloody sacrifices, human and animal… The religion of the Atharva-Veda is an amalgam of Aryan and non-Aryan ideals.” (Vol. I, pp. 119, 120) (About the Upnishads)-“The Upanisads contain the earliest records of Indian speculation… they contain much that is inconsistent and unscientific.” (Vol I, p. 138) (About the Puranas)-“The Puranas are the religious poetry of the period of the schools, representing through myth and story, symbol and parable, the traditional view of God and man… They were composed with the purpose of undermining, if possible, the heretical doctrines of the times.” (Vol. II, p. 663) (About the Yog Darshan of Patanjali)-“The popular cult of magic is mixed up with the religious scheme of salvation in the Yoga.” … “Sometimes psychic powers are also attained by the use of drugs and anaesthetics. Narcotic intoxication and ecstatic state are confused by the popular mind. The use of drugs is not recommended in Patanjali’s Yoga, though it is mentioned as one of the ways of obtaining perfections. Thus the habit of drug intoxication prevalent in primitive tribes was …” 5. Distortions in Calendars-Before independence, all pañchāngas mentioned Vikrama-samvat and Śālivāhana-Śaka, never Vikrama-Śaka or Śālivāhana-samvat. Difference between Śaka and Samvat was clear known. But now, a term is used Rāṣṭrīya-Śaka or Śaka-samvat, which have no meaning. So called Rāṣṭrīya-Śaka is not used by govt or public in this Rāṣṭra nor it is a Śaka used for calculating planetary positions and its epoch is also not known. Śaka is mathematical calendar based on solar months in which it is easier to calculate number of days since epoch. After fixing solar months, we decide about extra lunar months which are basis of our festivals. Society moves as per this, so it is called Samvatsara. Anniversary is called Samavasaraṇa in Jainism- a derivative of this word.

Since all our pañchāngas start their calculation from start of Kali era, there is massive attempt to change that epoch since Baily (astronomer) and Brennand in 1865 (Harvard commentary on Sūrya-siddhānta). Calendar software of NASA has become a handy tool in hands of semi-literates. This software is not accurate for periods before 700 BC. For ancient periods, 10 models of corrections have been proposed, but still they reduce the error or 3000 BC from 68 hours to 26 hours, which is not accurate to specify the date. All the corrections do not take into account 2 fluctuations-temporary increase in radio-activity and increase in sea level after Mahābhārata war. That puts load n equator and slows down axial rotation, which is unit of our calculations. There is corresponding change in moon orbit which is not calculated. Eclipses recur in 18 days 10.5 days and are symmetric in half period of 3339 tithis indicated in Ṛgveda त्रीणि शतानि त्रीणि सहस्राण्यग्निं त्रिंशच्च देवा नव चा सपर्यन् । (ऋक्, १०/५२/६). Thus, it cannot be used to find very old dates, but it can confirm date determined otherwise. Thus NASA software recommends that its formula for ancient periods should be corrected from historical dates. But Indian slaves attempt to change the dates only. Difference in time due to slowing down of earth rotation by tidal friction is called ΔT (Delta T) and can be calculated with alternate correction models at website given below- http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/deltat/deltat.htm

Astronomers of Vikramāditya period have used Chahman era of 612 BC-probably because it was by one of the Agni-vamśī kings of Delhi who had trounced Nineve-Assyrian capital in that year. However, this era is ignored or shifted to 550 BC in name of Cyrus of Persia. Cyrus and Darius were great kings, but their victories were only in west up to Arab and Syria, not in any part of India. Cyrus did not start his rule in this period. There was no system of a continuous calendar-years were counted from reign of each king, similar to Anka system of Orissa, So-called calendar of Cyrus was never started nor followed even in Persia. No Śaka king had ever started any calendar in his own country or in India. All chronologies of west & central Asia are discussed in detail by Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations. Some persons have made double shift. One group has assumed it to be calendar of Śrīharṣa (456 BC). Complementary manipulation is by others who have changed Śrīharṣa to Harṣavardhana (605-646 AD), creating error of about 1200 years. This is after reading separate books of both in syllabus. Varāhamihira time has been accurately given at many places, but instead of epoch of 612 BC, it has been calculated in Śālivāhana-Śaka which started 90 years after his death. Similar error is about Brahmagupta. He was famous as son of Jiṣṇugupta, who himself was son of Amśuvarman, king of Nepal in (103-33 BC). In his kingdom, Vikramāditya stated his samvat in 57 BC at Paśupatinātha as recorded in Nepal history.

ब्राह्मस्फुटसिद्धान्त, मध्यमाधिकार (१/२)-
ब्रह्मोक्तं ग्रहगणितम् महताकालेन यत् खिलीभूतम्। अभिधीयते स्फुटं तज्जिष्णुसुत ब्रह्मगुप्तेन॥

= The mathematics of planets told by Brahmā developed errors after long time. The same is explained by Brahmagupta, son of Jiṣṇugupta. Vaṭeśvara-siddhānta has a full chapter on examining (defects of) Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta, where Brahmagupta has always been referred as son of Jiṣṇugupta, rather than his proper name. Some examples are given below-

वटेश्वर सिद्धान्त-ब्राह्म-स्फुटसिद्धान्त परीक्षणाध्याय
दिव्यशास्त्रमपहाय यदन्यत् प्राह जिष्णुतनयो निज बुद्ध्या।
तस्य शास्त्रमधिकृत्य ततोऽहं दूषणानि कतिचित् कथयामि ॥१॥
जिष्णुपुत्र कथितैर्युगाङ्घ्रिभिः खेचरो नहि यतः स्वपर्ययम्। भुञ्जते सममतो युगाङ्घ्रयः श्रीमदार्यभटकीर्तितास्फुटाः॥२॥
न हि समाः खलु जिष्णुसुतेरिताः कथमपीह यतो न ततः स्फुटः॥५॥
जिष्णु सुतोक्तं ब्रह्मोक्तसम्मतमित्यस्य खण्डनम्-
न ब्रह्मोक्त्या घटते जिष्णुसुतोक्तं युगादि किञ्चिदपि।यस्मान्मृषैव तस्माद्ब्रह्मोक्तमिति यच्चकार तत् संज्ञम्॥१३॥
युगपादान् जिष्णुसुतस्त्रीन् यातानाह कलियुगादौ यत्। तस्य द्वापरादो युगगतयेये स्फुटे जातः॥१४॥
लङ्कासमयाम्योत्तररेखायां भास्करोदये मध्याः। जिष्णुसुतेनोक्तं यन तत्स्फुटं विषुवतोऽन्यत्र॥१५॥
न समा युगमनुकल्पाः कल्पादिगतं कृतादियातं च। ब्राह्मोक्तैर्जिष्णुसुतो नातो जानाति मध्यगतिम्॥१९॥
भूपरिधिखण्डवर्गो देशान्तरयोजनैः कृतस्तेन। तदतीव गणितजाड्यं प्रदर्शितं जिष्णुतनयेन॥२५॥
नातोऽस्ति ज्या नियमः शरसौक्ष्म्यात्तन्निवर्तनं युक्तम्। सप्तक (७) शरे निवृत्तिर्जिष्णुसुतस्यैव युक्ततमा॥३१॥
प्राक् क्षितिजेऽपमवलयोदयमानं प्राङ् निरूपितं दृष्टम्। जिष्णुसुतेनान्यत्र तु नातो जानाति तद् भ्रमणम्॥३६॥
वास्तववेधादन्यज्जिष्णोस्तनयस्य भाविनी भाऽपि। दूरभ्रष्टाऽङ्गुलकैरतोऽस्फुटास्तस्य सर्वेऽपि॥३७॥
नो वा गोलं नो लम्बनकं संस्थानं नो तथा क्षेत्रम्। नापि रविग्रहहृदयं जिष्णुसुतो गणितगोलबाह्योऽयम्॥४०॥
उदयास्तमयभानोरिष्टे काले ग्रहस्य दृक्कर्म। कृतवान् जिष्णुसुतो यस्त्वौदयिके सुगणितजाड्यं तत्॥४३॥
भानुभुजाविनियोगाच्चन्द्रे शुक्लं प्रदर्शितं तेन। नो लग्नभुजानुगं वेत्ति नु शुक्लं सुतो जिष्णोः॥४४॥
जिष्णुसुतदूषणानां संख्यां वक्तुं न शक्यते यस्मात्। तस्मादयमुद्देशो बुद्धिमताऽन्यानि योज्यानि॥४५॥
एकमपि न वेत्ति जिष्णुसुतो गणित गोलानाम्। न मया प्रोक्तानि ततः पृथक् पृथग् दूषणान्येषाम्॥४६॥

His time is indicated at end of his book-

ब्राह्मस्फुटसिद्धान्त (२४/७-८)
श्रीचापवंशतिलके श्रीव्याघ्रमुखे नृपे शकनृपाणाम्। पञ्चाशत् संयुक्तैर्वर्षशतैः पञ्चभिरतीतैः॥
ब्राह्मः स्फुटसिद्धान्तः सज्जनगणितज्ञगोलवित् प्रीत्यै। त्रिंशद्वर्षेन कृतो जिष्णुसुतब्रह्मगुप्तेन॥

= Pride of Śrī-Chāpa (Śrī-Mālava) vamśa was head of Vyāghrapada gotra who started a Śaka (calender). In year 550 of that Śaka, Brahmagupta, son of Jiṣṇugupta wrote Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta at age of 30 for pleasure of scholars of Gaṇita (math) and Gola (spherical trigonometry). Here, year of a king of Chāpa-vamśa is followed who had started a śaka. Gotra of Bhīṣma and Pāṇḍavas was Vyāghrapada of Vasiṣṭha line and a seer of Ṛgveda. Main king in their line whose year was being followed is called Vyāghramukha (i.e head of that line). That was one of the 4 Agni-vamśas joining hand under king Śūdraka at Mount Abu in 756 BC (Śūdraka-śaka). They were Chapahāni, Pratihāra, Paramāra, Chālukya (Solanki, Sālunkhe). In Chapahāni clan, famous king Chāhamāna routed Assyria and its capital Nineve in 612 BC-which was marked by start of a śaka. Thereafter, it was famous as Chauhāna-the last king being Prithviraj Chauhan who was last independent king of Delhi. They were experts in archery or they were protectors of west border of India in shape of Chāpa (bow) called Mālvā-like a garland (mālā). So, they were called Chapahāni.

भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व (१/६)-
एतस्मिन्नेवकाले तु कान्यकुब्जो द्विजोत्तमः। अर्बुदं शिखरं प्राप्य ब्रह्महोममथाकरोत्॥४५॥
वेदमन्त्रप्रभावाच्च जाताश्चत्वारि क्षत्रियाः। प्रमरस्सामवेदी च चपहानिर्यजुर्विदः॥४६॥
त्रिवेदी च तथा शुक्लोऽथर्वा स परिहारकः॥४७॥ अवन्ते प्रमरो भूपश्चतुर्योजन विस्तृता।।४९॥

= At this time, the Kānyakubja Brāhmaṇa (Viṣṇu incarnation Buddha born as son of Ajina brāhmaṇa of Magadha) went to Arbuda top (mount Abu) and did Brahma-homa. By effect of Veda-mantras, 4 Kṣatriyas were born-Pramara (Paramāra) of Sāmaveda, Chapahāni (Chāhamāna = Chauhān) of Yajurveda, Śukla (Chālukya = Solanki, Sālunkhe) of three vedas, and Parihāraka of Atharva. Pramara became king of Avanti spread in 4 yojanas.

प्रतिसर्ग (१/७)-चित्रकूटगिरिर्देशे परिहारो महीपतिः। कालिंजर पुरं रम्यमक्रोशायतनं स्मृतम्॥१॥

राजपुत्राख्यदेशे च चपहानिर्महीपतिः॥२॥ अजमेरपुरं रम्यं विधिशोभा समन्वितम्॥३॥

शुक्लो नाम महीपालो गत आनर्तमण्डले। द्वारकां नाम नगरीमध्यास्य सुखिनोऽभवत्॥४॥

= Parihāra was king at beautiful town of Kālinjar in 1 Krośa (3 kms) in hills of Chitrakūṭa, Chapahāni was king of pleasant city Ajmer in country famous as Rājaputra (Rajsthan), Śukla happily ruled in Dwārakā in Ānarta. Jiṣṇugupta at time of Vikramāditya is given by Varāhamihira and Kālidāsa-

वराहमिहिर- बृहज्जातक सप्तमोऽध्यायः- आयुर्दाय
विष्णु (जिष्णु) गुप्तोऽपि चैवं देव स्वामी सिद्धसेनश्च चक्रे |
दोषश्चैषां जायते अष्टावरिष्टं हित्वा नायुर्विंशतेः स्याद् अधस्तात् || ७||

= Bṛhat-jātaka of Varāhamihira, chapter 7 on longevity-Viṣṇu (Jiṣṇu)-gupta, Devasvāmī and Siddhasena also have explained infant death at age of 8. If these defects are removed, the person may live up to 20 years.

श्लोकैश्चतुर्दशशतै सजिनैर्मयैव ज्योतिर्विदाभरणकाव्यविधा नमेतत् ॥ᅠ२२.६ᅠ॥

= Chapter 22 of Jyotirvidābharaṇa of Kālidāsa-Description of chapters in book-by 1424 verses this Jyotirvidābharaṇa has been written by me.

विक्रमार्कवर्णनम्-वर्षे श्रुतिस्मृतिविचारविवेकरम्ये श्रीभारते खधृतिसम्मितदेशपीठे।
मत्तोऽधुना कृतिरियं सति मालवेन्द्रे श्रीविक्रमार्कनृपराजवरे समासीत् ॥ᅠ२२.७ᅠ॥

= Description of Vikramārka-This work by me is under patronage of great emperor Śrī-Vikramārka of Mālavā who is ruling over 180 provinces of Śrī-Bhārata varṣa which is most habitable due to knowledge & conduct based on Śruti (Veda) & Smṛti (Dharma-śāstra).

नृपसभायां पण्डितवर्गा-शङ्कु सुवाग्वररुचिर्मणिरङ्गुदत्तो जिष्णुस्त्रिलोचनहरो घटखर्पराख्य।
अन्येऽपि सन्ति कवयोऽमरसिंहपूर्वा यस्यैव विक्रमनृपस्य सभासदोऽमी ॥ᅠ२२.८ᅠ॥
सत्यो वराहमिहिर श्रुतसेननामा श्रीबादरायणमणित्थकुमारसिंहा।
श्रीविक्रमार्कंनृपसंसदि सन्ति चैते श्रीकालतन्त्रकवयस्त्वपरे मदाद्या ॥ᅠ२२.९ᅠ॥

= Scholars in assembly of king-Śanku, Vararuchi, Maṇi(ttha), Angudatta, Jiṣṇu(gupta), Trilochana, Hara, Ghaṭakharpara and many other poets like Amarasimha are in assembly of king Vikrama where I too live. In addition to myself as author of Kālatantra (Kālāmṛta in 2 parts by Kālidāsa), scholars in assembly of king Vikramārka are-Satya (āchārya), Varāhamihira, Śrutasena, Śrī Bādarāyaṇa (other than Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa of 3200 BC-author of Vedas, Mahābhārata, Bhāgavata purāṇa, Brahma-sūtra and commentary on Yoga-sūta), Maṇittha, Kumāra-simha.

नवरत्नानि-धन्वन्तरि क्षपणकामरसिंहशङ्कुर्वेतालभट्टघटखर्परकालिदासा।
ख्यातो वराहमिहिरो नृपते सभायां रत्नानि वै वररुचिर्नव विक्रमस्य ॥ᅠ२२.१०ᅠ॥

= 9 jewels-9 jewels in assembly of king Vikrama are-Dhanvantari, Kṣapaṇaka, Amarasimha, Śanku, Vetāla-Bhaṭṭa, Ghaṭa-kharpara, Kālidāsa, famous Varāhamihira, Vararuchi.

As Vikrama samvat was started in period of Amśuvarman (101-33 BC), his earlier inscriptions are assumed in Śrīharṣa-śaka (456 BC) which is wrongly related to Harṣavardhana of Thaneswar (605-646 AD) who had never started any era as per his own writings or as per his biographer Bāṇabhaṭṭa or Chinese traveller Huensang. Later inscriptions are in Vikrama-samvat. http://indepigr.narod.ru/licchavi/content81.htm

  1. No. 69-Samvat 535-Śrāvaṇa śukla 7 (if it is in Śrīharṣa-śaka of 456 BC, year will be 79 AD-long after his rule. Thus, reference is Chāpa śaka of 612 BC giving date of 77 BC-after start of Amśuvarman rule and before Vikrama-samvat.)
  2. No. 76-Samvat 29-Jyeṣṭha śukla 10. (Vikrama samvat now onwards)
  3. No. 77-Samvat 30- Jyeṣṭha śukla 6.
  4. No. 78-Samvat 31-Prathama (month name missing-Pauṣa as per next inscription) pañchamī-that year had adhika month.
  5. No. 79-Samvat 31-Dvitīya Pauṣa śukla aṣṭamī.
  6. No. 80-Samvat 31, Māgha śukla 13.
  7. No. 81-Samvat 32, Āṣāḍha śukla 13.
  8. No. 83-Samvat 34-Prathama Pauṣa śukla 2-year of extra month.
  9. No. 84-Samvat 36- Āṣāḍha śukla 12.
  10. No. 85-Samvat 37-Phālguna śukla 5.
  11. No. 86-Samvat 39-Vaiśākha śukla 10.
  12. No. 87-Samvat 43-Vyatīpāta- Jyeṣṭha kṛṣṇa (date missing).
  13. No. 89-Samvat 45- Jyeṣṭha śukla (date missing)

Jiṣṇugupta has 2 inscriptions in which dates are missing. His coins have been found. One is shown on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licchavi_(kingdom). Varāhamihira has given his date of birth as 8-3-95 BC (śaka, 3042, Chaitra śukla 8) in Kutūhala-mañjarī-

वराहमिहिर-कुतूहल मञ्जरी-स्वस्ति श्रीनृप सूर्यसूनुज-शके याते द्वि-वेदा-म्बर-त्रै (३०४२) मानाब्दमिते त्वनेहसि जये वर्षे वसन्तादिके। चैत्रे श्वेतदले शुभे वसुतिथावादित्यदासादभूद् वेदाङ्गे निपुणो वराहमिहिरो विप्रो रवेराशीर्भिः॥

= In the running year 3042 of son of Sun’s son (Dharma)= Yudhiṣṭhira śaka, in Jaya samvatsara starting with Vasanta (spring) in Chaitra bright half 8 date, Varāhamihira was born of Ādityadāsa by grace of Brāhmaṇas & sun.

वराहमिहिर-बृहत् संहिता (१३/३)-
आसन् मघासु मुनयः शासति पृथ्वीं युधिष्ठिरे नृपतौ। षड्-द्विक-पञ्च-द्वि (२५२६) युतः शककालस्तस्य राज्ञस्य॥

= When Yudhiṣṭhira ruled the earth, Saptarṣis were in Maghā star. To get śaka years of that king, add 2526 to the present śaka. He has indicated his birth in Kapitthaka and later life at Avantikā, then under Vikramāditya-

वराहमिहिर-बृहज्जातक, अध्याय २८-उपसंहार-
आदित्यदास तनयस्तदवाप्त बोधः कापित्थके सवितृलब्धवरप्रसादः।
आवन्तिको मुनिमतानवलोक्य सम्यग् घोरां वराहमिहिरो रुचिरां चकार॥९॥

He has indicated start of north motion of sun from Makara sign in Bṛhat-samhitā and equivalent yoga calculation in Pañcha-siddhāntikā

वराहमिहिर-बृहत् संहिता (३/१-२)-आश्लेषार्द्धाद्दक्षिणमुत्तरमयनं रवेर्धनिष्ठाद्यम्।
नूनं कदाचिदासीद्येनोक्तं पूर्वशास्त्रेषु॥१॥
साम्प्रतमयनं सवितुः कर्कटकाद्यं मृगादितश्चान्यत्। उक्ताभावो विकृतिः प्रत्यक्षपरीक्षणैर्व्यक्तिः॥२॥

= Earlier books stated south motion of sun from middle of Āśleṣā (113020’) and north motion from start of Dhaniṣṭhā. Now, it is from start of Karka (900) and Makara (2700) signs, which can be easily verified by observation.

पञ्चसिद्धान्तिका, अध्याय ३ (पौलिश सिद्धान्त)-
अर्केन्दुयोगचक्रे वैधृतमुक्तं दशर्क्ष सहिते (तु) । यदि च(क्रं) व्यतिपातो वेला मृग्या (युतैः भोगैः॥२०॥
आश्लेषार्धादासीद्यदा निवृत्तिः किलोष्णकिरणस्य। युक्तमयनं तदाऽऽसीत् साम्प्रतमयनं पुनर्वसुतः॥२१॥

When sum of sun and moon sign/degrees is 3600, then it is Vaidhṛti yoga-when declination of sun and moon are same but in opposite directions (north-south). Adding 10 nakṣatras (133020’), it is Vyatīpāta yoga, when sun-moon have same declination, but on opposite ends of ecliptic. That is possible only when south motion of sun started from middle of Āśleṣā (113020’) which now starts from Punarvasu (Karka sign starts with its fourth quarter, 900). In his book Pañcha-siddhāntikā, he has taken reference year as 427 śaka (185 BC)- पञ्चसिद्धान्तिका, अध्याय १-सप्ताश्विवेद (४२७) संख्यं

शककालमपास्य चैत्रशुक्लादौ।
अर्धास्तमिते भानौ यवनपुरे सौम्य दिवसाद्यः॥८॥

= On Śaka 427, Chaitra śukla 1 start when sun was half set at Yavanapur, it was day of Saumya (mercury, sun of Soma = moon). Thebaut has changed Saumya to Soma (Monday). S.B. Dixit made it Bhauma = Tuesday, so that it tallies with counting from Śālivāhana-śaka starting after death of Varāhamihira in 78 AD. Yavanapura is assumed to be Romaka-pattana of Sūrya-siddhānta, 900 west from Ujjain. Actually, Varāhamihira has indicated it to be 7/20 Ghaṭī west (440 longitude) of Ujjain (75043’E) and 9 Ghaṭī west of Vārāṇasī (830 E) in Pañcha-siddhāntikā (3/13). So, it should be near Alexandria (300E), 1043’E from it.

पञ्च सिद्धान्तिका (३/१३)-पौलिश सिद्धान्त-
यवनान्तरजा नाड्यः सप्ताऽवन्त्यां त्रिभाग संयुक्ताः। वाराणस्यां त्रिकृतिः साधनमत्र वक्ष्यामि॥१३॥

Sun is set from evening to sunrise, its middle point is midnight. When it is midnight there, it will be sunrise in Ujjain. This Śaka started in year 2526 of Yudhiṣṭhira Śaka.

वराहमिहिर-बृहत् संहिता (१३/३)-
आसन् मघासु मुनयः शासति पृथ्वीं युधिष्ठिरे नृपतौ। षड्-द्विक-पञ्च-द्वि (२५२६) युतः शककालस्तस्य राज्ञस्य॥

= Saptarṣis (muni) were in Maghā when Yudhiṣṭhira was ruling the world. To get Śaka of that king (Yudhiṣṭhira), add 2526 (to current Śaka). Calculation is being given for Śaka of 612 BC and other assumed Śaka as per Jagannath-Hora software of Narasimha Rao-

  1. 612 BC-Epoch 18-2-185 BC- Chaitra śukla 1 started on 18 at 10-10-24 hrs. But sunrise at Ujjain was at 7-6-39 hrs. So date was 17-2-185 BC, Wednesday.
  2. 550 BC of Darius -Epoch 5-3-124 BC- Chaitra śukla 1 from 6-44-24. Sunrise at 6-53-44 on 4 March, Thursday.
  3. Vikrama Samvat of 57 BC-This is samvat, not a Śaka, still calculation is done for that as the different is not understood. Chaitra śukla 1 of 427 year on 4-3-371 AD at 2-13-54. Sunrise on 3 March Thursday at 6-51-51.
  4. Śālivāhana Śaka of 78 AD
    • 427 current (gamya) year- Chaitra śukla 1 on 20-2-505, at 8-8-08 hrs. Sunday. As sunrise was at 7-0-22 hrs, Pratipadā will be counted on next day-monday.
    • 427 lapsed (gata)- Chaitra śukla 1 on 11-3-506 at 3-14-54. Friday on 12, sunrise at 6-43-49 on 10th.

Thus, the Śaka of Varāhamihira does not fit with any other year except 612 BC.

  1. Books of Vikramāditya period-(1) All purāṇas- Purāṇas were updated under guidance of Vetāla Bhaṭṭa, one of his 9 gems. The places where this was arranged were called Viśālā, like mahāśālā of Śaunaka. There are 3 places known as Viśālā, one is Ujjayinī itself, capital of Vikramāditya (Meghadūta 1/32 of Kālidāsa), Vaiśālī in Bihar (famous as place of Bhagwan Mahavir), and Badarī-viśāla, where Ādi-Śankara had written Brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya in 494 BC. There could be a fourth in south India also.

भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व ४, अध्याय १-
एवं द्वापरसन्ध्याया अन्ते सूतेन वर्णितम्। सूर्यचन्द्रान्वयाख्यानं तन्मया कथितम् तव॥१॥
विशालायां पुनर्गत्वा वैतालेन विनिर्मितम्। कथयिष्यति सूतस्तमितिहाससमुच्चयम्॥२॥

= Bhaviṣya purāṇa, Pratisarga parva 4, chapter 1-Thus at the end of Dvāpara sandhyā, history of Sūrya and Chandra vamśas was told by Sūta, which has been told to you. Again, in Viśālā town, Vaitāla will be told the complete history by Sūta (another purāṇa teller).

तन्मया कथितं सर्वं हृषीकोत्तम पुण्यदम्। पुनर्विक्रमभूपेन भविष्यति समाह्वयः॥३॥
नैमिषारण्यमासाद्य श्रावयिष्यति वै कथाम्। पुनरुक्तानि यान्येव पुराणाष्टादशानि वै।।४॥
तानि चोपपुराणानि भविष्यन्ति कलौ युगे। तेषां चोपपुराणानां द्वादशाध्यायमुत्तमम्॥५॥

= All that has been told by me (Sūta-1). Again in time of king Vikrama, there will be gathering (for this purpose). The stories told at Naimiṣāraṇya will be retold whatever is in 18 purāṇas. There will be 18 upa-purāṇas also in kali yuga. Of them 12 chapters will be Uttama (original).

सारभूतश्च कथित इतिहाससमुच्चयः। यस्ते मया च कथितो हृषीकोत्तम ते मुदा॥६॥
तत्कथां भगवान् सूतो नैमिषारण्यमास्थितः। अष्टाशीति सहस्राणि श्रावयिष्यति वै मुनीन्॥८॥

= I am telling the essense of same history which was told by Sūta before 88,000 munis at Naimiṣāraṇya.

शौनको ह वै महाशालोऽङ्गिरसं विधिवदुपसन्नः पप्रच्छ ॥३॥-मुण्डक उपनिषद् (१/१/२-३)

= Śaunaka was mahāśāla (head of highest institute of learning). Āngirasa formally approached him and asked (Muṇḍaka upaniṣad, 1/1/2-3).

  1. Harisvāmī commentary on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa-at end of each chapter, Harisvāmī has called himself as Dharmādhyakṣa under Vikramāditya.
  2. Many smṛti texts.
  3. Tantra texts by Ghaṭakharpara-no earlier texts are available on tantra.
  4. Jaina āgamas by Kṣapaṇaka (= Śramaṇa or Jaina Muni).
  5. Suśruta-samhitā by Dhanvantari (3rd), his nava-ratna.
  6. Epics of Kālidāsa (second) indicated in Jyotirvidābharaṇa.
  7. Astronomy astrology texts of Varāhamihira-Bṛhat-samhitā, Bṛhat-jātaka, Pañcha-siddhāntikā, of Brahmagupta-Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta, Khaṇḍa-khādyaka.

Many others by Vararuchi (Vākya-karaṇa), Satyacharya, Maṇittha etc.

  1. Revenue records by Śanku-revived by Akbar who copied Nava-ratna system also. Śanku is the instrument used for surveying described in Sūrya-siddhānta and other texts on astronomy.
  2. Amara-koṣa by Amara Simha, grammer by Vararuchi etc.

There are many others. Main feature was that till the time of Vikramāditya, Sanskrit was standard language. From time of his grandson Śālivāhana, literature in local languages started which flourished under Gorakhanātha in 800 AD. (Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa-alankāra of Bhoja, verse 32).

Reasons of opposing Vikramāditya

  1. James Ussher (sometimes spelled Usher) (4 January 1581 – 21 March 1656) was Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625–1656. He published a chronology that purported to establish the time and date of the creation as the night preceding 26 October 4004 BC, according to the proleptic Julian calendar. Till today, western historians are not free from this date and twist all findings of archeology, geology to bring them after this date. That is partly due to pressure of Church and partly due to own belief. Actually, 7 days creation in Bible means 7 manvantaras. When sun, moon, earth did not exist, day meant axial rotation of earth.
  2. Indian history was to be made of still later period to show it after Ezypt or Sumer civilizations. In addition to all Indian texts, all Greek texts of Homer, Herodotus, Arian, Megasthenese also were denied. Megasthenes had indicated 2 periods-15,500 BC when India captured foreign country, 6777 BC when Dyonisus attacked India, 154 generations of Indian kings before Alexander.
  3. To destroy chronology, Maurya period was shifted from 1534 BC to 326 BC to make it in time of attack by Alexander. For that, all kings of Mālava-gaṇa were omitted and all major kings of 4 Agni-vamśīs from Vikramāditya to Prithviraj Chauhan and last Bhoja of Malava were ignored.
  4. Ujjain had been time reference of world since very ancient era, so it is place of Mahākāla. Kings controlling that region only had started important calendars. After studying all kings of that region, Pargiter & Wliiam Jones suddenly denied their existence. Naturally, all major calendars and their kings were denied.
  5. For arbitrary manipulation of dates, no calendar can be admitted. After study of all calenders by George Buhler, Sewel and their obedient student Lawrence Dominique (named Swami Kannu Pillai), they denied their existence. Buhler removed one verse of Rājatarangiṇī to remove evidence of Laukika era used in whole book. On this pattern, Sudhakara Dwiwedi under guidance of Geaorge Thebaut shifted Mahābhārata was from 36 years before Kali to 653 Kali. This was to make Chāhmāna śaka of 612 BC as Śālivāhana śaka of 78 AD. Rājatarangiṇī manipulation was done to show that 43rd Gonanda king Kanishka (1292-1262 BC) of Kashmir was a Śaka king of 78 AD who started this Śaka. Āryabhaṭa date was shifted from 360 Kali to 3600 kali (499 AD) and dates of Varāhamihira who quoted him was shown after that.
  6. Śrīharṣa (456 BC) was the first king to assume title of Vikramāditya. His elder brother Bhartṛhari became sanyāsī and wrote 3 famous Śatakas (Nīti, Śṛngāra, vairāgya) and Vākyapadīyam (philosophy of grammer). Rājatarangiṇī indicates that he is confused with Paramāra king Vikramāditya whose name itself was that, not a title. Śrīharṣa had deputed Mātṛgupta (Title Kālidāsa) for 5 years to rule Kashmir in absence of any king there.

Special reasons of denying Vikramāditya

  1. His samvat, purāṇa and smṛti texts are still followed. So, his denial is most important for destroying Indian civilizatiom.
  2. Slavery is so deep rooted that after reading all literature about Vikramāditya or of his nava-ratnas, his existence is denied. Professor N.R. Joshi taught Sanskrit for 25 years in USA, Canada but denied existence of Śūdraka, Śrīharṣa after teaching their books Mṛcchhakaṭikam and Naiṣadha charita, as I showed from syllabus of his universities.
  3. Indians are to be projected as permanent slaves and cowards. So, massive efforts were made to destroy Chāhamāna śaka of 612 BC started after destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve, indicated in Bible at 5 places. This was used in time of Vikramāditya before his own samvat.
  4. Vikramāditya was most powerful king having permanent influence in west Asia and even in Roman empire. His astrologers from Magi (Magadha) declared that Jesus would be a great man, which was a major factor in accepting him as a Prophet.
  5. Defeat and capture of Caesar by Vikramādiya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD)- Defeat of Caesar is noted in many places, e.g. at

http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_romanpersian.php The first Roman contact with the Parthian Empire came during the Mithridatic Wars which lasted from 82 to 63 B.C. The Kingdom of Pontus was an independent Kingdom that bordered on Parthian territory. By the third Mithridatic War, the Romans pursued Mithridates and his ally, Tigranes, deep into Armenia, and conquered most of the Armenian Empire, including Syria and Judea for Rome. From this point on, the Eastern border of Rome's territory bordered on Parthia. Rome recognized that Parthia, far from being barbaric was a highly civilized country with rich booty. The lure of conquest was behind most of Rome's incursions into Parthian territory in the following centuries. Soon after Pompey had conquered Syria and Judea for Rome, Crassus, already one of the richest men in Rome, launched a campaign against Parthia in Mesopotamia. He was defeated however, with great slaughter at Carrhae (53 B.C.). Caesar was planning a campaign of retribution when he was assassinated so the task fell to his successor in the east Mark Antony. [16]

In 75 BC, Julius Caesar was captured by Cilician pirates, who infested the Mediterranean sea. The Romans had never sent a navy against them, because the ... Vikramāditya has become most hated by Oxford because his calendar is still followed for all festivals surviving attempts to change it. Jyotirvidābharaṇa of Kālidāsa has been declared fake as it describes arrest of Caesar by him. But 3 epics indicated here are not considered fake and studied widely-Raghuvamśa, Meghadūta, Kumārasambhava. These books do not indicate Kālidāsa as author, it is known only from Jyotirvidābharaṇa.

ज्योतिर्विदाभरण, ग्रन्थाध्यायनिरूपणम् २२, विक्रमार्कवर्णनम्-
वर्षे श्रुतिस्मृतिविचारविवेकरम्ये श्रीभारते खधृतिसम्मितदेशपीठे।
मत्तोऽधुना कृतिरियं सति मालवेन्द्रे श्रीविक्रमार्कनृपराजवरे समासीत् ॥ २२.७ ॥

= Chapter 22-Description of Vikramārka (Vikramāditya)-I (Kālidāsa) am writing this book under patronage of the great king Vikramārka of Mālavā ruling over 180 deśa (Provinces) of Bhāratavarṣa famous of its pious conduct based on Śruti (veda) and Smṛti (dharma-śāstra).

सैन्यवर्णनम्- यस्याष्टादशयोजनानि कटके पादातिकोटित्रयं वाहानामयुतायुतं च नवतिस्त्रिघ्ना कृतिर्हस्तिनाम्।
नौकालक्षचतुष्टयं विजयिनो यस्य प्रयाणे भवत् सोऽयं विक्रमभूपतिर्विजयते नान्यो धरित्रीधरः ॥ २२.१२ ॥

Description of his army- There is no king equal to Vikrama whose 3 crore army camp is spread over 18 yojanas, has million vehicles, 903 = 162,000 elephants, 4 lakh ships and whose march always ends in victory. शाकप्रवृत्तिकाल- येनास्मिन्वसुधातले शकगणान्सर्वा दिशः सङ्गरे हत्वा पञ्चनवप्रमान्कलियुगे शाकप्रवृत्तिः कृता। श्रीमद्विक्रमभूभुजा प्रतिदिनं मुक्तामणिस्वर्णगो सप्तीभाद्यपवर्जनेन विहितो धर्मः सुवर्णाननः ॥ २२.१३ ॥ = Starting of Śaka-Great king Vikrama donates pearls gold & jewels daily and has established rule of Dharma after killing 99,999 Śakas in wars in all directions. दिग्विजयवर्णनम्- उद्दामद्रविडद्रुमैकपरशुर्लाटाटवीपावको, वेल्लद्वङ्गभुजङ्गराजगरुडो गौडाब्धिकुम्भोद्भवः। गर्जद् गुर्जरराजसिंधुरहरिर्धारान्धकारार्यमाः, काम्बोजाम्बुजचन्द्रमा विजयते श्रीविक्रमार्को नृपः ॥ २२.१४ ॥ = Digvijaya (conquering all directions)-King Vikramārka is always victorious who is axe for forest of brave Draviḍas, fire to burn the forest of powerful Lāṭa, Garuḍa for the snakes of Vanga, Agastya to drink ocean of Gauḍas, roaring elephant in Gurjara, Aryamā to remove darkness of earth and moon for the lotus of Kāmboja. प्रभुत्ववर्णनम्- येनाप्युग्रमहीधराग्रविषये दुर्गाण्यसह्यान्यहो, नीत्वा यानि नतीकृतास्तदधिपाः दत्तानि तेषां पुनः। इन्द्राम्भोध्यमरद्रुमस्मरसुरक्ष्माभृद् गणेनाञ्जसा, श्रीमद्विक्रमभूभृताखिलजनाम्भोजेन्दुना मण्डले ॥ २२.१५ ॥ = Power-King Vikrama conquered all difficult forts, defeated all kings and returned back their kingdoms, protected all people like Indra does for Devas and is moon for blooming of lotus like people of world. उज्जयिनीवर्णनम्- यद्राजघान्युज्जयिनी महापुरी सदा महाकालमहेशयोगिनी। समाश्रयिप्राण्यपवर्गदायिनी श्रीविक्रमार्कोऽवनिपो जयत्यपि ॥ २२.१६ ॥ यो रुक्मदेशाधिपतिं शकेश्वरं जित्वा गृहीत्वोज्जयिनीं महाहवे। आनीय सम्भ्राम्य मुमोच यत्त्वहो स विक्रमार्कः समसह्यविक्रमः ॥ २२.१७ ॥ = Description of Ujjayinī-King Vikramārka is always victorious who is shelter and provider of all people and whose capital Ujjayinī is great city where Mahākāla Maheśa always remains.

Valour of Vikrama is unsurpassed who conquered the Śaka king of Rukma-deśa (Julius Caesar of Rome) in great war, brought him to Ujjayinī, paraded him and then let off. तस्मिन् सदाविक्रममेदिनीशे विराजमाने समवन्तिकायाम्। सर्वप्रजामङ्गलसौख्यसम्पद् बभूव सर्वत्र च वेदकर्म ॥ २२.१८ ॥ As long as great king Vikrama is in Avantikā, there is prosperity, happiness and well of all people and Vedic rights are followed. काव्यत्रयं सुमतिकृद्रघुवंशपूर्वं पूर्वं ततो ननु कियच्छ्रुतिकर्मवादः। ज्योतिर्विदाभरणकालविधानशास्त्रं श्रीकालिदासकवितो हि ततो बभूव ॥ २२.२० ॥ = 3 epics including Raghuvamśa were written before this book after getting Sumati = knowledge, and another on effects of karma as per vedas (astrology work Kālāmṛta in 2 parts).Then poet Kālidāsa wrote Jyotirvidābharaṇa on Kāla-vidhāna (auspicious times). Note-Kālidāsa was illiterate and by deceit married to scholar princess Vidyottamā. In anger after knowing this fool, she expelled. He became senseless in Kālī temple. On asking by Kālī, he stated Vidyā (name of princess) = knowledge and got boon for Vidyā. On return, he was asked- अस्ति कश्चिद् वाग्विशेषः = is there any learning?. He wrote 3 epics starting with 3 words and from Viśeṣa wrote astrology book. (1) अस्ति-अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः। पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधीव ग्राह्यः स्थितः पृथिव्या इव मानदण्डः। (कुमारसम्भव, १/१) (2) कश्चित्-कश्चित् कान्ता विरह गुरुणा स्वाधिकारात् प्रमत्तः, शापेनास्तंगमित महिमा वर्ष भोग्येन भर्तुः। यक्षश्चक्रे जनकतनयास्नानपुण्योदकेषु, स्निग्धश्छायातरुषु वसतिं रामगिर्याश्रमेषु। (मेघदूत १/१) (3) वाग्-वागर्थाविवसम्पृक्तौ वागर्थ प्रतिपत्तये। जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वती-परमेश्वरौ॥ (रघुवंश १/१) वर्षैः सिन्धुरदर्शनाम्बरगुणैर्याते कलौ (3068 Kali) सम्मिते, मासे माधवसंज्ञिके च विहितो ग्रन्थक्रियोपक्रमः। नानाकालविधानशास्त्रगदितज्ञानं विलोक्यादरा-दूर्जे ग्रन्थसमाप्तिरत्र विहिता ज्योतिर्विदां प्रीतये ॥ २२.२१ ॥ = In kali year 3068 (34 BC) this work on Kāla-vidhāna was started in month of Māgha and completed in Kārttika month for pleasure of respected astrologers इति श्रीकविकालिदासोदिते ज्योतिर्विदाभरणे ग्रन्थाध्यायनिरूपणक्रमनृपविक्रमवीरवर्णनाध्यायो द्वाविंशतितमः॥२२॥ (6) Julian calendar changed to tally with Vikrama samvat-Calendar Committee report-part 3 (CSIR publication) also mentions that Vikrama samvat has influenced start of Julian calendar in 46 BC after delay of 7 days. He intended to start year from winter solstice, but people started 7 days later with new moon. It is assumed that 7 days after winter solstice of 46 BC was new moon-actually it was full moon of Pauṣa after which Māgha Kṛṣṇa month started in Vikrama year 10 (lapsed). Vikrama samvat is only luni solar year in world which month starts with dark half. All our texts of astronomy and purāṇas still calculate adhika-māsa on basis of lunar month starting with bright half or new moon. To start a system opposed to general worldwide rule, it needs a powerful logic (shift of seasons by 45 days after start of kali) and a powerful king Vikramāditya who influenced India and Roman empire under Julius Caesar. That is why, no oriental scholar since British rule wants to admit existence of Vikramāditya and inserts fake stories in his name. It has also indicated that Hizra era started with start of Vikrama year 679.

Quoted from History of the Calendar, by M.N. Saha and N. C. Lahiri (part C of the Report of The Calendar Reforms Committee under Prof. M. N. Saha with Sri N.C. Lahiri as secretary in November 1952-Published by Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110001, 1955, Second Edition 1992.

Page, 168-last para-“Caesar wanted to start the new year on the 25th December, the winter solstice day. But people resisted that choice because a new moon was due on January 1, 45 BC. And some people considered that the new moon was lucky. Caesar had to go along with them in their desire to start the new reckoning on a traditional lunar landmark.” Importance of winter solstice was ancient and Bhīṣma Pitāmaha departed on that very day in year 3139 BC-36 years before death of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Now that day is called Christmas, though it was intended to be new year day. It has been assumed that the start was from new moon day. Actually, it was from start of Māgha month of Vikrama year 11 lapsed. Vikrama samvat is only year which starts with dark half-all other lunar years start from bright half starting with new moon. Strong following of Vikrama samvat, just 10 years after its inception in Rome against wishes of Caesar shows influence of Vikramāditya. (7) Hizra era based on Vikrama-samvat- Page 180-“It has been shown by Dr. Hashim Amir Ali of the Osmania University, Hyderabad, that the Mohammedan calendar was originally luni-solar in which intercalation was made when necessary, and not purely lunar. ….

According to this view, proper intercalation was applied in all years where necessary up to A.H. 10 and consequently the year A.H. 11 which started on March 29, 632 A.D.

(Footnote)-Initial epoch of the Hejira era thus arrived at is the evening of March 19, 622 A.D., Friday, the day following the vernal equinox.”

Thus, Hejira era also started with start of year in India-it was start of Vikrama year 679. Vedic ROOTS of pre-Islamic Arabia and the Kaaba (8) Respect of Vikramāditya till Islam-The text of the crucial Vikramāditya inscription, found inscribed on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, is found recorded on page 315 of a volume known as ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. Rendered in free English the inscription says: "Fortunate are those who were born (and lived) during king Vikram’s reign. He was a noble, generous dutiful ruler, devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time we Arabs, oblivious of God, were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting and torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for her life in the cruel paws of a wolf we Arabs were caught up in ignorance. The entire country was enveloped in a darkness so intense as on a new moon night. But the present dawn and pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favour of the noble king Vikramaditya whose benevolent supervision did not lose sight of us- foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred religion amongst us and sent scholars whose brilliance shone like that of the sun from his country to ours. These scholars and preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made cognizant of the presence of God, introduced to His sacred existence and put on the road of Truth, had come to our country to preach their religion and impart education at king Vikramaditya’s behest." http://www.guardiansofdarkness.com/GoD/muslims.pdf

(9) Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations at page 39- Epoch of the Ancient Arabs-Ishmaelite Arabs… used to date from the construction of the Ka’ba by Abraham and Ismael. …. After a long course of time they dated from year of Amr ben Yahya. … Afterwards they dated from death of Ka’b ben Lu’ay till the Year of Treason, in which the Banu-Yarbu stole certain garments which some of the kings of Himyar (Himavat =Bhārata) sent to Ka’ba. Then they dated from Year of the Elephants, when Ethiopians came to destroy Ka’ba. Lord annihilated them. Then they dated from era of Hijra. Gift from India and repulsing Ethiopian attack were in period of Vikramāditya. Page 73 of same book-Intercalation of the Ancient Arabs-They learnt the system of intercalation from Jews, about 200 years before the Hijra. Their intercalators, called Kalamis rose after pilgrimage had been finished.. and intercalated the month…. Arabs adopted the decision of the Kalammas. (Prophet Mohammad also was a Kalamma). One of their poets has said- “We have an intercalator, under whose banner we march; He declares the months profane or sacred as he likes” 9. Text of Bhaviṣya purāṇa -भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व १, अध्याय ६- एतस्मिन्नेव काले तु कान्यकुब्जो द्विजोत्तमः। अर्बुदं शिखरं प्राप्य ब्रह्महोममथाकरोत्।४५॥ वेदमन्त्रप्रभावाच्च जाताश्चत्वारि क्षत्रियाः। प्रमरस्सामवेदी च चपहानिर्यजुर्विदः॥४६॥ त्रिवेदी च तथा शुक्लोऽथर्वा स परिहारकः॥४७॥ = (Bhaviṣya purāṇa, pratisarga parva 1, chapter 6)-At this time, the great Kānyakubja brāhmaṇa did Brahma-homa at mount Arbuda (Abu). By effect of Veda-mantras 4 Kṣatriyas were born-Pramara of Sāmaveda, Chapahāni of Yajurveda, Śukla of three vedas (including Ṛk) and Parihāra of Atharva. अध्याय७-पूर्णे द्वे च सहस्रान्ते सूतो वचनमब्रवीत्। सप्तत्रिंशशते वर्षे दशाब्दे चाधिके कलौ॥७॥ प्रमरो नाम भूपालः कृतं राज्यं च षट्समाः। महामरस्ततो जातः पितुरर्धं कृतं पदम्॥८॥ देवापिस्तनयस्तस्य पितुस्तुल्य कृतं पदम्। देवदूतस्तस्य सुतः पितुस्तुल्यं स्मृतं पदम्॥९॥ तस्माद् गन्धर्वसेनश्च पञ्चाशदब्द भूपदम्॥ कृत्वा च स्वसुतं शंखमभिषेच्य वनं गतः॥१०॥ शंखेन तत्पदं प्राप्तं राज्यं त्रिंशत् समाः कृतम्। देवांगना वीरमती शक्रेण प्रेषिता तदा॥११॥ गन्धर्वसेनं सम्प्राप्य पुत्ररत्नमजीजनत्। सुतस्य जन्मकालेतु नभसः पुष्पवृष्टयः॥१२॥ पेतुर्दुन्दुभयोनेदुर्वाति वाताः सुखप्रदाः। शिवदृष्टिर्द्विजो नाम शिष्यैस्सार्द्धं वनं गतः॥१३॥ = Chapter 7-Sūta stated that in 2710 Kali, Pramara beame king and ruled for 6 years. after him Mahāmara, Devāpi, Devadūta ruled for same periods. Then Gandharvasena ruled for 50 years and went to forest after coronating his son Śankha. Śankha expired after ruling for 30 years. Then Gandharvasena had to return from forest and married Vīramatī sent by Indra. From her a son was born and Devas showerd flowers, beat drums, pleasant wind flowed etc. He went to forest with a saint named Śivadṛṣṭi and his disciples विंशद्भिः कर्मयोगं च समाराध्य शिवोऽभवत्। पूर्णे त्रिंशच्छते वर्षे कलौ प्राप्ते भयङ्करे॥१४॥ शकानां च विनाशार्थमार्यधर्म विवृद्धये। जातश्शिवाज्ञया सोऽपि कैलासाद् गुह्यकालपात्॥१५॥ विक्रमादित्य नामानं पिता कृत्वा मुमोद ह। स बालोऽपि महाप्राज्ञः पितृमातृ प्रियङ्करः॥१६॥ पञ्चवर्षे वयः प्राप्ते तपसोऽर्थे वनं गतः। द्वादशाब्द प्रयत्नेन विक्रमेण कृतं तपः॥१७॥ पश्चादम्बावतीं दिव्यां पुरीं यातः श्रियान्वितः। दिव्यं सिंहासनं रम्यं द्वात्रिंशन्मूर्तिसंयुतम्॥१८॥ शिवेन प्रेषितं तस्मै सोऽपि तत्पदमग्रहीत्। वैतालस्तस्य रक्षार्थं पार्वत्या निर्मितो गतः॥१९॥ = He became Śiva after doing 20 types of Karma (Kriyā) yoga. On completion of 3000 years of Kali, he had been born by orders of Śiva to destroy Śakas and for growth of Ārya-dharma. He was named Vikramāditya and even as a child give happiness to parents. He went to forest at age of 5 and did Tapa for 12 years. Then he came to Ambāvatī (Ujain) with divine powers and with Vaitāla created by Pārvatī for his protection. एकदा स नृपो वीरो महाकालेश्वरस्थलम्। गत्वा सम्पूजयामास देवदेवं पिनाकिनम्॥२०॥ सभा धर्ममयी तत्र निर्मिता व्यूहविस्तरा। नानाधातुकृतस्तम्भा नानामणि विभूषिता॥२१॥ नानाद्रुमलताकीर्णा पुष्पवल्लीभिरन्विता। तत्र सिंहासनं दिव्यं स्थापितं तेन शौनक॥२२॥ आहूय ब्राह्मणान्मुख्यान्वेदवेदाङ्गपारगान्। पूजयित्वा विधानेन धर्मगाथामथाऽशृणोत्॥२३॥ एतस्मिनन्तरे तत्र वैतालो नामदेवता। स कृत्वा ब्राह्मणं रूपं जयाशीर्भिः प्रशस्य तम्॥२४॥ उपविश्यासने विप्रो राजानमिदमब्रवीत्। यदि ते श्रवणे श्रद्धा विक्रमादित्य भूपते॥२५॥ वर्णयामि महाख्यानमितिहाससमुच्चयम्॥२६॥ = Once that king went to place of Mahākāleśvara and worshipped him. He made his great assemly there decorated with jewels etc and set up a throne with 23 idols. He ascended throne after worshipping with blessings of Brāhmaṇas. Then Vaitāla also came in guise of a brāhmaṇa and blessed him. He stated history to king Vikramāditya. भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व, खण्ड ३, अध्याय २- स्वर्गते विक्रमादित्ये राजानो बहुधाऽभवन्। तथाष्टादश राज्यानि तेषां नामानि मे शृणु॥९॥ पश्चिमे सिन्धुनद्यन्ते सेतुबन्धे च दक्षिणे। उत्तरे बदरीस्थाने पूर्वे च कपिलान्तके॥१०॥ अष्टादशैव राष्ट्रानि तेषां मध्ये बभूविरे। इन्द्रप्रस्थं च पाञ्चालं कुरुक्षेत्रं च कापिलम्॥११॥ अन्तर्वेदी ब्रजथ्यैवाजमेरं मरुधन्व च। गौर्जरं च महाराष्ट्रं द्राविडं च कलिंगकम्॥१२॥ आवन्त्यं चोडुपं वंगं गौडं मागधमेव च। कौशल्यं च तथा ज्ञेयं तेषां राजा पृथक् पृथक्॥१३॥ नानाभाषाः स्थितास्तत्र बहुधर्मप्रवर्तकाः। एवमब्दशतं जातं ततस्ते वै शकादयः॥१४॥ = When Vikramāditya went to heaven, many kings took charge and the kingdom was split into 18 parts-listen to their names. West boundary was end of Sindhu river, in south was Setubandha (Sea bridge by Rāma at Rāmeśvaram), in north upto Badarīsthāna and upto Kapliāntaka in east. Within this, 18 kingomes arose-(1) Indraprastha, (2) Pāñchāla, (3) Kurukṣetra, (4) Kāpila, (5) Antarvedī, (6) Braja, (7) Ajamer, (8) Marudhanva, (9) Gurjara, (10) Mahārāṣṭra, (11) Draviḍa, (12) Kalinga, (13) Avanti (14) Uḍupa (Uḍra = Odisha), (15) Vanga (Bengal), (16) Gauḍa (East Bengal, Asam), (17) Magadha (Bihar, Chhotanagpur), (18) Kosala. Each part was under a separate king, separate languages and many sects. This way 100 years passed. Then Śakas came. श्रुत्वा धर्मविनाशं च बहुवृन्दैः समन्विताः। केचित्तीर्त्वा सिन्धुनदीमार्य्यदेशं समागताः॥१५॥ हिमपर्वतमार्गेण सिन्धुमार्गेण चागमन्। जित्वार्य्याल्लाँठयित्वा तान्स्वदेशं पुनराययुः॥१६॥ गृहीत्वा योषितस्तेषां परं हर्षमुपाययुः। एतस्मिन्नन्तरे तत्र शालिवाहन भूपतिः॥१७॥ = Hearing decline of Dharma, invaders came in many hordes. Some entered Ārya-deśa by crossing Sindhu river. Othercs came by Himālaya and Sindh also. After winning and ruining Ārya-deśa, invaders returned to their country. They were very happy after kidnapping many women. At this stage, Śālivāhaan became king. विक्रमादित्य पौत्रश्च पितृराज्यं गृहीतवान्। जित्वा शकान् दुराधर्षान् चीनतैत्तिरिदेशजान्॥१८॥ बाह्लीकान् कामरूपांश्च रोमजान् खुरजान् शठान्। तेषां कोषान् गृहीत्वा च दण्डयोग्यानकारयत्॥१९॥ स्थापिता तेन मर्य्यादा म्लेच्छार्य्याणां पृथक् पृथक्। सिन्धुस्थानमिति ज्ञेयं राष्ट्रमार्यस्य चोत्तमम्॥२०॥ म्लेच्छानां परं सिन्धोः कृतं तेन महात्मना। एकदा तु शकाधीशो हिमतुंगं समाययौ॥२१॥ = He was grandson of Vikramāditya and took over the kingdom from his father. He conquered the terrible Śakas and invaders from China, Taittiri (Tatars), Bāhlīka (Balkha in Iran), Kāmarūpa (East & north border beyond Asam), Romaja (of Roman empire), and crooks of Khuraja (Born of Khura of Kāmadhenu = wish giving cow, Kurda. Turkey plateau is in shape of Bull, its foothills are places of Kurds. King of Turkey was called Vṛṣaparvā = lord of Taurus mountain in time of Yayāti of Bhārata). He punished all the invaders and imposed fines on them. He set up limits for Mlecchha invaders beyond west of Sindhu river. Bhārata to wards east of Sindhu river was named as Sindhu-sthāna (Hindustan). Once this conquerer of Śakas went to Himālayas. हूणदेशस्य मध्ये वै गिरिस्थं पुरुषं शुभम्। ददर्श बलवान् राजा गौरांगं श्वेतवस्त्रकम्॥२२॥ को भवानिति तं प्राह होवाच मुदान्वितः। ईशपुत्रं च मां विद्धि कुमारीगर्भसम्भवम्॥२३॥ म्लेच्छधर्मस्य वक्तारं सत्यव्रतपरायणम्। इति श्रुत्वा नृपः प्राह धर्मः को भवतो मतः॥२४॥ श्रुत्वोवाच महाराज प्रापे सत्यस्य संक्षये। निर्मर्यादे म्लेच्छदेशे मसीहोऽहं समागतः॥२५॥ ईशामसी च दस्यूनां प्रादुर्भूता भयंकरी। तामहं म्लेच्छतः प्राप्य मसीहत्वमुपागतः॥२६॥ म्लेच्छेषु स्थापितो धर्मो मया तच्छृणु भूपते। मानसं निर्मलं कृत्वा मलं देहे शुभाशुभम्॥२७॥ नैगमं जपमास्थाय जपेत निर्मलं परम्। न्यायेन सत्यवचसा मनसैक्येन मानवः॥२८॥ ध्यानेन पूजयेदीशं सूर्यमण्डलसंस्थितम्। अचलोऽयं प्रभुः साक्षात्तथा सूर्योऽचलः सदा॥२९॥ तत्त्वानां चलभूतानां कर्षणः स समन्ततः। इति कृत्येन भूपाल मसीहा विलयं गता॥३०॥ ईशमूर्तिर्हृदि प्राप्ता नित्यशुद्धा शिवंकरी। ईशामसीह इति च मम नाम प्रतिष्ठितम्॥३१॥ इति श्रुत्वा स भूपालो नत्वा तं म्लेच्छपूजकम्। स्थापयामास तं तत्र म्लेच्छस्थाने हि दारुणे॥३२॥ = Within that Hūṇa-deśa, the powerful king saw a pious man with white robe in hills and asked-who are you. He replied-Know me as son of Īśa (God) born from a virgin mother. I am preacher of Mlecchha dharma and follow the path of truth. Hearing this, the king asked-What is Dharma according to you? Hearing this, he replied-After decline of truth, I came as Messiah in Mlecchha deśa which has no norms. Among these terrible robbers, I have come as Īśā-Masī (ha), and achieved status of Messiah among Mlecchhas. Listen to the Dharma set up by me among Mlecchhas. There may be dirt in body, but mind should be pure on path of trurh & justice. With single minded devotion, one should recite mantras and worship the Īśa in the sun who is eternal and attracts all elements like sun. O king! I merged into Messiah by such act (of recitation). As the eternal form of Īśa is within my heart, I am called Īśā-Masīha. Hearing this, the king saluted and settled that Mlecchha worshipper in that place. स्वराज्यं प्राप्तवान् राजा हयमेधमचीकरत्। राज्यं कृत्वा स षष्ट्यब्दं स्वर्गलोकमुपायौ॥३३॥ स्वर्गते नृपतौ तस्मिन् यथा चासीत्तथा शृणु॥३४॥ = On returning to his place, the king performed Aśvamedha-yajña. After ruling for 60 yeas, he went to heavens. Listen about kings who followed him. भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व, खण्ड ३, अध्याय ३-श्री सूत उवाच- शालिवाहन वंशे च राजानो दश चाभवन्। राज्यं पञ्चशताब्दं च कृत्वा लोकान्तरं ययुः॥१॥ मर्य्यादा क्रमतो लीना जाता भूमण्डले तदा। भूपतिर्दशमो यो वै भोजराज इति स्मृतः। दृष्ट्वा प्रक्षीणमर्य्यादां बली दिग्विजयं ययौ। ॥२॥ सेनया दशसाहस्र्या कालिदासेन संयुतः। तथान्यैर्ब्राह्मणैः सार्द्धं सिन्धुपारमुपाययौ॥३॥ जित्वा गान्धारजान् म्लेच्छान् काश्मीरान् आरवान् शठान्। तेषां प्राप्य महाकोषं दण्डयोग्यानकारयत्॥४॥ एतस्मिन्नन्तरे म्लेच्छ आचार्येण समन्वितः। = In the family of Śālivāhana, 10 kings followed who ruled for 500 years. Social norms gradually declined on earth. The 10th king was known as Bhojarāja. Seeing decline of Dharma, the powerful king proceeded on Dig-vijaya. With army of 10,000, he went beyond Sindhu river accompanied by Kālidāsa and many other Brāhmaṇas. He vanquished the Mlecchhas of Gandhar, Kashmir and Arab, imposed heavy fine on them and punished. After this, a Mlecchha guru came. महामद इति ख्यातः शिष्यशाखा समन्वितः॥५॥ नृपश्चैव महादेवं मरुस्थलनिवासिनम्। गंगाजलैश्च सस्नाप्य पञ्चगव्य समन्वितैः। चन्दनादिभिरभ्यर्च्य तुष्टाव मनसा हरम्॥६॥ = He was famous as Mahā-mada (man with great arrogance) and was accompanied with many followers. King also worshipped Mahādeva residing in desert. He bathed Hara (Mahādeva) with Ganga water mixed with 5 products of cow, sandal paste etc. भोजराज उवाच-नमस्ते गिरिजानाथ मरुस्थलनिवासिने। त्रिपुरासुरनाशाय बहुमायाप्रवर्त्तिने॥७॥ म्लेच्छैर्गुप्ताय शुद्धाय सच्चिदानन्दरूपिणे। त्वं मां हि किंकरं विद्धि शरणार्थमुपागतम्॥८॥ सूत उवाच-इति श्रुत्वा स्तवं देवः शब्दमाह नृपाय तम्। गन्तव्यं भोजराजेन महाकालेश्वरस्थले॥९॥ म्लेच्छैस्सुदूषिता भूमिर्वाहीका नाम विश्रुता। आर्य्यधर्मो हि नैवात्र वाहीके देशदारुणे॥१०॥ बभूवात्र महामायी योऽसौ दग्धो मया पुरा। त्रिपुरो बलिदैत्येन प्रेषितः पुनरागतः॥११॥ अयोनिः स वरो मत्तः प्राप्तवान् दैत्यवर्द्धनः। महामद इति ख्यातः पैशाच कृति तत्परः॥१२॥ = Bhojarāja said-O Girijānātha living in desert! You had destroyed the geart Asura with 3 puras (towns of gold, silver & iron) and have created many forms of Māyā (delusion). You are protected here by Mlecchhas and are Sat-chit-ānanda. I seek your shelter as a servant. Sūta (teller of this purāṇa) stated-Hearing this prayer the Lord replied to king-You must visit the place of Mahākāleśvara of Vāhīka region (Mecca) which has been spoilt by Mlecchhas. Ārya-dharma has vanished from that terrible country. The Asura of 3 cities who had been burnt earlier by me is born again sent by Asura king Bali. He is without pedigree and called Mahā-mada (Mohammad) growing Daityas with works of Piśāchas. नागन्तव्यं त्वया भूप पैशाचे देशधूर्तके। मत् प्रसादेन भूपाल तव शुद्धिः प्रजायते॥१३॥ इति श्रुत्वा नृपश्चैव स्वदेशान् पुनरागमत्। महामदश्च तैः सार्द्धं सिन्धुतीरमुपाययौ ॥१४॥ उवाच भूपतिं प्रेम्णा मायामदविशारदः। तव देवो महाराज मम दासत्वमागतः॥१५॥ म्लेच्छधर्मे मतिश्चासीत्तस्य भूपस्य दारुणे॥१७॥ = You should not go to that country of crooked Piśāchas. You will be freed of sins by my grace. Hearing this, the king retuned to his countr. With him, Mahāmada also came to Sindhu river. That exponent on Māyā & Mada (deceit & arrogance) told-your God has become my slave. Mind of the king was attracted towards terrible mleccha dharma. तच्छृत्वा कालिदासस्तु रुषा प्राह महामदम्। माया ते निर्मिता धूर्त नृपमोहन हेतवे॥१८॥ हनिष्यामि दुराचारं वाहीकं पुरुषाधमम्। इत्युक्त्वा स द्विजः श्रीमान् नवार्ण जप तत्परः॥१९॥ जप्त्वा दशसहस्रं च तद्दशांशं जुहाव सः। भस्म भूत्वा स मायावी म्लेच्छदेवत्वमागतः॥२०॥ भयभीतस्तु तच्छिष्या देशं वाहीकमाययुः। गृहीत्वा स्वगुरोर्भस्म मदहीनत्वमागतम्॥२१॥ = Hearing this, Kālidāsa told Mahāmada with anger-You have created llusion to foolthe king. I will kill your bad conduct of Vāhīka country. Then he recited 10,000 repetitions of Navārṇa mantra and did homa with 1/10th of the number. That fake god created by mlechha was burnt. Being afraid, they returned to Vāhīka and lost arrogance by ashes of their Guru. स्थापितं तैश्च भूमध्ये तत्रोषुर्मदतत्पराः। मदहीनं पुरं जातं तेषां तीर्थं समं स्मृतम्॥२२॥ रात्रौ स देवरूपश्च बहुमायाविशारदः। पैशाचं देहमास्थाय भोजराजं हि सोऽब्रवीत्॥२३॥ आर्य्यधर्म्मो हि ते राजन् सर्ब धर्मोतमः स्मृतः ईशाज्ञया करिष्यामि पैशाचं धर्मदारुणम्॥२४॥ लिंगच्छेदी शिखाहीनः श्मश्रुधारी स दूषकः। उच्चालापी सर्वभक्षी भविष्यति जनो मम॥२५॥ विना कौलं च पशवस्तेषां भक्ष्या मता मम। मुसलेनैव संस्कारः कुशैरिव भविष्यति॥२६॥ तस्मात् मुसलवन्तो हि जातयो धर्मदूषकाः। इति पैशाच धर्मश्च भविष्यति मया कृतः॥२७॥ = That ash was placed in their town by the disciples puffed with arogance (mada). Then the pura became Mada-hīna (Madina) = without arrogance. In night, the exponent of Māyā entered body of Piśācha and told to Bhojarāja. Your Ārya-dharma is best, but I will spread terrible dhama of Piśāchas by direction of God. My people will be with pierced penis, without śikhā (puff of hair at top) and with goat like beard. These degraded will be loud & eat all food. Without any Kaula (tantrika act), they will eat animals. Their penis will be made like Kuśa (reeds) by samskāra by Musala, so they will be called Musalman, born as degraders of Dharma. Such will be Piśācha dharma created by me. इत्युक्त्वा प्रययौ देवः स राजा गेहमाययौ। त्रिवर्णे स्थापिता वाणी सांस्कृती स्वर्गदायिनी॥२८॥ शूद्रेषु प्राकृती भाषा स्थापिता तेन धीमता। पञ्चाशब्दकालं तु राज्यं कृत्वा दिवं गतः॥२९॥ स्थापिता तेन मर्यादा सर्वदेवोपमानिनी। आर्य्यावर्तः पुण्यभूमिर्मध्यंविन्ध्यहिमालयोः॥३०॥ आर्य्य वर्णाः स्थितास्तत्र विन्ध्यान्ते वर्णसंकराः। नरा मुसलवन्तश्च स्थापिताः सिन्धुपारजाः॥३१॥ बर्बरे तुषदेशे च द्वीपे नानाविधे तथा। ईशामसीहधर्माश्च सुरै राज्यैव संस्थिताः॥३२॥ = Saying this, that god went away and king returned home. The learned king established Samskṛta language among 3 varṇas and Prākṛta among śūdras. He went to heaven after ruling for 50 years. He set up standard of Dharma respected by all gods in the sacred land Āryāvartta between Vindhya & Himālaya. Varṇa-sankara (mixed races) were at ends of Vindhya mountains. Muslims were restricted to west of Sindhu river. Dharma of Īśā-masīha was in Barbar, Tuṣa deśa and in many islands like kingdom of gods. अध्याय ४-सूत उवाच-स्वर्गते भोजराजे तु सप्तभूपास्तदन्वये। जाताश्चाल्पायुषो मन्दास्त्रिशताब्दान्तरे मृताः॥१॥ बहु भूपवती भूमिस्तेषां राज्ये बभूव ह। वीरसिंहश्च यो भूपः सप्तमः सम्प्रकीर्तितः॥२॥ तदन्वये त्रिभूपाश्चद्विशताब्दान्तरे मृताः। गंगासिंहश्च यो भूपो दशमः स प्रकीर्तितः॥३॥ = Chapter 4-Sūta told-After Bhojarāja went to heavens. 7 kings fllowed with short lives and they died within 300 years. THe land was divided among many kings. Seventh king was Vīrasimha. He was followed by 3 kings who expired within 200 years. Tenth king was Gangāsimha. भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व, खण्ड ४, अध्याय १- एवं द्वापरसन्ध्याया अन्ते सूतेन वर्णितम्। सूर्यचन्द्रान्वयाख्यानं तन्मया कथितं तव॥१॥ विशालायां पुनर्गत्वा वैतालेन विनिर्मितम्। कथयिष्यति सूतस्तमितिहास समुच्चयम्॥२॥ तन्मया कथितं सर्वं हृषीकोत्तमपुण्यदम्। पुनर्विक्रमभूपेन भविष्यति समाह्वयः॥३॥ नैमिषारण्यमासाद्य श्रावयिष्यति वै कथाम्। पुनरुक्तानि यान्येव पुराणाष्टादशानि वै॥४॥ तानि चोपपुराणानि भविष्यन्ति कलौ युगे। तेषां चोपपुराणानां द्वादशाध्यायमुत्तमम्॥५॥ सारभूतश्च कथितं हृषीकोत्तम ते मुदा। पुनस्ते शौनकाद्याश्च कृत्वा स्नानादिकाः क्रियाः॥९॥ सूतपार्श्वं गमिष्यन्ति नैमिषारण्यवासिनः। तत् पृष्टेनैव सूतेन यदुक्तं तच्छृणुष्व भोः॥१०॥ =Translated earlier. ऋषयः उचुः-श्रुतं कृष्णस्य चरितं भगवन्भवतोदितम्। इदानीं श्रोतुमिच्छामि राज्ञां तेषां क्रमात् कुलम्॥११॥ चतुर्णां वह्निजातानां परं कौतूहलं हि नः। स हरिस्त्रियुगी प्रोक्तः कथं जातः कलौ युगे॥१२॥ सूत उवाच-कथयामि मुनिश्रेष्ठा युष्माकं प्रश्नमुत्तमम्। अग्निवंश नृपाणां च चरित्रं शृणु विस्तरात्॥१३॥ = Ṛṣis told-We have heard life of Kṛṣṇa stated by you. Now we wish to hear about the kings born in theeir families. Four families born from Agni (fire) are also peculiar. Hari (God) is called Tri-yugī, how He was born in kaliyuga? Sūta stated-You have put a good question. Now listen about the kings of Agni vamśa in detail. प्रमरश्च महीपालो दक्षिणां दिशमास्थितः। अम्बया रचिता दिव्यां प्रमराय पुरीं शुभाम्॥१४॥ निवासं कृतवान् राजा सामवेद परो बली। षड् वर्षाणि कृतं राज्यं तस्माज्जातो महामरः॥१५॥ त्रिवर्षं च कृतं राज्यं देवापिस्तनयोऽभवत्। पित्सुतुल्यं कृतं राज्यं देवदूतस्ततोऽभवत्। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं शृणु तत्कारणं मुने॥१६॥ = Pramara was king in south direction in divine city made by Ambā. The king strong like Sāmaveda resided there. He ruled for 6 years, then Mahāmara was born. He ruled for 3 years, then his son Devāpi ruled like father. His son was Devadūta. Like his father, he ruled (for short period). Iisten to the reason. अशोके निहते तस्मिन् बौद्धभूपे महाबले। कलिर्भास्करमाराध्य तपसा ध्यानतत्परः॥१७॥ पञ्चवर्षान्तरे सूर्यस्तस्मै च कलये मुदा। शकाख्यं नाम पुरुषं ददौ तद् भक्ति तोषितः॥१८॥ तदा प्रसन्नः स कलिः शकाय च महात्मने। तैत्तिरं नगरं प्रेम्णा ददौ हर्षितमानसः॥१९॥ तत्र गोपान् दस्युगणान् वशीकृत्य महाबली। आर्यदेशविनाशाय कृत्वोद्योगं पुनः पुनः। हतवान् भूपतीन् बाणैः तस्मात् ते स्वल्पजीविनः॥२०॥ = On murder of powerful Bauddha king Ashoka, Bauddhas (of central Asia) worshipped Sun god and in 5 years, a man named Śaka was born and kali gave him Taittira (Tatar) town. There, he united robbers and repeatedly attacked and destroyed Āryadeśa. Many kings were killed in attacks, so they were short lived. गन्धर्वसेनश्च नृपो देवदूतात्मजो बली। शतार्द्धाब्दं पदं कृत्वा तपसे पुनरागतः॥२१॥ शिवाज्ञया च नृपतिः विक्रमः तनयः ततः। शतवर्षं कृतं राज्यं देवभक्तः ततोऽभवत्। दशवर्षं कृतं राज्यं शकैर्दुष्टैर्लयं गतः।॥२२॥ शालिवाहन एवापि देवभक्तस्य चात्मजः। जित्वा शकान् स षष्ट्यब्दं राज्यं कृत्वा दिवं गतः॥२३॥ = Son of Devadūta was powerful Gandharvasena who went to forest after ruling 50 years. He had to come back (on death of his son Śankha). By geace of Śiva, his son Vikrama was born who ruled for 100 years. His son Devabhakta was killed by Śakas after ruling for 10 years. His son Śālivāhana conquered Śakas and ruled for 60 years. शालिहोत्रस्तस्य सुतो राज्यं कृत्वा शतार्द्धकम्। स्वर्गलोकं ततः प्राप्तः तत् सुतः शालिवर्द्धनः॥२४॥ पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं शकहन्ता ततोऽभवत्। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं सुहोत्रस्तनयोऽभवत्॥२५॥ पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं हविर्होत्रस्ततोऽभवत्। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यमिन्द्रपालस्ततोऽभवत्॥२६॥ पुरीमिन्द्रावतीं कृत्वा तत्र राज्यमकारयत्। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं माल्यवान्नाम तत्सुतः॥२७॥ पुरीं माल्यवतीं कृत्वा पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं पदम्॥२७॥ = His son Śālihotra ruled for 50 years. His son Śālivarddhana ruled like his father, then his son Śakahantā (killer of Śakas) ruled like father. His son Suhotra, then Havirhotra, Indrapāla, ruled likewise. He built a town Indrāvatī as his capital. After him Mālyavān ruled likewise and built a town Mālyavatī. अनावृष्टिसततश्चासीन्महती चतुरब्दिका। ततः क्षुधातुरो राजाश्वविष्टाधान्यगर्हितम्॥२८॥ संस्कृत्य मन्दिरे राजा शालग्रामाय चार्पयत्। तदा प्रसन्नो भगवान् वचनं नभसेरितम्॥२९॥ कुलेयावन्नृपा भाव्यास्तव भूपतिसत्तम। अनावृष्टिर्न भविता तावत्ते राष्ट्र उत्तमे॥३०॥ = There was no rains for 4 years and hungry king washed grains impure with faeces and offered it to God in form of Śāligrāma. Being pleased, the god said-there will be no period without rains as long as your family rules. सुतो माल्यवतश्चासीच्छम्भुदत्तो हरप्रियः। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं भौमराजस्ततोऽभवत्॥३१॥ पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं वत्सराजस्ततोऽभवत्। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं भोजराजस्ततोऽभवत्॥३२॥ पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं शंभुदत्तस्ततोऽभवत्। दशहीनं कृतं राज्यं भोजराजपितुस्समम्॥३३॥ शंभुदत्तस्तस्य तनयो बिन्दुपालस्ततोऽभवत्। बिन्दुखण्डं च राष्ट्रं वै कृत्वा स सुखितोऽभवत्। तेन राज्यं पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं वेदविदा मुने॥३४॥ = Son of Mālyavān was Harapriya, then the sons in order were Bhaumarāja, Vatsarāja, Bhojarāja (in time of Mohammad), Śambhudatta, Bindupāla ruled for similar periods. Bindupāla made a kingdom named Bindu-khaṇḍa (Bundela-khaṇḍa). बिन्दुपालस्य तनयो राजपालस्ततोऽभवत्। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं तस्माज्जातो महीनरः॥३५॥ पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं सोमवर्मा नृपोऽभवत्। पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं कामवर्मा सुतोऽभवत्॥३६॥ पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं भूमिपालस्ततोऽभवत्। भूसरस्तेन खनितं पुरं तत्र शुभं कृतम्॥३७॥ = After Bindupāla, their sons ruled likewise-Rājapāla, Mahīnara, Somavarmā, Kāmavarmā, Bhūmipāla, who dug Bhūsara and built a town there. पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं राज्यं रंगपालस्ततोऽभवत्। भूमिपालस्तु नृपतिर्जित्वा भूपाननेकशः॥३८॥ वीरसिंहस्ततो नाम्ना विख्यातोऽभून्महीतले। स्वराज्ये रंगपालं स चाभिषिच्य वनं ययौ। तपःकृत्वा दिवं यातो देवदेवप्रसादतः॥३९॥ कल्पसिंहस्ततो जातो रंगपालान्नृपोत्तमात्। अनपत्यो हि नृपतिः पितुस्तुल्यं कृतं पदम्॥४०॥ = His son Rangapāla ruled like father. His son Bhūmipāla defeated many kings. His son Vīrasimha was famous and went to forest by making Rangapāla a king. His son Kalpasimha was without son. एकदा जाह्नवीतोये स्नानार्थं मुदितो ययौ। दानं दत्त्वा द्विजातिभ्यः कल्पक्षेत्रमवाप्तवान्॥४१॥ पुण्यभूमिं समालोक्य शून्यभूत्तां स्थलीमपि। नगरं कारयामास तत्र स्थाने मुदान्वितः॥४२॥ कलापनगरं नाम्ना प्रसिद्धमभवद् भुवि। तत्र राज्यं कृतं तेन गंगासिंहस्ततोऽभवत्॥४३॥ नवत्यब्दवपुर्भूत्वा सोऽनपत्यो रणं गतः। त्यक्त्वा प्राणान् कुरुक्षेत्रे स्वर्गलोकमवाप्तवान्। समाप्तिमगमद् विप्र प्रमरस्य कुलं शुभम्॥४४॥ = Once he went to banks of Jāhnavī (Gangā) for bath and gave grants to Brāhmaṇas. By their grace, he got Kalpa-kṣetra where famous town Kalāpa was built. While ruling there, his son Gangāsimha was born. He was without son and went to Kurukṣetra for war at age of 90. He ws killed there (second war of Tarain in 1192 AD). Thus the great family of Pramara brāhmaṇa ended. 10. Agnivamśī kings-The four Agnivamśī or Brahmakṣatra kings- (1) Pramara or Panwār Dynasty (2) Chapahāni or Chauhān Dynasty

 (a) Tomara, (b) Samaladeva Dynasties were its branches.

(3) Śukla or Chālukya Dynasty (Solanki in Gujrat, Rajsthan, Salunkhe in Maharashtra, Karnataka). (4) Parihāra or Pratihāra dynasty. Paramāra Dynasty-1. Pramara (392-386 BC), 2. Mahāmara (386-383 BC), 3. Devāpi (383-380 BC), 4. Devadatta (380-377 BC). 5. For 195 years from 377-195 BC, Śaka kings captured Ujjain and they went to Śrīśailam. 6. Gandharvasena (182-132 BC), 7. Śankharāja (132-102) went to forest from meditation and died issueless. Gandharvasena returned from forest and had second son named Vikramāditya (102-82 BC). 8. Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD), 9. Devabhakta (19-29 AD) 10. Anarchy from 29-78 AD 11. Śālivāhana (78-138 AD)-settled Jesus Christ in Kashmir. 12. Śālihotra, 13. Śālivardhana, 14 Suhotra, 15. Havirhotra, 16 Indrapāla, 17. Mālyavān, 18. Śambhudatta, 19. Bhaumarāja, 20. Vatsarāja-9 kings for 500 years (138-638 AD). 21-Bhojarāja (638-693 AD)-Met Prophet Mohammad. 22. Śambhudatta-2, 23. Bindupāla, 24. Rājapāla, 25. Mahinara. 26. Somavarmā, 27. Kāmavarmā, 28. Bhūmipāla or Vīrasimha-7 kings for 300 years (693-994 AD) 29. Rangapāla, 30. Kalpasimha, 31. Gangāsimha (issueless)-200 years (993-1192 AD) Last king died in war on side of Prithviraja Chauhān in 1192 AD at Taraeadi, called Kurukṣetra here. Chāhmāna kings-(1)Chāhmāna, (2) Sāmantadeva, (3) Mahādeva, (4) Kubera, (5) Bindusāra, (6) Sudhanvā - He set up 4 Pīţhas of Śankarāchāryas for which an order was issued on copper plate dated 2663 Yudhişţhira śaka (485 BC) on Āśvina śukla 15. (7) Vīradhanvā, (8) Jayadhanvā, (9) Vīrasimha, (10) Varasimha, (11) Vīradaņɖa, (12) Arimantra, (13) Māņikyarāja, (14) Puşkara, (15) Asamañjasa, (16) Premapura, (17) Bhānurāja, (18) Mānasimha, (19) Hanumān, (20) Chitrasena, (21) Śambhu, (22) Mahāsena, (23) Suratha, (24) Rudradatta, (25) Hemaratha, (26) Chitrāngada, (27) Chandrasena, (28) Vatsarāja, (29) Dhŗşţadyumna, (30) Uttama, (31) Sunīka, (32) Subāhu, (33) Suratha, (34) Bharata, (35) Sātyaki, (36) Śatrujita, (37) Vikrama, (38) Sahadeva, (39) Vīradeva, (4) Vasudeva, (41) Vāsudeva (king in 551 AD)-his 2 branches started kingdoms. One branch ended with last king of Delhi-Pŗthvīrāja-3 killed in 1192 AD. The other branch had Vīra Gogādeva who fought with Mahmud Gazanavi in desert. Delhi-Ajmer branch-(42) Sāmanta, (43) Naradeva or Nŗpa, (44) Vigraharāja-1, (45) Chandrarāja-1, (46) Gopendra-rāja or Gopendraka, (47) Durlabha-rāja, (48) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-1-in time of Pratihāra king Nāgabhaţţa-2. (49) Chandra-rāja-2 (843-868 AD), (50) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-2 (868-893 AD), (51) Chandana- Govinda-rāja (893-918 AD), (52) Vākpati-rāja-1 (Vappayarai) (918-943 AD), (53 A) Vindhya-rāja-very short period followed by his brother. (53 B) Simha- rāja. He had 4 sons-Vigraha-rāja-2, Durlabha-rāja-2, Chandra-rāja, Govinda-rāja. (54A) Vigraha-rāja-2 (from 973 AD)-He had defeated Mūlarāja of Gujrat and made Āśāpurā temple in Bhŗgu-kacchha. He had sent army in 997 AD to help Lahore king against Subuktagin. (54B) Durlabha-rāja-2 (998 AD), (55) Govinda-rāja-3 (999 AD), (56A) Vākpati-rāja-2 (999-1018 AD), (56B) Vīrya-rāja (1018-1038), (56C) Chāmuņɖa-rāja (1038-1063 AD)-these 2 were brothers of 56A. (57A) Simhala-eldest son of 56C. (57B) Durlabha-rāja-3 (1063-1079 AD)-son of 56C. (57C) Vigraharāja-3 (1079-1098 AD)-brother of 57B. (58) Pŗthvīrāja-1 (1098-1105 AD), (59) Ajaya- rāja (Ajayadeva or Salhana)-(1105-1132 AD)-built Ajmer. (60) Arņorāja (Analdeva, Anna, Anaka)-(1132-1151 AD), (61A) Jagadeva (1151 AD)- He had killed his father Arņorāja for which he was killed by his brother Vigraharāja-4 (61B) Vigraharāja-4 (Viśāladeva)-(1151-1167 AD)-he had defeated Chālukyas. (61C) Someśvaradeva (1169-1177 AD)-Brother of 61B, as Pŗthvīrāja-2-son of 61A had no son. (62A) Apara-Gāngeya or Amara-Gāngeya-son of 61B. (62B) Pŗthvīrāja-2-son of 61A. He defeated 61A and died issueless in 1169 AD. (62C) Pŗthvīrāja-3 (1177-1192 AD)-last Hindu king of Delhi. He defeated Mohammad Ghori in 1191, but was defeated in 1192 AD due to Jayachanda of Kannauj. Śukla or Chālukya (at Dwārakā Rāṣṭra) 27 kings (392 BC-1192 AD) 1. Śukla or Chālukya, 2. Viśvaksena, 3. Jayasena, 4. Visenā, 5. Madasimha, 6. Sindhuvarmā, 7. Sindhudvīpa, 8. Śrīpati, 9. Bhujavarmā, 10. Raṇavarmā, 11. Chitravarmā, 12. Dharmavarmā, 13. Kṛṣṇavarmā, 14. Udaya, 15. Vāpyakarma, 16. Guhila, 17. Kālabhoja, 18. Rāṣṭrapāla, 19. Jayapāla, 20. Veṇuka, 21. Yaśovigraha, 22. Mahichandra, 23. Chandradeva, 24. Mandapāla, 25. Kumbhapāla or Vaiśyapāla, 26. Devapāla-Son-in-law of Anagapāla, Tomara king of Delhi. 27. Jayachandra-His daughter Samyuktā married to Prithvīrāja Chauhān, last hindu king of Delhi. He died in war with Ghori in 1193. Pratihāra Dynasty (Kalinjar) 35 kings (392 BC-1193 AD). 1. Parihāra, 2. Gauravarmā, 3. Ghoravarmā, 4. Suparṇa, 5. Rūpana, 6. Kāravarmā, 7. Bhogavarmā, 8. Kalivarmā, 9. Kauśika, 10. Kātyāyana, 11. Hemavarmā, 12. Śivavarmā, 13. Bhāvavarmā, 14. Rudravarmā, 15. Bhojavarmā, 16. Gavavarmā, 17. Vindhyavarmā, 18. Sukhasena, 19. Balāka, 20. Lakṣmaṇa, 21. Mādhava, 22. Keśava, 23. Surasena, 24. Nārāyaṇa, 25. Śāntivarmā, 26. Nadivarmā (conquered Gauḍa and ruled there), 27. Sārangadeva, 28. Gangadeva, 29. Ananga Bhūpati, 30. Mahipati-1, 31. Rājeśvara, 32. Nṛsimha, 33. Kalivarmā-2, 34. Dhṛtivarmā, 35. Mahipati-Died in Kurukṣetra war with Ghori in 1193.

References Used

  1. Sir Saiyad Ahmed, Kutub Minar, 1911
  2. ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण (१/२/२९)
  3. (Mahābhārata, Vana parva 230/8-10)
  4. (विष्णु पुराण, ४/२४/१०४)
  5. Jyotiṣa-darpaṇa of Yallaya, Bhaviṣya purāṇa, genealogy of Paramar, Chauhan kings)
  6. BibleWiki-Media, Jewish Encyclopedia-Nineve, Bṛhat samhitā 13/3, Chaṇḍī pāṭha 11/38
  7. वराहमिहिर-बृहत् संहिता (१३/३)
  8. http://www.angelfire.com/nt/Gilgamesh/classic.html
  9. Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations, page 44
  10. http://www.cambridgeforecast.org/MIDDLEEAST/BENGAL.html
  11. http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Bengal_famine_of_1770/id/1930405
  12. Sir William Jones, 1784 (from Asiatic Researches Vol. 1. Published 1979, pages 234-235. First published 1788)
  13. Chips from a German Workshop, 2nd edition, 1966, page 27
  14. Life and Letters of Frederick Max Muller was published by Longman Geen & Co., 1902 in 2 vols.
  15. Supreme Court Cases 1961 AIR 1059 1961 SCR (3) 380 10/01/1961 HIDAYATULLAH, M. KAPUR, J.L. SHAH, J.C.
  16. www.livius.org/caa-can/caesar/caesar_t01.htm