Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Rāmottaratāpaniya Upaniṣad

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Rāmottaratāpaniya Upaniṣad is a continuation of the Purvatāpaniya Upaniṣad. In Purvatāpaniya Upaniṣad, Rāma is described as nirviśeṣa Brahman[1] whereas in the Rāmottaratāpaniya Upaniṣad, he is described as saviśeṣa[2] to facilitate meditation by devotees.

Contents of Rāmottaratāpaniya Upaniṣad[edit]

The whole text is in the form of a dialogue between the sage Yājñavalkya and some sages like Bṛhaspati, Bharadvāja and Atri. It contains 121 verses including passages in prose. It is spread over five khaṇḍas or chapters.

Overview of Rāmottaratāpaniya Upaniṣad[edit]

First Khaṇḍa[edit]

The first khaṇḍa has three passages. It contains the following topics:

  • It describes the importance of Kurukṣetra and Avimukta,[3] their sacredness and their identity with the space in between the eyebrows inside us.
  • The belief that Śiva utters the tārakamantra[4] into the ears of the dying persons is alluded too.

Second Khaṇḍa[edit]

The second khaṇḍa has 19 verses and prose sections. It deals with the following:

  • Power of the Rāma-sadaksara-mantra, "rāih rāmāya namah", as tāraka or endowed with liberating power.
  • It's comparison with Oṅkāra or Praṇava.
  • Sādhaka who repeats it daily is freed from all sins is also stated.
  • Description of the Praṇava as representing Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata, Satrughna and Sītā.
  • Seven mantras of the Māndukya Upanisad find a place in this section.

Third Khaṇḍa[edit]

This khaṇḍa has 16 passages. It delineates the following:

  • Ātman is infinite bliss and can be realized by meditating on it in the space between the eyebrows, above the nose.
  • How Śiva performed austerities like japa,[5] arcana[6] and homa[7] to please Rāma.
  • How Rāma appeared before him and granted him his desire that all those who die including animals or even worms on the Maṇikarṇikā-ghāṭ on the bank of the river Gaṅgā in Kāśī should get liberation. For this, only Śiva had to utter Rāmamantra in the ear of the dead being.

Fourth Khaṇḍa[edit]

The fourth khaṇḍa has 49 paras and verses. It deals with the following:

  • Number of mantras, each with 40 letters, partly resembling the Gāyatrīmantra.

Fifth Khaṇḍa[edit]

The fifth or the last khaṇḍa has 34 verses and paras. It describes the following:


  1. He is the Brahman without attributes.
  2. He is the Brahman with attributes.
  3. Avimukta means Kāśī or Vārāṇasī.
  4. It is “Rāma”.
  5. Japa means repetition of Rāma’s name.
  6. Arcana means worship.
  7. Homa means oblations into a duly consecrated fire.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore