Śudra Hindu saints

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Himanshu Bhatt

Sometimes transliterated as: Sudra Hindu saints, Zudra Hindu saints, shudra Hindu saints


Śudra Hindu saints have been influential in Hindu history through their devotion to God Almighty became Hindu saints. They not only challenged barriers to become recognized as saints but encouraged Indian Hindus to not accept the caste system as valid, and that a person, whether Sudra or not, can be pure through their positive karma.

While Vedas were śastras that most Brahmins claimed as theirs to preach and interpret, sages like Badari taught that even Śudras have the legitimacy to do so, and many Śudras and Avarnas were taught the Vedas even in ancient times such Raikva did with his pupil Janasruti Pautrayana.[1] However, in the case of Gulabrao Maharaj the Kunbi, he taught the Vedas to Brahmins.

Also, saint-gurus like Potuluri Swami and Saint Tukaram had Brahmins as their disciples. Saint Tukaram was the guru of Saint Bahinabai, while Saint Bullah Sahib the Kunbi was the guru of Saint Bhikha Sahib the Brahmin. Devara Dasimayya had several Brahmin disciples. Kabir was the guru of Brahmin Suratgopal and Jagudas[2] Further Some Śudra saints were even the gurus of kings, as is the case of Dhoyi for Bengali King Lakshman Sen, Pambatti was the guru of Brahmin Sri Paramahaṅsa, Goraksanath was guru and later husband of princess Karpatinatha, Ramananda Raya for Oriya King Prataparudradeva, and Sena Nhavi was the guru of the Raja of Bandhogarh,[3] and Namdev was the guru of King Mahadaji Shinde. Even Lord Rama in the Valmiki Rāmāyana had paid reverence to Śudra Matanga and his disciple Śabari.[4]

Some orthodox Hindu scriptures even describe God Almighty incarnating as a Sudra. An example is when Viṣṇu manifested as a Śudra and Harijan in the Srimad Bhāgavatam where the God as the trinity of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva incarnates as a Brahmin, Śudra, and Harijan to test Rantideva.[5]v Yama is also said to incarnate as the Śudra Vidura.[6]

Saint Veerabrahmam says to his sons by using examples of Valmiki and Vaṣiṣṭha on attaining Brahminhood:

"One, though born a Śudra, acquiring spiritual knowledge should be treated as Brahmin and one, even if born of Brahmin womb, would only qualify to rank as Śudra, if found lacking such knowledge. Śudra and Brahmana arise not by birth but by deed."

Some Brahmin castes trace lineage to Śudras. For example, the Brahmin warrior Parshurama made Kaivarta[7] along the Maharashtrian coast Brahmins.[8] The Brahmin groups that claim receiving Brahminhood from Parashurama are the Chitpavans and Kokanasthas. Likewise, the Matti Brahmins of Surat[9] and amongst Kanara people of Karnataka have the tradition of Matsya origin. Shenavi Brahmins of Maharashtra too claim to descend from Parshurama's selected fishermen. Kerala's Namboothiri Brahmins are also believed to descend from fishermen that were selected by Parashurama. Vyasokta Brahmins of Bengal claim in one account claim descent from Vyasa's disciples that were fishermen originally, and they serve the Kaivartas and Mahiṣyas castes. There are also Brahmin communities that serve Śudras for Hindu ceremonies. The Madhyasreni Brahmans of Bengal serve Nabasakha castes, like potters, barbers and blacksmiths. The Rapali Brahmins of Bengal serve Rapalis.[10] The Mali Brahmins serve Malis. Chamarwa Brahmins serve Chamars. Dakaut Brahmins descend from a union between a Brahman man and a Kumharni Śudra or out-caste princess of Kashmir named Bhandli, and are also referred to a 'Gujrati'. Even persons of non-Brahmin parentage have gone to become Brahmins, such as Kayavya the son of a Kshatriya male and Nisada mother. Other examples of Śudras that became Brahmin are Rom Harshan Suta Maharaja, the narrator of several the Puranas, and Satya Kam Jabali, who was conferred Brahminhood by Gautama Swami. Matanga was another Sudra of the Barber caste that received Brahminhood for his asceticism. Other revered ancient saints mentioned as Śudra by birth that became Brahmins are Datta[11], Prince Datta[12], Matsya, Vaibhandaka, and Purnananda. Kanha was person who became a rishi and used his powers to save his life from King Oka, and Kanha is ancestor of Kanhayanas.[13]

Further, there are Brahmin gotras that claim descent from sages of Sudra backgrounds. For example, Parasara is a gotra, as is Vyasa, and Vatsa is another, of whom the descendants are known as Vatsyayana. Matanga is another gotra and a scholarly Brahmin named Kashyapa Matanga was of this lineage. Shabara (or Shavara) is also a gotra amongst the Brahmins and it refers to forest tribals from whom Brahmins of this ancestry came. Jabala is another modern day gotra which claims descent from Satyakama Jabala, who was given the sacred thread ceremony by Gautama Rishi.

Sage Parasara advises King Janaka:

Brahmanas, learned in Vedas, regard a virtuous Sudra (or one born in the house of a Śudra) as a model of Brahman himself.

In some places, such as the sacred Kashi , priestly specialists of Sudra castes work with Brahmins in performing ceremonies, and the Śudra castes normally include Nai, Kurmi, Keori, Kahar, Teli, Halwai, Mali, and Manjai.[14]

Saintly development amongst Śudras

Of the irrelevance of caste, especially in terms of religion Basava Swami said the following:[15] In the Bhakti Era, saints from menial occupations continued work in their menial positions while also challenging barriers and worship God. The Varkari sect Saint Eknath writes of the non-Dwija saints:[16]
   
Śudra Hindu saints
Sankhya was a sweeper;
Agastya, a huntsman;
Durvasa, a cobbler;
Dadhici, a locksmith;
Kasyapa, a blacksmith;
Romaja, a coppersmith;
Kaundilya, a barber;
So, why should you then,
In ignorance of this,
Insist on caste?
   
Śudra Hindu saints
   
Śudra Hindu saints
God baked pots with Gora,
Drove cattle with Chokha,
Cut grass with Savata,
Wove garments with Kabir,
Colored hide with Rohidas,
Sold meat with the butcher Sajana,
Melted gold with Narahari
Carried cow-dung with Janabai,
and even became a Pariah messenger for Damaji.
   
Śudra Hindu saints

Saints

List of prominent saints

Saint Kabir stamp
Saint Narayana Guru Indian stamp
Saint Narayana Guru Sri Lankan stamp
Saint Tukaram stamp
Name Ethnicity Caste Sect Compositions Other significance
Acyutananda Oriya Gopa (Cowherd) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Gopalanka Gita, Baran Charita Gitā, and Sabdobrahmo. One of the five Panchasakhas, born in Tilakana (Cuttack district in Orissa),[17] major figure of Vaiṣnavism, and was the patron saint of Gopalas (cow-hearders), Kaivartas (fishermen), Kamaras (blacksmiths). His disciples were people from all castes, including a Nanda (Blacksmith), Naran (Blacksmith), Rama (Blacksmith), and Ramadas (Potter.) He has several followers, such as 140 at Kasi Muktiswar grama and 110 at Chitranga tota.
Adipattan Tamil Fisherman[18] Śaiva One of 63 Nayanar Śaivite saints.
Aidakki Marayya Kannada Grain-picker Śaiva
(Lingayat)
A disciple of Basava.
Akho Guajrati Sonar (Goldsmith) Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Kabir Panth) Akhe-gita.
Algai Tamil Śaiva
Ambigara Caudayya Kannada Ambiga or Kabbera[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Anirudh Ahomi Vaiṣnava (Moamaria) He founded the Moamaria Vaiṣnava sect and was a part of the rebellion against the ruling dynasty that governed Ahom.
Appanna Kannada Barber Śaiva
(Lingayat)
A disciple of Basava.
Baladeb Mahity Oriya Karan[20] Vaiṣnava
Bachi Rajayya Kannada Carpenter[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Badihori Brahmayya Kannada Cowherd[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Balaram Das Oriya Bauri[21] Sudra Muni Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) He wrote the Sidhanta Damaru, Jagmohan Rāmāyana, and some commentaries One of the five Panchasakhas, born in Orissa and a major figure of Vaiṣnavism.,[22]
Bhima Dhibara Oriya Dhibara (Fisherman)[23] Vaiṣnava He wrote the Kapata-pasha, which re-tells the aftermath of the Mahābhārata.
Bhoja Bhagat Nachabkha (also Bhojaram) Gujarati Kunbi[24] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Wrote artis, dholas, kafis, kirtans, mahinas, prabhatias, tithis and varas. He was the guru of saints Jalaram and Valamram.
Bogar Tamil Goldsmith[25] Śaiva Siddhar who became a Siddhar under the guidance of Kalanginaathar. It is said that he proceeded to China to teach the ways of the Siddhars. There is a myth that Lao Tze is Bogar. Bogar’s Samadhi is to be found in the South West corridor at the Palani Muruga shrine.
Bullah Sahib (also Bulaqi Ram) Hindi Kunbi[26] Vaiṣnava
Charan Pal Bengali Gopi (Milkman)[27] Vaiṣnava (Sahebdhani) The disciple of Dukhiram Pal, who founded the Sahebdhani Vaishnava sect.
Dandi Tamil, Digger Śaiva
Chaudayya Kannada Ferryman Śaiva
(Lingayat)
A disciple of Basava.
Devara Dasimayya Kannada Weaver[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Dhanurdasa (also Urangavilli) Tamil Dasar Vaiṣnava (Sri Vaiṣnava) He was a disciple of Rāmānuja.
Dohara Kakkaya Kannada Dhor[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Dhoyi Bengali Weaver[28] Vaiṣnava He wrote the Pavana-duta and his other verses are also found in the anthologies like Sadukti-Karnamrita, Subhashita-muktavali, and Sarangadhara-paddhati. He belonged to the court of Lakshman Sen, the King of Bengal.
Dukhiram Pal (also Mulicarid Pal) Bengali Gopi (Milkman)[29] Vaiṣnava (Sahebdhani) Founder of the Sahebdhani Vaiṣnava sect and took Muslims as disciples as well.
Dadu Dayal Gujarati Dhunia (Cotton-carder)[30] Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Dadu Panth) Founded Dadu Panth, and tried to bridge gap between Hindus and Muslims.
Edaikkadar Tamil Cowherd Śaiva He was one of the eighteen Siddhars.
Enadinatha Tamil Shanar (Toddy-tapper)[31] Śaiva
Enath Tamil Swordsman Śaiva
Gadge Maharaj (also Debuji Zhingraji Janorkar) Marathi Kunbi[32] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala)
Gorakhnath Oriya Fisherman or Farmer[33] Śaiva (Nāth Sampradaya) He was the disciple of Matsyendranāth and is also worshiped by Śaivas, Vaiṣnavas, Tantrics and Buddhists. Legends of him exist not only throughout most of India, but also Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.
Gopabai Marathi Kasar Sonar (Goldsmith) Vaiṣnava (Varkari) She wrote many Abhangas devoted to Viṭhala.
Goroba Kumbhar Marathi Kumhar (Potter)[34]
Gulabrao Maharaj Marathi Kunbi[35] He taught the Vedas to the Brahmins, and accomplished much though being a blind person.
Gundayya Kannada Potter[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the discples of Basava.
Hadapad Rechanna Kannada Barber Śaiva (Lingayat[36]) A disciple of Basava.
Ilakkulaccanrar Tamil Śanar[37] (Toddy-tapper) Śaiva
Jagannath Mahiti Oriya Karan[38] Vaiṣnava
Kashinath Mahiti Oriya Karan[39] Vaiṣnava His name is mentioned in the Vaiṣnavabandanas of Jiva Goswami.
Chaudayya Kannada Ferryman Śaiva
(Lingayat)
A disciple of Basava.
Ketayya Kannada Basket-maker Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Kola Santayya Kannada Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Kotayya Kannada Burud[19] (Bamboo-workers) Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Kumari Molla Telugu Molla (Potter)[40] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Rama) Wrote the Ramayanumu.
Kabir Hindi Julaha (Weaver)[41] Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Kabir Panth) He tried to bring peace between Hindus and Muslims. He is revered as one of India's greatest saints and philosophers by all Indians.
Kaka Bhusundar Ahomi Vaiṣnava (devotee of Rāma) Bhusundi Rāmāyana
Kala Kumbhar Marathi Kumbhar (Potter) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala)
Kaliyan Tamil Oil-monger[42] Śaiva
Kanakadas Kannada Kuruba[43] or Beda[44] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa and Beeraiah)
Kahar Weaver Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṣṇu)[45]
Kamalamuni Tamil Kuravar Śaiva He is one of the eighteen Siddhars.
Kuba Punjabi Kumhar (Potter)[46] Vaiṣnava
Kanchipurna[47] (also Kacchi Nambi) Tamil Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṣṇu) He was a disciple of Yamunacarya and due to he saintly character and devotion, he himself is worshiped as Varadarajan at Viṣṇu Kanchi.
Kandadai Ramanuja Dasar Tamil Vaiṣnava (Sri Vaiṣnava) He was a disciple of Ramanuja.
Kinnari Bamayya Kannada Musician Śaiva
(Lingayat)
A disciple of Basava.
Kuripputondar Tamil Vannan (Washerman)[48] Śaiva
Kuber Sarkar Bengali Gopa Vaiṣnava (Sahebdhani) Successor of Charan Pal.
Kukkuti Siddha Ahomi Śaiva He was closely associated with Minanath and was an inspiration to Matsyendranath.
Madhava Kandali (also Madhavadeva) Ahomi Hira Vaiṣnava (Ekasarana Dharma) He was the chief disciple of Śankardev and preached the message Vaiṣnavism to gain devotees.[42]
Madhavagar Gujarati Vaiṣnava
Madiwal Machayya Kannada Washerman[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Thirumaligai Thevar Tamil Śaiva He is one of the eighteen Siddhars and the disciple of Bogar.
Mangai Tamil Kalla Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Periya Thirumozhi, 1084 verses; Thiru Vezhukootru irukkai, 1 verse; Thiru Kurun Thandagam, 20 verses; Thiru Nedun Thandagam, 30 verses. Alvar saint.
Maraner Nambi[47] Tamil Pahcama Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṣṇu) Maraner-nambi-charitram He was a disciple of Yamunacarya.
Matanga Barber Hindu scriptures recognize him as a saint who went through penances (tapasya) to reach the status of Brahminhood.
Mātanga Barber He was the son of Matanga, guru of Śabari and father of goddess Matangi. He and his disciple Śabari had met Lord Rama and Laxmana and were given reverence from the holy brothers.
Mātangi Barber She is worshiped as a form of Durga, and was the offspring of Matanga Muni.
Matsyendranath (also Minanath) Fisherman Śaiva (Nāth Sampradāya) Worshiped by Śaivas, Vaiṣnavas, Tantrics and Buddhists
Mepa Bhagat Gujarati Kumhar (Potter) Vaiṣnava He became the disciple of Gabinath, after which he lived as a saint himself. He inspired other Gujarati Hindu saints like Apa Rata and Apa Jadra.
Minanath Ahomi Fisherman He was the inspiration to the Nāth Panth's founder Matsyendranath, whose name means the same as Minanath's. Minanath had several disciples and amongst them were His disciples were Hali (peasant), Mali (gardener) and Tambuli (tooth-painter.)
Mitho Gujarati Dhadhi[49] Vaiṣnava
Munna Das Hindi Goldsmith[50] Vaiṣnava (Apapanthi) Founded the Apapanthi sect of Vaiṣnavas that worship Lord Rama.
Murkha Tamil Śaiva Gambler
Mutucuriyar Tamil Cenkunta (Weaver) Śaiva He was the brother of Ilancuriyar (born blind) and together they both lived a saintly life.
Nambi Eru Tiruvadaiya Dasar Tamil Śanar (Toddy-tapper) Vaiṣnava (Sri Vaiṣnava) He was one of the disciples of Ramanuja.
Namdev Marathi Śimpi (Weaver)[51] Vaiṣnava (Varkari devotee of Viṭhoba) Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa. It is said that he is a part (Aṅṣa) of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He was a disciple of Saint Visoba Khechara.
Nammalvar[52] Tamil Cultivator Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Thiruvaymozhi, 1102 verses; Thiruvasiriyam, 7 verses; Thiruvirutham, 100 verses; Periya Thiruvandhadhi, 87 verses.
Nandanar[53] Tamil Pulaya[54] Śaiva One of 63 Nayanars.
Narahari Sonar Tamil Sunar (Goldsmith)[55] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa.
Narayana Guru Malayalam Ezhava Śaiva
Neelakanda Tamil Kalalar (Potter) Śaiva One of 63 Nayanar Śaivite saints.
Neelan Tamil Kuyavan (Potter)[56] Vaiṣnava Powerful warrior and king of Thirumangai (part of Chola Empire.)
Nesar Tamil Weaver[42] Śaiva Nayanar devotee of Śiva, one of 63 Śaivite saints.
Nilajantayalppanan Tamil Panan (Musician[42]) Śiva
Nisargadatta Maharaj Marathi Kunbi Śaiva A disciple of Siddharameshwar Maharaj.
Nishkulananda (also Lalji Suthar) Gujarati Suthar[57] Vaiṣnava (Swami Narayan) About 20 books and 3000 verses are ascribed to him. Among the books are Purushottam Prakash, Yama-danda, Bhakta-chintamani, Dhirajakhyam.
Nuliya Chandayya Kannada Rope-maker Śaiva
(Lingayat)
A disciple of Basava.
Pambatti Tamil Kozhayi (Cowherd) Śaiva He had worked as a snake-charmer, and he is one of the eighteen Siddhars, and the guru of the Brahmin Sri Sivaprabhakara Siddhayogi Paramahamsar.
Pana Tamil Panan (Musician) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Ranganatha) Alvar saint.
Pillai Uranga Villi Dasar Tamil Malla Dasar Vaiṣnava
Ponajji Bala Marathi Gwala (Milkman) Vaiṣnava He wrote stories of Kṛṣṇa. He was famous for his lavani compositions.
Potuluri Veerabrahmam (also Potuluri Swami) Telugu Carpenter Śaiva His disciples included Brahmins like Annajayya, Muslims like Siddhayya and chura (cobbler) ‘untouchables’ like Kakkayya
Putushottama Dasa Oriya Cow-herder Vaiṣnava He wrote the Dutia-osa, Ganga-Mahatmya, Gundicha Bije, Kanchi-Kaveri and Mriganist-uti.
Rajjab Hindi Naddaf (Cotton-carder[58]) Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Dadu Panth) Disciple of Saint Dadu Dayal devotee of Rama.
Raka Kumbhar Marathi Kumbhar (Potter)[59] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala)
Ramakrishna Gosvamin Bengali Kaivarta (Fisherman) Vaiṣnava (Jaganmohani) Founder of the Jaganmohani Vaishnava sect, which preaches worship of Krishna and gurus of the sect. He also founded, in the seventeenth century, a monastery or Akhda at Vithangal.
Ramananda Raya (also Ramananda Pattanayak) Oriya Karana[60] Vaiṣnava Very important devotee of Kṛṣṇa and brought Vaiṣnava Bhakti tradition to Bengal from Orisa. Raya was the title given to him by King Prataparudradeva.
Ramanna Kannada Cattle-grazer Śaiva
(Lingayat)
A disciple of Basava.
Ramanuja Dasar Tamil Kammalar (Sculptor) He was a disciple of Ramanuja.
Rami Janabai Marathi Dasi[61] Vaiṣnava (Devotee of Rama) Domestic servant in Namdev's home, and performed Vatsalya Bhakti on Lord Rama.
Revana Siddeshwara Kannada Kuruba Śaiva Considered by Kurubas to be an incarnation of Lord Shiva. There are temples in his name.
Roma Rishi Tamil Kura Śaiva He is one of the eighteen Siddhars.
Rom Harshan (also Suta Maharaja) Narrator of the Puranas.
Sarala Das Oriya Sudramuni Vaiṣnava Wrote the entire Mahābhārata scripture in Oriya.
Sashtam Swami Gujarati Rabari Vaiṣnava Installed a Rama statue at a temple.
Savata Mali Marathi Mali (Gardener) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala) Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa.
Saina Nhavi Marathi Nai (Barber) Vaiṣnava Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa.
Sachidanand Marathi Nai (Barber) Datta Sampradāya
Sakya Tamil Peltar Śaiva
Śambuka Śaiva Śambuka had his own hermitage and was a disciple of Agastya, and a Vedic-versed rishi. Śambuka's killing in the "Uttara Khanda" was a latter insersion according to several scholars. Bhagwan Singh claims it was by Śakti, the son of Vaṣiṣtha that had lost in a debate to Śambuka. Many scholars like Kuvempu argue that the story is a later interpolation and is undoable by Rama.
Śivaprakashar Siddhar Tamil He was a disciple of Arul Namacchivayar.
Siddharameshwar Maharaj Marathi Śaiva
Śrirama Ahomi Kaivarta (Fisherman) Vaiṣnava (Ekasarana Dharma) He was a disciple of Śankardev and preached the message Vaiṣnavism to gain devotees.[42]
Sundaranandar Tamil Agamudayar (Thevar) Reddy Śaiva He was one of the eighteen Siddhars and the grandson of Navakānda Rishi
Tamolbaria Ahomi Vaiṣnava
Tanu Pal Bengali Mahishya[62] Tantric
Tukaram Marathi Moray (Peddler) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala) He wrote several "Abhangs" devoted to Kṛṣṇa. Explained Vaiṣnava scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gitā and the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. He was the guru of the Brahmin Bahinabai.
Tukdoji Maharaj Marathi Kunbi Śaiva Also a musician, that sang and composed many songs to God.
Ugrasrava Sauti Vaiṣnava He was the son of Roma Harshan and narrator of Puranic scriptures.
Vaikunda Swamikal (also Mudisoodum Perumal, Sampooranathevan, or Ayya Vaikundar) Tamil Vaiṣnava His followers, the Ayyavazhi consider him to be an avatār of Viṣṇu.
Valamram Gujarati Kunbi Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) He was the disciple of Bhoja Bhagat. Disciple of Bhoja Bhagat and the Guru-Bhai of Saint Jalaram of Virpur.

Mixed Śudra-Brahmin saints

Some prominent saints were of diverse caste backgrounds. Chandidas, the Bengali had married Rami a washerwoman. Jayadeva married Padmavati the dancer. Sundardas had married a courtesan.

  • Aitreya Mahidasa - Composed the Aitreya Brahmana and sections 1-3 of the Aitreya Aranyaka (the latter contains the Aitreya Upanishad - 1 of the 10 canonical chief Upanishads) of the Rig Veda
  • Dhanwantari - Son of Dirghatamas and of a Dasi
  • Dhugra Thamas - Son of a Dasi female named Mamatha
  • Ghosa - Daughter to Bhakta Kakshivat who wrote verses in the Rig Veda
  • Jamdagni - Son of fisherwoman Satyavati
  • Kakshivat - A "brahmavadin" who was the son of Dirghatamas by a Śudra maid servant (Brihaddevata 4.24-25). His descendants are also referred to as "Kakshivat"
  • Kausika Muni - Son of a Śudra mother[63]
  • Kavasha Ailusha - Son of a Dasi[64]
  • Krishna Dvaipayana Ved Vyasa - The compiler of Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gita, and Mahabharata, was said to either be of a fisherwoman or from Sudra parents
  • Matanga - He was born of a Brahmin mother and a barber Śudra father. He was a guru of Lord Rama
  • Narada Muni - Son of a maidservant
  • Vatsa - According to the Rig Veda, he is a descendant of Kanva RV 6.1; 8.8 etc.; was called a Śudra-putra (Panchavimsha Brahmana 14.66)
  • Vibhishana - Son of Visravas and a tribal mother named Nikasha
  • Vishwamitra - Son of fisherwoman (Satyavati's mother)
  • Yavanacharya - He was the son of a Brahmin father and Śudra mother from Ujjain[65]

See also

References

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  2. His father was a priest of the Puri Jagannath temple.
  3. P. 252 The cultural heritage of India: Sri Ramakrishna centenary memorial by Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Committee
  4. It includes the Ādivāsi Saint Valmiki, and Vaṣiṣṭha of Dalit heritage.
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  6. P. 8 Indica, Volume 4 By Heras Institute of Indian History and Culture, St. Xavier's College., 1967 - India
  7. It means Fishermen.
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  9. It is in Gujarat.
  10. It means Weavers.
  11. Mahabharata 12.297
  12. Mahabharata 12.297
  13. P. 84 The Two Sources of Indian Asceticism By Johannes Bronkhorst
  14. P. 103 The Sacred Complex of Kashi: A Microcosm of Indian Civilization By Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Makhan Jha, Baidyanath Saraswati
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  18. Lord Śiva and His Worship
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 P. 384 The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions, Volume 1 By Syed Siraj ul Hassan
  20. P. 77 The Bhakti Movement in Orissa: A Comprehensive History by Achintya Kumar Deb
  21. P. 31, Prataparudradeva, the last great Suryavamsi King of Orissa (A.D. 1497 to A.D..., By Dipti Ray
  22. P. 43, The Quarterly review of historical studies, Volume 43, Institute of Historical Studies (Calcutta, India)
  23. P. 53 A Dictionary of Indian Literature, Volume 1 By Sujit Mukherjee
  24. Akademi, p. 128 Medieval Indian Literature
  25. Bhogar One of the Greatest Siddhas of South India
  26. P. 89 The Lord As Guru: Hindi Sants in the North Indian Tradition by Daniel Gold
  27. P. 101 Caste, Culture and Hegemony: Social Dominance in Colonial Bengal By Sekhar Bandyopadhyay
  28. P. 210 Sekasubhodaya of Halayudha Misra: Translated Into English and Edited with Notes and Introduction by Halayudhamisra
  29. P. 339 Medieval Bhakti Movements in India: Sri Caitanya Quincentenary Commemoration Volume by Chaitanya
  30. Dadu Dayal
  31. 63 Nyayanmars
  32. p. 10 Contribution of Upasani Baba to Indian culture S. N. Tipnis
  33. Tantric Art of Orissa By Jitamitra Prasada Si?hadeba
  34. P. 1177 People of India: Maharashtra, Part 2 edited by B. V. Bhanu
  35. Samartha Satguru Pradhnyachakshu Madhuradwaitacharya Shri Gulabrao Maharaj
  36. P. 233 Veerashaivism in India By Suryakant Balasaheb Ghugare
  37. Hindu Tamil Saints: Alwars and Nayanmaars of South India
  38. P. 83 The Bhakti Movement in Orissa: A Comprehensive History by Achintya Kumar Deb
  39. P. 85 The Bhakti Movement in Orissa: A Comprehensive History by Achintya Kumar Deb
  40. P. 406 Bharatiya Sa?skr?ti, Volume 2 by Prabhakara Macave
  41. p. 81 Masterworks of Asian literature in comparative perspective: a guide for teaching By Barbara Stoler Miller
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 42.4 P. 176 Tamil Literature By Kamil Zvelebil
  43. p. 125 Annals of oriental research, Volume 32, Part 1 By University of Madras,
  44. p. 5 Priceless gold: the life and works of Sri Kanakadasa, the singer-saint of Karnataka By L. S. Seshagiri Rao
  45. Ranchi University p. 58 Journal of Social Research
  46. p. 46 Pottery-Making Cultures And Indian Civilization By Saraswati Baidyanath
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  48. P. 212 Historical Dictionary of the Tamils By Vijaya Ramaswamy
  49. P. 578 Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia edited by Sheldon I. Pollock
  50. P. 27, Survey of India's social life and economic condition in the eighteenth century, 1707-1813, by Kalikinkar Datta
  51. p. 126 A Social Charter For India: Citizens Perspective Of Basic Rights By Dubey Muchkund
  52. p. 49 Temples of Kr???a in South India: history, art, and traditions in Tamilnadu By T. Padmaja
  53. p. 14 Nandanar, the Dalit martyr: a historical reconstruction of his times By Sundararaj Manickam
  54. P. 212 Historical Dictionary of the Tamils By Vijaya Ramaswamy
  55. p. 31 Sages Through Ages - Volume IV: India's Heritage By K. K. Nair
  56. P. 212 Historical Dictionary of the Tamils By Vijaya Ramaswamy
  57. A Dictionary of Indian Literature, Volume 1 By Sujit Mukherjee
  58. Ayyappapanicker & Akademi, p. 465 Medieval Indian Literature
  59. P. 21 Language and Literature by Directorate of Government Printing, Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State
  60. P. 124 Prataparudradeva, the Last Great Suryavamsi King of Orissa (A.D. 1497 to A.D ... By Dipti Ray
  61. p. 216 Images of women in Maharashtrian literature and religion By Anne Feldhaus
  62. P. 101 Caste, culture, and hegemony: social domination in colonial Bengal By Sekhara Bandyopadhya?a
  63. P. 31 Swaraj: The Problem of India By J. E. Ellam
  64. P. 81 Early Aryans to Swaraj By S.R. Bakshi, S.G
  65. P. 172 A Hindu in America By Bangalore Venkat Raman