Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Apsarās literally means ‘moving in waters.

The apsarās are the celestial nymphs living in svargaloka (heaven). They perhaps got this name since they are supposed to move among waters, among the clouds. Their main work is to please Indra the lord of the gods, by dancing and singing. Indra often deputes them to seduce the sages engaged in severe austerities, since they may become more powerful than himself, if they succeed!

They are said to have been born out of the milk-ocean when it was churned by the gods and the demons to get nectar. According to other versions they were born out of the palm of Brahmā, the creator. They are too numerous to be listed. The most prominent of them are :

  1. Urvaśī
  2. Raiñbhā
  3. Menakā
  4. Tilottamā

They are closely associated with the demigods known as ‘gandharvas.’ Popular Buddhism has adopted some of them, in its mythological lore.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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