From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Bhuman literally means ‘the Great one’.

The Upaniṣads are the main sources of the Vedānta philosophy which has gained a pre-eminent place in philosophy superseding the other systems. One of the most important subjects discussed by the Upaniṣads is Brahman, the Absolute, the origin and substratum of this created universe.

Out of the several terms used in the Upaniṣads to designate Brahman the word ‘Bhuman’ or ‘Bhumā’ is an uncommon one, used only in the Chāndogya Upanisad[1] Literally, it means ‘that which is very big or great’. Nārada, the well-known sage of the purāṇas, approaches Sanatkumāra, the great teacher of his times, and begs him for the instruction regarding the Ātman or the Self, the knowledge of which alone can give freedom from sorrow.

Sanatkumāra teaches him the techniques of a graded meditation, the objects chosen for the same varying from nāma or name up to prāṇa or the vital energy responsible for life. In this series Bhuman comes last. When this Bhuman is experienced, one attains supreme joy, compared to which all the pleasures of life pale into insignificance.

This Bhuman is not only everywhere and in everything, it is our inner Self also. One who realizes this becomes ‘svarāḍ,’ ruler of his own self. He also attains the freedom to move in all the regions of this universe. This section of the Chāndogya Upanisad is known as Bhumavidyā.


  1. Chāndogya Upanisad 7.23-25
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore