From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Apadeśa literally means ‘that which is pointed out’.

In the Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika darśanas, the systems of logic, a five-membered syllogism is often resorted to, to prove a point. They are mentioned below :

  1. Pratijñā - Statement of assertion
  2. Hetu - Reason for the assertion
  3. Udāharaṇa - Example containing a universal proposition
  4. Upanaya - Application to the case on hand
  5. Nigamana - Conclusion

Out of these, hetu, the second one, is sometimes designated as ‘apadeśa.’

The syllogism can be illustrated in that order as follows :

  • Rāma is mortal
  • Because he is a man
  • All men are mortal
  • Rāma is also a man
  • Therefore he is mortal.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore