Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.


This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Caturguṇa

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
(Redirected from Caturguna)

By Swami Harshananda

Caturguṇa literally means ‘the four qualities’.

The scriptures have given a very high status to the king. They even refer to him as ‘pratyakṣa-devatā’ (‘visible deity’). His primary duty and responsibility was to protect the lives, properties, honor and religion of his subjects at any cost. Whatever he did for doing this, was considered dharma or righteousness, as long as he had no selfish or impure motives.

For this, he was advised to employ four kinds of ‘upāyas’ or means which were technically called ‘guṇas.’ They are:

  1. Sāma - Conciliation
  2. Dāna - Concessions, favors and gifts
  3. Bheda - Dissensions
  4. Daṇḍa - Conflict and war

The enemies of the State could be active internally as well as externally. The internal enemies are considered as the more dangerous ones. If any problem arise, king should first try for conciliation through sweet words, concessions, favors and gifts. If these tricks do not have the desired effect, then only he should secretly try to bring about dissensions among the enemies through spies of proven loyalty. Daṇda or war was to be the last resort.

Manu and Kauṭilya have dealt with this subject in details.


References[edit]

  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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