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In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Gopāla-purvatāpini Upanisad

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Types of Upaniṣads[edit]

Upaniṣads are the basic scriptures of Vedānta philosophy. Modern scholars generally divide it into two groups:

  1. The Major Upaniṣads
  2. The Minor Upaniṣads

The words ‘major’ and ‘minor’ do not refer to their size. It denotes the importance given to them by the three well-known ācāryas named as:

  1. Śaṅkara (A. D. 788-820)
  2. Ramānuja (A. D. 1017-1137)
  3. Madhva (A. D. 1238-1317)

Major Upaniṣads[edit]

Commentaries have been written on the ten Upaniṣads. Even 3 or 4 exposition of the Brahmasutras are also authored. These works are generally considered ‘major’, since they may be taken as more ancient and authoritative.

Minor Upaniṣads[edit]

The number of the minor Upaniṣads is considerably large. Among them one group of Upaniṣads goes by a common term ‘Tāpin'. They are five in number:

  1. Ganeśatāpini Upaniṣad
  2. Gopāla- tāpini Upanisad
  3. Narsimhatāpinī Upanisad
  4. Śrīrāmatāpinī Upanisad
  5. Tripurātāpini Upanisad

All of the above, except the last, are further divided into two parts:

  1. The purva (former)
  2. The uttara (latter)

Content of Gopāla-purvatāpini Upanisad[edit]

The Gopāla-purvatāpini Upanisad is assigned to the Atharvaveda. It has 49 mantras divided into 6 ‘Upaniṣads’ or sections. It is in the form of a dialogue between some sages and a brāhmaṇa. This brāhmaṇa was a knower of Brahman.

First Section[edit]

The first section describes Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme God. He is also known as Govinda[1] and Gopījanavallabha.[2] One who meditates upon him, becomes immortal.

Second Section[edit]

This portion gives a short description of the usual Kṛṣṇa-form which facilitates meditation on him. This is followed by the mantra of Gopālakṛṣṇa for purposes of japa. The mantra has five words and hence it is called ‘pañcapada’. The mantra is:

"Klim Kṛṣnāya Govindāya Gopijanavallabhāya svāhā."

The repetition of this mantra ultimately leads to moksa or liberation.

Third Section[edit]

This unit points out some practical instructions needed to draw the yantra of Govinda along with the mantra known as Anañga- gāyatri[3] and worship of the pīṭha (throne) of the Lord.

Fourth Section[edit]

Śṛṣṭi or creation of the world has always remained a mystery. In answer to a query regarding the same, the brāhmaṇa replies that the Lord creates the world out of the eighteen letters of the mantra. This mantra also confers Self-knowledge on Maheśvara-Śiva. It is also identical with Vāsudeva (Kṛṣṇa) himself. A beautiful hymn of obeisance to Śrī Kṛṣṇa is given next.

Fifth Section[edit]

The Upaniṣad ends with the statement that singing hymns to Kṛṣṇa and meditating upon him will result in freedom from trans-migratory existence.


  1. Govinda is the ‘one who is known by the Vedas’.
  2. Gopījanavallabha is ‘dear to the gopīs’ or ‘the basis of the world-appearance’ or ‘the inspirer of all sciences’.
  3. Anañga-gāyatri mantra is "kāmadevāya vidmahe, puspā-bānāya dhīmahi, tanno’nañgah pracodayāt".
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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