Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Dvādaśi literally means ‘the twelfth day’.

Ekādaśī and dvādaśi[1] are two sacred days from the the cāndramāna (lunar) calendar that are commonly observed.

Dvādaśi follows ekādaśi and is known as pāraṇā. On this day, a devotee worships Viṣṇu Lord and then ceremonially breaks his fast. It is recommended that he avoid a second meal and non-vegetarian food on that day.

There are eight kinds of dvādaśīs in the Purāṇas e.g., Jayā, Vijayā, Jayantī and Pāpanāśinī. These dvādaśīs are associated with certain nakṣatras (asterisms). Fasting is enjoined for these days also.

One of the most well-known festivals that falls on dvādaśi is the Utthāna-dvādaśī.[2] On this day Lord Viṣṇu who had gone to sleep on the Śayanī day,[3] gets up. Hence it is called ‘Utthānadvādaśī.[4]

It is also on dvādaśi that Tulasī (Vṛndā) married Hari (Viṣṇu) and thus this day is also referred to as ‘Tulasīvivāha day.’ Ceremonial marriage of the Tulasī plant (holy basil) with Lord Hari is performed on this day. In some houses images of Hari and Tulasī are kept and worshiped for three days from navamī to ekādaśī.

Vaikuṇṭha-dvādaśī or Mukkoṭi-dvādaśī is an another festival observed in the South. It is the next day of Vaikuṇṭha Ekādaśī. Details of the festival are the same for the Ekādaśī.


  1. Ekādaśī and dvādaśi is the eleventh and the twelfth days respectively.
  2. Utthāna-dvādaśī is also called as the Kārttīka śukla dvādaśi.
  3. Śayanī day falls on Āṣāḍha śukla ekādaśī.
  4. Utthāna means getting up.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore