From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Dvaita literally means ‘dualism’.

Any school of philosophy which believes that the ultimate Reality is not one but many can be called as ‘dvaita’. The chief system of dvaita was propagated by Madhvācārya in A. D. 1238-1317. It was known as the Dvaita Vedānta Darśana . The other schools are:

  1. Viśiṣṭādvaita of Rāmānuja (A.D. 1017-1137)
  2. Dvaitādvaita of Nimbārka (13th century A.D.)
  3. Śaiva-viśiṣṭādvaita of Śrīkaṇṭha (A.D. 1270)
  4. Acintya bhedābheda of Baladeva (A.D. 1725)


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore