Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Divyaprabandham literally means ‘divine compositions’.

Divyaprabandham also known as Nālāyira Prabandham, is the Tamil work of Āḷvārs.[1] The Āḷvārs were Tamil saints who lived during the period CE 700-900 and their collection of mystical compositions is known as Divyaprabandham. Since these compositions were the spontaneous outpourings of their hearts, deeply immersed in devotional fervor, they are believed to be ‘divya’.


The Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta is also known as ‘Ubhaya Vedānta’,[2] since it recognizes two kinds of works which are as follows:

  1. Divyaprabandham : It consists of four thousand verses
  2. Prasthānatraya : Prasthānatraya is the sanskrit work and comprises the following:

Deities worshiped by the Āḷvārs[edit]

The Prabandhas contain profuse praise of the avatāras like Rāma and Kṛṣṇa. The Āḷvārs followed the path of prapatti than bhakti. They also worshiped the deities in the temples of Śrīrañgam and Tirupati, which are known as arcāvatāras and considered as fully living and conscious. Some of the pāśuras of the prabandhas are chanted in Srīvaiṣṇava temples daily as a part of the worship of the deity.

Divyaprabandham Belief[edit]

As per Viśiṣtādvaita Philosophy[edit]

The Viśiṣtādvaita Vedānta considers the Divyaprabandham as one of the two cardinal scriptures, hence the philosophy of the latter is same as of the former. It can be briefly expounded as belows:

  • The fundamental three realities known as tattvatraya[3]are:
  1. Īśvara : God
  2. Cit : the conscious soul
  3. Acit : the insentient prakṛti or nature
  • Īśvara is the independent reality whereas the latter two are totally dependent upon him

As per Sāṅkhya philosophy[edit]

According to this philosophy, the universe is evolved out of the acit prakṛti through 24 cosmic principles.[4] It can be described as:

  • There are infinite numbers of Jīva. Jīva has trans-migratory existence from ancient times due to karma, either good or bad
  • Īśvara inspires him to try for mokṣa or liberation and the means to achieve mokṣa include:
  1. Bhakti : devotion
  2. Prapatti : total surrender to God
  3. Kaiṅkarya : service to God in his various aspects
  • In this attempt for liberation, the jīva has to rediscover his relationship with īśvara, which are of nine kinds:
  1. father and son
  2. protector and protected
  3. whole and part
  4. husband and wife
  5. known and knower
  6. master and possession
  7. supporter and supported
  8. soul and body
  9. enjoyer and enjoyed


  1. An Āḷvār is the one who is deeply immersed in the love of God.
  2. Ubhaya means two.
  3. tattva = realities, traya = three
  4. This is enumerated in the Sāṅkhya philosophy.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore