By Swami Harshananda
Caturopāyās literally means ‘the four means adopted by a king'.
A king is given a path of dealing with other kings or enemies who causes trouble. A wise ruler should adopt the caturopāyas or four means to handle the enemies judiciously. These Caturopāyās are:
- Sāma - Reconciliation
- Dāna - Yielding something to appease him
- Bheda - Bringing about a split in the enemy’s ranks
- Daṇḍa - Going to war
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore