From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Siddhānta literally means ‘an established tenet'.

Meaning of the Word Siddhānta[edit]

In the most general sense, this word means a theory. It has to be established firmly after countering effectively all the doubts and objections raised against it.

Siddhānta as per Nyāya philosophy[edit]

In the Nyāya philosophy,[1] it is classified into four types:

  1. Sarvatantrasiddhānta - It is a dogma of all the schools. It denotes that all the schools accept the existence of the five elements (earth, water etc.).
  2. Pratitantrasiddhānta - It is a dogma peculiar to some school. ‘Something can never come out of nothing.’ This dogma of the Sāṅkhya philosophy is accepted by similar schools but rejected by opposite schools. This is it's philosophy.
  3. Adhi-karaṇasiddhānta - It is a hypothetical dogma. In this siddhānta, acceptance of one fact leads to the acceptance of other facts. For instance, acceptance of the jīva or the soul as the experiencer leads to the acceptance of senses and their respective objects.
  4. Abhyupagamasiddhānta - It is an implied dogma. As per this siddhānta, a tenet which is not explicitly declared as such follows from the examination of particulars concerning it. For example, when it is discussed whether sound is eternal or non-eternal, it presupposes or implies that sound is a substance.

Siddhānta as per Vedāṅga Jyautiṣa[edit]

Special works on religious astronomy and astrology based on the Vedāṅga Jyautiṣa are also called Siddhāntas. They are nine in number:

  1. Brahmasiddhānta\ Somasiddhānta
  2. Suryasiddhānta
  3. Brhas-patisiddhānta
  4. Gargasiddhānta
  5. Nārada-siddhānta
  6. Parāśarasiddhānta
  7. Pulastya-siddhānta
  8. Vasisthasiddhānta

They are the theories put forward by these different sages.


  1. Nyāyasutras 1.1.26 to 31
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore