Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

The Rudrapraśna is the fifth praśna[1] of the fourth kāṇḍa[2] of the Taittirīya Samhitā or the Krsna Yajurveda. It is also known as the Rudra or the Rudrādhyāya or the Namaka. It has eleven anuvākas or long stanzas.

Before starting a Vedic sacrifice, a vedi or a platform of bricks had to be built. After keeping the last brick in place, it used to be bathed in milk. This process is terned as ‘abhiṣeka’. It is done with the recitation of mantras of this Rudrapraśna. This is a time-honoured tradition that the Rudra or Namaka and Camaka[3] are to be chanted daily along with the Puruṣasukta.

Contents of Rudrapraśna[edit]

Anuvāka 1[edit]

God Rudra, as his very name indicates, is a terrible deity. He is armed with a bow, arrows and a sword. If he is pacified with appropriate prayers, he will shower his mercy on the supplicant and fulfill his desires. This is the gist of the first anuvāka.

Anuvāka 2 - 9[edit]

The next eight anuvākas describe the various forms and aspects of Rudra along with an obeisance[4] attached to each of the names. Hence the name Namaka. Some of these aspects are:

  1. Hiraṇyabāhu - golden-armed
  2. Babhluśa - seated on the bull Nandi
  3. Harikeśa - with dark hair
  4. Sthapati - master
  5. Niceru - one who moves constantly
  6. Aśvapati - leader of monks
  7. Gṛtsapati - leader of intelligent persons
  8. Bhava - origin of all beings
  9. Rudra - remover of all miseries
  10. Sarva - destroyer of sins
  11. Paśupati - lord of beings bound in sansāra
  12. Sahasrākṣa - one with a thousand eyes
  13. Mīḍhuṣṭama - giver of rains
  14. Sariivṛdhvan - glorious one
  15. Agriya - primeval being
  16. Āśu - all-pervading
  17. Slokya - established in Vedic mantras
  18. Dhṛṣṇu - adept in protecting
  19. Vāstavya - one who resides in wealth
  20. Soma - one who is with his consort Umā
  21. Tāmra - who is red like the rising sun
  22. Hantṛ - destroyer of enemies
  23. Tāra - one who helps the jīvas to transcend sansāra
  24. Sambhu
  25. Saṅkara - producer of happiness
  26. Siva - the auspicious one
  27. Tirthya - purifier
  28. Kapardin - one with matted hair

Anuvāka 10[edit]

The tenth anuvāka is a long prayer asking for the following boons:

  • Freedom from misery and fear for all the members of the family and the livestock
  • Life of happiness for all in this world and in the next
  • Withdrawal of his fierce form and granting a vision of his benign form
  • Urging one’s organ of speech to praise Rudra

Anuvāka 11[edit]

The eleventh anuvāka describes the innumerable forms that Rudra takes and obeisance is offered.

Methods of Chanting Rudrapraśna[edit]

There are several methods of chanting the Rudrapraśna and Camaka ceremonially. One such method prescribed by the sage Sātātapa is as follows:

  • Rudra: Chant the Namaka[5] once, followed by the first anuvāka of Camaka. This is repeated a second time and so on, each time adding the next anuvāka of the camaka, the total chanting being eleven times. This is called a ‘Rudra’.
  • Rudraikādaśini: If eleven persons chant the Rudra as stated above eleven times or one person recites it 121 times, it becomes ‘Rudraikādaśini’.
  • Mahārudra: This is achieved if eleven persons recite the Rudra eleven times a day for eleven days. Alternatively, if 121 persons chant it eleven times or 1331 persons chant it once, in a day, it becomes ‘Mahārudra’.
  • Atirudra: If eleven persons chant it 11 times per day for 121 days, it becomes ‘Atirudra’. The same will be the result if 1331 persons chant it eleven times in a day just for one day, or 114,641 persons recite it once in a day.

Generally, Mahārudra and Atirudra are performed to ward off calamities for the society or the country.


  1. Praśna means the section.
  2. Kāṇḍa means chapter.
  3. Taittirīya Samhitā 4.7
  4. Obeisance means namah.
  5. It refers to Rudra.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore