Talk:Dharmashastra of Sumantu

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From Visvarupa, Haradatta and Apararka it follows that Sumantu composed a sQtra work on dharma, particularly on acara and prayaicitta. ViivarQpa quotes prose passages from Sumantu on upapatakas,^‘»7 on pr^yaicitta for Brahmapa-murder ( on Yaj. HI. 257 ), for drink> ing wine ( on Yaj. III. 250 ), for theft of gold (on Yij. HI 252), for incest (on Yaj. III. 233-54), for killing a cow and about atatayin(on Yaj. III. 261 ). In one quotation from Sumantu cited by Vi^vartlpa the views of acaryas and of Adgirasa are mentioned.*'** The prayaicittas for Brahmana-murder and for killing a cow contained in Visvarupa occur in Haradatta ( on Gaut. 22. 13 and 18 ). Most of the quotations cited by VisvarQpa occur in Apararka also. The Haralata ( p. 68 ) quotes sutras of Sumantu on aSauca. One well- known sutra of Sumantu is ‘ no prayascitta ( or blame ) is incurred by killing an atatayin, except cows and brahmanas ’.*■*> Apararka quotes sQtras from Sumantu condemning marriage with maternal uncle’s or paternal aunt’s daughter and recommending the |bandon- ment of a young wife in certain circumstances.**® In the &rasvati- vilasa a prose passage of Sumantu is cited on the seven constituents of rajya. These quotations from Visvarupa and others establish that a prose work on dharma by Sumantu existed early enough. It appears however that the work was not a very ancient one. Neither Yijnavalkya nor Para^ara mentions Sumantu among the propounders of dharma. On the other hand the name of Sumantu is an ancient one. In the Bhagavaupurapa ( XII. 6. 75 and 7. i ). Sumantu is said to have been a pupil of Jaimini and a promulgator of the Atharvaveda. Vide Santiparva 341. 19 for Sumantu and other pupils of Vyasa. In the daily tarpatfa the name of Sumantu occurs along with Jaimini, Vaisampayana, Paila. Numerous verses on dharma are also cited from Sumantu by Apatarka, the Smrticandrika and other works. This may probably be a different work from the sutra work of Sumantu. In one verse of Sumantu ( Apararka on Yaj. I. 223 ) occur the words ‘ SaUkhasya vacanaA yatha ’ and in another ( Apararka on Yaj. I. 217-218 ) the K^nya sign of the zodiac is referred to. It is remarkable that the Mit. and Apararka contain no verses of Sumantu on vyavahara. The Sarasvati-vilasa is rich in quotations from Sumantu on vyavahara. A compromise, exchange or partition, if fair, could be annulled up to the tenth day, but if unfair up to the yth year ( vide note 244 above ). ‘ If even as much as a mdja went from the buyer to the seller, that would support the sale of the land (sold) just as a small dose of poison permeates the whole body and when no purchase-money is paid or only a portion is paid, then the purchase is called avakraya and is liable to be set aside if the price is not paid in ( good time ). ’ Sumantu prescribes a fine for selling and purchasing land without the consent of the neighbouring members of the family and says that in case of pre-emption, the neighbours on the east are preferred to all and those on the south come last. Sumantu defines a mortgage by conditional sale ( called * uktaldbhakraya ’ ) and a sale for arrears of revenue by the king’s orders ( called ajfiakraya ).*»

Synopsis: A sfitra work on acara and prayaicitta ascribed to Sumantu existed - Yajnavalkya and Parasara do not enumerate ^^umantu among expounders of dharma - Sumantu mentioned in Mah.abharata and Bhagavata- verses from Sumantu on dliarma are cited by. Aparar- ka - this is a different work - numerous verses on vyavahara quoted from Sumantu in Sarasvativilasa. ’