From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Catus-sana literally means ‘the four “Sanas”’.

The four ‘mānasaputras’ or mind-born sons of Brahmā, the Creator, are called ‘Catus-sanas’. Since their names begin with the word ‘Sana’ they are called such. They are:

  1. Sanaka
  2. Sanatkumāra
  3. Sanatsujāta
  4. Sanandana

All the four are blessed with eternal boyhood. Once they went to Vaikuṇṭha, the abode of Viṣṇu, and were denied admittance by the gatekeepers, Jaya and Vijaya. These gatekeepers were cursed by the sages to be born on earth as demons. Jaya and Vijaya, consequently took birth as:

  1. Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu
  2. Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa
  3. Siśupāla and Dantavakra
  • The sage Sanatkumāra taught the greatness of Viṣṇu to Vṛtra (the demon enemy of Indra) and spiritual wisdom to Nārada, another great sage.
  • Sanatsujāta taught spiritual truths to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, the blind king and father of the Kauravas.
  • Sanaka is said to be an eternal companion of Lord Viṣṇu.
  • Sanandana is accepted as an ancient teacher of Sāṅkhya, even more ancient than Kapila.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore