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Rāmāyaṇa where ideology and arts meet narrative and historical context by Prof. Nalini Rao

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From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Caturvarga literally means ‘the group of four’.

The four ‘puruṣārthas’ or ends of life to be sought after by all the human beings are called ‘caturvarga,’ ‘the group of four’. They are:

  1. Dharma - Righteousness
  2. Artha - Wealth
  3. Kāma - Pleasures of the flesh
  4. Mokṣa - Release from transmigratory existence

Sometimes the first three puruṣārthas are called ‘trivarga’ (‘group of three’) and mokṣa is called as ‘apavarga’ (‘that which is beyond the group’).


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore