Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


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(Redirected from Ayamukha)

By Swami Harshananda

Āyamukha literally means ‘source of income’.

Types of Income for a State[edit]

Kauṭilya (300 B. C.) the well-known author of Arthaśāstra, classifies two sources of revenue for the State :

  1. Āyaśarīra - Body of income
  2. Āyamukha - Sources of income

Types of Āyaśarīra[edit]

According to the āyaśarira the centers of collection comprises of the following

  1. Durga - Fortified cities
  2. Rāṣṭra - Rural areas
  3. Khān - Mines
  4. Setu - Irrigation works
  5. Vana - Forests
  6. Vraja - Herds
  7. Vāripatha - River-borne trade routes

Types of Āyamukha[edit]

The subdivisions of āyamukha can be classified as follows :

  1. Bhāga - Royal share
  2. Vyāji - Compensation
  3. Parigha - Gate duty
  4. Klṛipta - Fixed tax
  5. Rupika - coins
  6. Atyāya - Money-fine


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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