Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Advayataraka Upaniṣad

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

It is a minor Upaniṣad belonging to the Śukla Yajurveda and classed among the ‘Yoga-Upaniṣads,’ Upaniṣads that deal with yogic meditations and other processes. Except for verses 14 to 18, the whole Upanisad is in prose.

It has been called ‘Advayataraka’ since it deals with Brahman, the one without a second (‘advaya’), which takes us beyond (‘tāraka’) samsāra or transmigratory existence. The Upaniṣad begins with the statement:

It has to be taught to one who is struggling to meditate upon Brahman, the Absolute, (‘yati,’ ‘one who struggles’), who has practiced self-control (‘jitendriya’) and who has cultivated the six virtues like peace (‘śamādiṣaṭka’).

After negating the difference between the jivātman (individual self) and īśvara (Supreme Soul) as brought about by the limiting adjuncts like māyā, it goes on to describe a yogic meditation for attaining Brahman, the Absolute.

  • The suṣumnā-nāḍī (a tube-like structure meant for the passage of the kuṇḍalini) is situated in the middle of the body, stretching from the mulādhāra plexus at the root of the spinal column, up to the brahmarandhra or the aperture in the crown of the head. It shines like the sun or the moon.
  • The Kuṇdalinī which is fine like the thread in the lotus stalk, is inside this suṣumnā and is shining like millions of lightnings. By closing the ears and meditating on the sound within and the blue light between the eyes, and witnessing it, one gets infinite happiness. This is meditation from ‘inside.’
  • The Upaniṣad then proceeds to describe the process of meditation on two points. In both the cases this light becomes a symbol for Brahman. Then comes the description of ‘tārakayoga,’ meditation on the light in the head, by reversing the mental light into the area between the eye brows, inside the head but towards the crown. Such meditation can give the supernatural ‘aṣṭasiddhis’ or ‘eight powers.’
    1. From outside till ‘in between’ the body - It consists in fixing the gaze and the mind at any point in front of the nose, 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12 aṅgulas (an aṅgula is roughly about an inch) in distance, seeing it as of blue-yellow color.
    2. From ‘inside’ till the ‘outside.’ - It consists of meditating on the ‘ākāśa’ or ether/space, beyond the tip of the nose and as being bright like the full sun of the morning or fire with leaping tongues.
  • Last comes the Śāmbhavīmudrā. It is the same as meditation already described, but, with the eyes without being closed or opened. The Upaniṣad ends with a description of the qualifications of the guru fit to teach such yoga.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore