From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Sañgava literally means ‘when the cows are gathered together for milking’.

Muhurtas of a Day[edit]

A day of 24 hours is divided into 30 muhurtas. One muhurta is of 48 minutes. The day-time has 15 muhurtas. This period is divided into five equal parts:

  1. Prātah or udaya - sunrise
  2. Saṅgava - milking time
  3. Madhyāhna - midday
  4. Aparāhṇa - afternoon
  5. Sāyāhna - evening

Each of these is of 144 minutes’ or 2 hours and 24 minutes duration.

Significance of Saṅgava[edit]

The second part is called saṅgava because that is the time the cows are gathered together and milked. Saṅgava is also suitable for prātarhoma[1] and starting a vrata.[2]

The Pravargya rite is to be performed during this time. Some dharmaśāstras[3] consider this period of the day as suitable for marriage ceremonies also.


  1. Prātarhoma is the morning offering of oblations into the sacred fire.
  2. Vrata means taking certain vows.
  3. Grhyasutras of Hiraṇyakeśin
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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