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In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Japamālā literally means ‘rosary used for japa for repetition of mantra’.

Repetition of a sacred mantra, especially in a ceremonial manner, is an inevitable part of many religious practices. Such repetition which is generally done mentally is termed as ‘japa’. Japa must be practiced, keeping the count, either on the fingers or with a japamālā. Scriptural works prescribe many rules for the preparation of rosary and it's use.

The materials used for preparing the japamālās are the beads and threads. There are prescriptions in scriptures of both the materials used in making of japamālā-s. The japamālā is made out of those materials only.

The number of beads used for making a rosary should be 108 or 54. Rosaries are rarely made of 27 beads and sometimes even of 64 or 32 beads.

Material for Beads and Threads[edit]

  • Material for Beads
    • Rudrāksa beads (Elaescarpus ganitrus)
    • Beads of dried sticks of the tulasī (holy basil) plant
    • Beads of dried wood of bilva (Aegle marmolos)
    • Beads of gold
    • Beads of certain precious stones like crystal or quartz, coral, ruby, emerald and others
    • Beads of bhasma or dried holy ash
  • Material for Thread - For stringing the beads, the following threads are recommended:
    • Cotton
    • Silk thread
    • Copper wire
    • Silver wire

Significance of Different Types of Japamālās[edit]

Japamālā-s made of different materials are prescribed for different mantra. For instance, the rudrākṣa beads are used by the Śaiva-s and the Śākta-s who repeat mantra-s connected with Śiva or Devi. Mālā of tulasī beads are used by the worshipers of Viṣṇu.

Different types of mālā-s are prescribed for getting different results. It is believed that mālā-s of rudrākṣa beads can give mokṣa and those of pearls give competence in the knowledge of all the sciences. Generally, one bead is always kept extra in a mālā which is strung separately to stand like a crown. This is called ‘meru’. While counting the mantra-s, meru should not be crossed. While counting on the mālā, the thumb should be used supporting the mālā on the middle finger.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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