Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Duhkha literally means ‘suffering’.


All the living beings try to escape from duhkha or sorrow and suffering. Analysis of the causes of duhkha and the means of getting relief from it find a prominent place in the philosophical systems. Duhkha has been defined in various ways by these systems. Some of reasons are cited below:

  1. Characterized by pain
  2. One of the qualities or states of mind that can be known by the reactions seen on the face
  3. Notion which brings hatred
  4. Etc.


Duhkha can originate from the various factors such as:

  1. Loss of freedom
  2. Mental tensions and diseases
  3. Sickness of the body
  4. Loss of honor
  5. Enemies
  6. Unhappy marriage
  7. Living in a bad place
  8. Serving a bad master
  9. Old-age
  10. Living in the houses of others depending upon them
  11. Jealousy
  12. Hatred
  13. Cruelty
  14. Doubting nature
  15. Etc.


Duhkha has been classified in various ways by different systems. Here, the causes are given greater importance. Duhkha can be caused by:

  1. Diseases
  2. Six enemies such as lust and greed
  3. Tendencies carried over from previous lives
  4. Birth
  5. Death


Though appropriate remedial measures are available for these duhkhas, mokṣa or liberation from transmigratory existence is the ultimate and the surest remedy from all the kinds of duhkhas.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore